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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 300, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been hailed by some as the emblematic mental disorder of the COVID-19 pandemic, assuming that PTSD's life-threat criterion was met de facto. More plausible outcomes like adjustment disorder (AD) have been overlooked. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was launched in the initial stage of the pandemic using a convenience sample of 5 913 adults to compare the prevalence of COVID-related probable PTSD versus probable AD. The abridged Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-6) assessed the severity of trauma- and stressor-related symptoms over the previous week. Demographic and pandemic-related data (e.g., receiving a formal diagnosis of COVID-19, job loss, loss of loved one, confinement, material hardship) were collected. A Classification and Regression Tree analysis was conducted to uncover the pandemic experiences leading to clinical 'caseness'. Caseness was defined by a score > 9 on the IES-6 symptom measure and further characterized as PTSD or AD depending on whether the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory's life-threat item was endorsed or not. RESULTS: The participants were predominantly Caucasian (72.8%), women (79.2%), with a university degree (85%), and a mean age of 42.22 (SD = 15.24) years; 3 647 participants (61.7%; 95%CI [60.4, 63.0]) met the threshold for caseness. However, when perceived life-threat was accounted for, only 6.7% (95%CI [6.1, 7.4]) were classified as PTSD cases, and 55% (95%CI [53.7, 56.2]) as AD cases. Among the AD cases, three distinct profiles emerged marked by the following: (i) a worst personal pandemic experience eliciting intense fear, helplessness or horror (in the absence, however, of any life-threat), (ii) a pandemic experience eliciting sadness/grief, and (iii) worrying intensely about the safety of significant others. CONCLUSIONS: Studies considering the life-threat criterion as met de facto during the pandemic are confusing PTSD for AD on most counts. This misconception is obscuring the various AD-related idioms of distress that have emerged during the pandemic and the actual treatment needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis , Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 312: 114570, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to evaluate the development of new mental health diagnoses up to 6-months following COVID-19 hospitalization for in a large, national sample. METHOD: Data were extracted for all Veterans hospitalized at Veterans Health Administration hospitals for COVID-19 from March through August of 2020 utilizing national administrative data. After identifying the cohort, follow-up data were linked through six months post-hospitalization. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight percent of patients developed a new mental health diagnosis following hospitalization. The most common new mental health diagnoses involved depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders. Younger and rural patients were more likely to develop new mental health diagnoses. Women and those with more comorbidities were less likely to develop new diagnoses. CONCLUSION: A subpopulation of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 developed new mental health diagnoses. Unique demographics predictors indicate the potential need for additional outreach and screening to groups at elevated risk of post-hospitalization, mental health sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Veterans , Adjustment Disorders , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veterans/psychology
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055696, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature shows profound effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, among which increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD). However, current research efforts have largely been unilateral, focusing on psychopathology and not including well-being, and are dominated by examining average psychopathology levels or on disorder absence/presence, thereby ignoring individual differences in mental health. Knowledge on individual differences, as depicted by latent subgroups, in the full spectrum of mental health may provide valuable insights in how individuals transition between health states and factors that predict transitioning from resilient to symptomatic classes. Our aim is to (1) identify longitudinal classes (ie, subgroups of individuals) based on indicators of PTSD, AD and well-being in response to the pandemic and (2) examine predictors of transitioning between these subgroups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a three-wave longitudinal online survey study of n≥2000 adults from the general Dutch population. The first measurement occasion takes place 6 months after the start of the pandemic, followed by two follow-up measurements with 6 months of intervals. Latent transition analysis will be used for data analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from four Dutch universities. Longitudinal study designs are vital to monitor mental health (and predictors thereof) in the pandemic to develop preventive and curative mental health interventions. This study is carried out by researchers who are board members of the Dutch Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and is part of a pan-European study (initiated by the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies) examining the impact of the pandemic in 11 countries. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at conferences, via newsletters, and media appearance among (psychotrauma) professionals and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adjustment Disorders , Adult , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
4.
Med Princ Pract ; 30(6): 535-541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients and any possible changes after their discharge. SUBJECT AND METHODS: We collected data of patients admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit in Sassari, Italy, for COVID-19, from March 8 to May 8, 2020. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was performed 1 week after admission (T0) and 1 week after discharge (T1). The cutoff point chosen to define the clinical significance of depressive symptoms was 20 (at least moderate). RESULTS: Forty-eight subjects were included. Mean age was 64.3 ± 17.6 years, and 32 (66.7%) were male. Most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases (19; 39.6%) and hypertension (17; 35.4%). When performing BDI-II at T0, 21 (43.7%) patients reported depressive symptoms at T0, according to the chosen cutoff point (BDI-II = 20). Eight (16.7%) patients had minimal symptoms. Mild mood disturbance and moderate and severe depressive symptoms were found in 24 (50%), 14 (29.2%), and 2 (4.2%) patients, respectively, at T0. The comparison of the BDI-II questionnaire at T0 with T1 showed a significant improvement in the total score (p < 0.0001), as well as in 4 out of the 5 selected questions of interest (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that kidney failure and the death of a roommate were significantly associated with severity of mood disorders. CONCLUSION: Mood disturbances and depressive symptoms commonly occur among COVID-19 inpatients. Our results show that COVID-19 inpatients might be at higher risk for developing depressive reactive disorders and could benefit from an early psychological evaluation and strategies improving sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Adjustment Disorders , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1964197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467268

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective: This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to COVID-19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work-related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions: We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 expone a las personas a múltiples factores estresantes, como la cuarentena, el distanciamiento físico, la pérdida del trabajo, el riesgo de infección, y la pérdida de seres queridos. Esta compleja serie de factores estresantes puede potencialmente conducir a síntomas del trastorno de adaptación.Objetivo: Este estudio exploratorio transversal examinó las relaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección, los factores estresantes, y los síntomas del trastorno de adaptación durante el primer año de la pandemia de COVID-19.Métodos: Se utilizaron datos de la primera ola del estudio longitudinal ADJUST de la Sociedad Europea de Estudios de Estrés Traumático (ESTSS en su sigla en inglés). N = 15.563 participantes de 18 años o más fueron reclutados en once países (Austria, Croacia, Georgia, Alemania, Grecia, Italia, Lituania, Países Bajos, Polonia, Portugal, y Suecia) de junio a noviembre de 2020. Se examinaron mediante regresión lineal multivariante las asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo y de protección (p. ej., género, diagnóstico de un trastorno de salud mental), factores estresantes (p. ej., miedo a la infección, contacto restringido cara a cara), y síntomas del trastorno de adaptación (ADNM-8 en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La prevalencia del trastorno de adaptación probable autoinformado fue del 18,2%. Los factores de riesgo asociados con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron género femenino, edad avanzada, riesgo de enfermedad grave por COVID-19, peor estado de salud general, exposición a un trauma actual o anterior, un trastorno de salud mental actual o anterior, y una exposición más prolongada a las noticias de COVID-19. Los factores de protección relacionados con niveles más bajos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación fueron mayores ingresos, estar jubilado, y tener más contacto cara a cara con sus seres queridos o amigos. Los factores estresantes relacionados con la pandemia que se asociaron con niveles más altos de síntomas del trastorno de adaptación incluyeron miedo a la infección, manejo gubernamental de crisis, contacto social restringido, problemas relacionados con el trabajo, actividad restringida, y condiciones de vivienda difíciles.Conclusiones: Identificamos factores estresantes, de riesgo, y protectores que pueden ayudar a identificar a las personas con mayor riesgo de trastorno de adaptación.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Sleep Health ; 7(2): 127-133, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 virus has resulted not only in high rates of morbidity and mortality across the globe, but in widespread mental health problems and sleep disruption, likely as a result of pandemic-related stressors. The current study examines associations among COVID-related stress, sleep quality, and mental health. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were collected via online surveys in May 2020. PARTICIPANTS: were 2541 community adults ages 18-70 from Israel (N = 1969) and the U.S. (N = 572). MEASUREMENT: Participants completed measures of COVID-related stress, sleep quality, and symptoms of anxiety, depression and adjustment disorder. RESULTS: Participants reported high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms, adjustment difficulties, and poor sleep quality. In both countries, COVID-related stressors were associated with both anxiety and depression, and these associations were mediated by sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the role of sleep in mental health difficulties. Widespread, accessible, evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to improve health and mental health and to promote resilience in preparation for future global crises.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Global Health ; 17(1): 19, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths by COVID-19 have left behind nearly 12 million recent bereaved individuals worldwide and researchers have raised concerns that the circumstances of COVID-19 related deaths will lead to a rise prevalence of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) cases. However, to date, no studies have examined the prevalence of PGD among people bereaved due to COVID-19. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PGD and investigated demographic and loss-related factors associated with prolonged grief symptoms among Chinese individuals bereaved due to COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online survey conducted between September 1 and October 3, 2020. A total of 422 Chinese participants (55.5% males; 32.73 [9.31] years old) who lost a close person due to COVID-19 participated in the study. Demographic and loss-related information was collected, and self-reported prolonged grief symptoms were measured by a 13-item International Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale (IPGDS: 1-65) and a 17-item Traumatic Grief Inventory Self Report (TGI-SR: 1-85). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors of levels of grief symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence of PGD was 37.8% screened by IPGDS and 29.3% by TGI-SR. No difference was found in levels of grief symptoms between participants whose close one died more than 6 months ago and those who experienced the loss less than 6 months ago. More severe prolonged grief symptoms assessed by IPGDS was associated with losing a close person by COVID-19 rather than complications (B: 5.35; 95% CI: 0.54-10.05), losing a partner (B: 7.80; 95% CI: 3.24-12.37), child (B: 8.15; 95% CI: 1.03-15.26), and parent (B: 5.49; 95% CI: 1.49-9.48) rather than losing a relative or a person with other relationship, feeling more traumatic about the loss (B: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.52-2.90), being closer with the deceased (B: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.34-2.86). Moreover, Losing a grandparent (B: 6.62; 95% CI: 0.53-12.71) and having more conflicts with the deceased (B: 1.05; 95% CI: - 0.008-2.11) were related to higher levels of grief symptoms assessed by TGI-SR. CONCLUSIONS: Echoing researchers' concerns, the prevalence of PGD is high among people bereaved due to COVID-19. Individuals with a higher risk of developing PGD should be identified and bereavement support should be offered as early as possible.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Grief , Adult , Bereavement , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1860356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069186

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a variety of stressors. Preliminary research has demonstrated that general public are experiencing a range of psychological problems, including stress-related disturbances. However, to date, there is not much research on the prevalence of adjustment disorder during the current pandemic. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of symptoms of adjustment disorder compared to posttraumatic symptoms, depression and generalized anxiety in a large sample of adult Poles, in the first phase of the current pandemic. Method: Self-report data from a web-based sample (N = 1,742) was collected between March 25 and April 27, just after the introduction of nationwide quarantine measures in Poland. Results: The current COVID-19 pandemic was a highly stressful event for 75% of participants and the strongest predictor of adjustment disorder. Increased symptoms of adjustment disorder were reported by 49%, and they were associated with female gender and not having a full-time job. However, after exclusion of co-occurring symptomatology, 14% of the sample were finally qualified as meeting diagnostic criteria of adjustment disorder. A substantial proportion of the sample screened also positive for generalized anxiety (44%) and depression (26%); the rate for presumptive PTSD diagnosis was 2.4%. Conclusions: High rates of negative mental health outcomes were found in the Polish population in the first weeks into the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures. They indicate the intense current stress-related symptoms in the early phase of the pandemic and warrant further monitoring on population's mental health.


Antecedentes: La actual pandemia de COVID-19 está asociada con una variedad de estresores. Investigaciones preliminares han demostrado que la población general está experimentando una variedad de problemas psicológicos, incluyendo trastornos relacionados con el estrés. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha no hay mucha investigación acerca de la prevalencia de trastornos de adaptación durante la actual pandemia.Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia y severidad de los síntomas del trastorno adaptativo comparado con los síntomas postraumáticos, depresión y ansiedad generalizada en una gran muestra de adultos polacos, en la primera fase de la actual pandemia.Método: Se recolectó información auto-reportada de una muestra basada en la web (N=1.742) entre el 25 de marzo y el 27 de Abril, justo después de la introducción de medidas de cuarentena a nivel nacional en Polonia.Resultados: La pandemia actual de COVID-19 fue un evento altamente estresante para el 75% de los participantes y el predictor más poderoso de trastorno de adaptación. 49% informó un aumento de síntomas de trastorno de adaptación, y se asociaron con género femenino y no tener trabajo de tiempo completo. Sin embargo, después de la exclusión de la sintomatología concurrente, 14% de la muestra cumplía los criterios para diagnóstico de trastorno de adaptación. Una proporción importante de la muestra tambien resultó positiva para ansiedad generalizada (44%) y depresión (26%): la tasa de diagnóstico presuntivo de TEPT fue de 2,4%.Conclusiones: Se encontraron altas tasas de consecuencias negativas de salud mental en la población Polaca en las primeras semanas de pandemia y medidas de confinamiento por COVID-19. Indican los intensos síntomas actuales relacionados con el estrés en la fase inicial de la pandemia y justifican un mayor seguimiento de la salud mental de la población.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Trauma/epidemiology , Adjustment Disorders/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 57: 102563, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051426

ABSTRACT

Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are at risk of developing many neuropsychiatric disorders, due to the effects of the disease on the brain and the psychosocial pressures of having the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19, who underwent psychiatric consultations. The medical records of 892 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 and the 89 among them who requested psychiatric consultations were analyzed retrospectively. After the psychiatric consultations, patients were most frequently diagnosed with delirium (38.2 %), adjustment disorder (27.0 %), depressive disorder (19.1 %) and anxiety disorder (11.2 %). Patients with delirium had longer hospital stays (p < 0.001), were transferred more frequently to intensive care units (p < 0.001), and had higher mortality rates during their hospital stays (p < 0.001), than all other patients. The need for oxygen (p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) was also significantly higher in delirium patients, as well as in patients who received other psychiatric diagnoses. Neuropsychiatric disorders develop in patients receiving inpatient treatments in COVID-19 wards, and these disorders negatively affect the prognosis of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders in in-patients with COVID-19 might be associated with the negative outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/etiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Psychiatr Q ; 91(4): 1121-1133, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716348

ABSTRACT

As cases of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continue to rise, psychological endurance is a challenge many people will face. For mental health, heightened stress responses to the pandemic, is likely to manifest in three ways: 1) development of a new episode of a disorder in those with a predisposition to a major psychiatric disorder or an acute exacerbation in those who already have such a disorder, 2) development of a trauma or stressor related disorder, such as acute stress disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), or adjustment disorders, and 3) development of a symptomatic stress response that does not meet the diagnostic criteria of a psychiatric disorder. The authors reviewed existing literature on past epidemics, natural disasters, and COVID-19 with a focus on psychiatry and mental health. Psychological effects of past epidemics (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-1, Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, the Anthrax threat), past natural disasters, and current COVID-19 data suggest numerous psychological effects following the pandemic. Alcohol use, PTSD, anxiety, anger, fear of contagion, perceived risk, uncertainty, and distrust are a few of the immediate and long-term effects that are likely to result from the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying people in need of mental health care and determining the appropriate psychiatric services and therapy needed will be important. Increasing the use and availability of telehealth, group meetings, and online resources are some ways that health care workers can prepare for the increasing demand of psychiatric services during and following the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Anthrax , Betacoronavirus , Bioterrorism/psychology , COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Natural Disasters , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology
13.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(7): 272-282, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: International studies point to increased mental health problems of medical staff during the Corona pandemic (COVID-19). This is the first study to investigate mental health, i. e. adjustment disorder, depression, stress symptoms, Corona related fears as well as coping mechanisms in this group in a German-speaking country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In April 2020, N=100 subjects were recruited that currently are engaged in a hospital. A series of standardized assessments were included: adjustment disorder (ADNM-20), depression (PHQ-9), stress symptoms and coping strategies (SCI). Currently, cross-sectional data are analyzed, because the study is still going on and longitudinal data is not yet assessed. RESULTS: Frequencies of adjustment disorder and depression are 8 and 15%, respectively. Two hierarchical regression models were run to predict adjustment disorder and depression; predictive power was higher for the first (41 vs. 35%). Fear of infection was reported to be higher regarding one's family than oneself. Nursing staff, those with preloads, and women were found to report more mental health problems. Those with direct contact to people that fell ill with COVID-19 did not differ from those with no direct contact. DISCUSSION: Currently, medical staff has a high risk for being mentally stressed. China, being epidemically experienced, has published principles for psychiatric interventions in January 2020. This might be relevant for Switzerland, too. Specific psychotherapeutic interventions, targeting at cognitive restructuring and sensitizing regarding dealing with alcohol and cigarettes, may be needed in order to protect this vulnerable group of person during and after the Corona pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adjustment Disorders/epidemiology , Adjustment Disorders/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Family , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Switzerland/epidemiology
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(5): 146-152, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634568

ABSTRACT

The article considers the main triggers of adjustment and anxiety disorders in the time of pandemic that brings significant changes in all life dimensions with the high uncertainty level. The article highlights a role of coronavirus infodemic in the development of anxiety disorders. The main targets for cognitive, emotional and behavioral interventions are suggested. Recommendations for anxiety adjustment disorders psychopharmacotherapy with the use of tranquillizers as treatment of choice are given. Prevention measures for medical doctors working in conditions of pandemic are proposed.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders , Pandemics , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Humans , Psychotherapy
15.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S22-S24, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607248

ABSTRACT

As the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide in 2020, there is a growing concern about the impact of the pandemic on mental health. Multiple stressors associated with the pandemic, such as health-related stressors, job loss, and work-related stressors, could increase the prevalence of adjustment disorders worldwide. The present article acknowledges adjustment disorder as a highly relevant mental health outcome of the pandemic that should be addressed by mental health professionals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Global Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Adjustment , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adjustment Disorders/etiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Stress, Psychological/etiology
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