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3.
Biochimie ; 179: 257-265, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326917

ABSTRACT

It is becoming obvious that in addition to aging and various hearth pathologies, excess of body weight, especially obesity is a major risk factor for severity of COVID-19 infection. Intriguingly the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is ACE2, a member of the angiotensin receptor family that has a relatively large tissue distribution. This observation likely explains the multitude of symptoms that have been described from human patients. The adipose tissue also expresses ACE2, suggesting that adipocytes are potentially infected by SARS-CoV-2. Here we discuss some of the potential contribution of the adipose tissue to the severity of the infection and propose some aspects of obese patients metabolic phenotyping to help stratification of individuals with high risk of severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , Prevalence
4.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 21(16): 2142-2162, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076370

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) firstly emerged in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. After going through the experimental process, the virus was named the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2020 which has created a global pandemic. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is challenging the people who are especially suffering from chronic health problems such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease or immune system deteriorating disorders, including cancers, Alzheimer's, etc. Other predisposing/risk factors consist of smoking and age (elderly people are at higher risk). The 2019-nCoV attacks epithelial cells in all organs, particularly epithelial cells in the lungs, resulting in viral pneumonia. The 2019-nCoV starts its invasion with the attachment and entry into the respiratory tract epithelial cells via Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the epithelial cells. The critical problem with 2019-nCoV is its ability in human to human asymptomatic transmission which causes the rapid and hidden spread of the virus among the population. Also, there are several reports of highly variable and tightly case-dependent clinical manifestations caused by SARS-CoV2, which made the virus more enigmatic. The clinical symptoms are varied from common manifestations which occurred in flu and cold, such as cough, fever, body-ache, trembling, and runny nose to severe conditions, like the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) or even uncommon/unusual symptoms such as anosmia, skin color change, and stroke. In fact, besides serious injuries in the respiratory system, COVID-19 invades and damages various organs, including the kidney, liver, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. Accordingly, to cut the transmission chain of disease and control the infection spread. One of the major solutions seems to be early detection of the carriers, particularly the asymptomatic people, with sensitive and accurate diagnostic techniques. Moreover, developing novel and appropriate therapeutic approaches will contribute to the suitable management of the pandemic. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to make comprehensive investigations and study reviews about COVID-19, offering the latest findings of novel therapies, drugs, epidemiology, and routes of virus transmission and pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss new therapeutic outcomes and cover and the most significant aspects of COVID-19, including the epidemiology, biological features, organs failure, and diagnostic techniques.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology
5.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 520: 111095, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966632

ABSTRACT

The literature has reported a higher prevalence of negative clinical outcomes due to Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in obese individuals. This can be explained by the cytokine storm, result from the cytokine production from both obesity and viral infection. Gamma-oryzanol (γOz) is a compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the γOz action as a possible agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that γOz attenuates the cytokine storm by stimulating PPAR-γ in the adipose tissue. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 30 weeks with control diet (C, n = 6), high sugar-fat diet (HSF, n = 6) or high sugar-fat diet + Î³Oz (HSF + Î³Oz, n = 6). HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%). The γOz dose was 0.5% in the chow. Evaluation in animals included caloric intake, body weight, adiposity index, plasma triglycerides, and HOMA-IR. In adipose tissue was evaluated: PPAR-γ gene and protein expression, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, and histological analysis. RESULTS: Adipose tissue dysfunction was observed in HSF group, which presented remarkable PPAR-γ underexpression and increased levels of cytokines, other inflammatory markers and oxidative stress. The γOz treatment prevented adipose tissue dysfunction and promoted PPAR-γ overexpression. CONCLUSION: Natural compounds as γOz can be considered a coadjutant therapy to prevent the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients with obesity conditions.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Phenylpropionates/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/virology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar
6.
Elife ; 92020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769805

ABSTRACT

Obesity and diabetes are established comorbidities for COVID-19. Adipose tissue demonstrates high expression of ACE2 which SARS- CoV-2 exploits to enter host cells. This makes adipose tissue a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 viruses and thus increases the integral viral load. Acute viral infection results in ACE2 downregulation. This relative deficiency can lead to disturbances in other systems controlled by ACE2, including the renin-angiotensin system. This will be further increased in the case of pre-conditions with already compromised functioning of these systems, such as in patients with obesity and diabetes. Here, we propose that interactions of virally-induced ACE2 deficiency with obesity and/or diabetes leads to a synergistic further impairment of endothelial and gut barrier function. The appearance of bacteria and/or their products in the lungs of obese and diabetic patients promotes interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens, resulting in a more severe lung injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Obesity/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Down-Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Microbial Interactions , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1191-1194, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525894

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the worst pandemic in more than a century, has claimed >125,000 lives worldwide to date. Emerging predictors for poor outcomes include advanced age, male sex, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and, more recently, obesity. This article posits new obesity-driven predictors of poor COVID-19 outcomes, over and above the more obvious extant risks associated with obesity, including cardiometabolic disease and hypoventilation syndrome in intensive care patients. This article also outlines a theoretical mechanistic framework whereby adipose tissue in individuals with obesity may act as a reservoir for more extensive viral spread, with increased shedding, immune activation, and cytokine amplification. This paper proposes studies to test this reservoir concept with a focus on specific cytokine pathways that might be amplified in individuals with obesity and COVID-19. Finally, this paper underscores emerging therapeutic strategies that might benefit subsets of patients in which cytokine amplification is excessive and potentially fatal.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/virology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Obesity/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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