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Drug Discov Today ; 26(8): 2036-2044, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155456


Aging and pre-existing conditions in older patients increase severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) severity and its complications, although the causes remain unclear. Apart from acute pulmonary syndrome, Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) can increasingly induce chronic conditions. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 triggers de novo type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) linked to age-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancers, and neurodegeneration. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 induces inflammation, possibly through damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling and 'cytokine storm,' causing insulin resistance and the adiponectin (APN) paradox, a phenomenon linking metabolic dysfunction to chronic disease. Accordingly, preventing the APN paradox by suppressing APN-related inflammatory signaling might prove beneficial. A better understanding could uncover novel therapies for SARS-CoV-2 and its chronic disorders.

Adiponectin/metabolism , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Humans , Paracrine Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133432


BACKGROUND: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5-7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9-11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.

Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adiponectin/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism