Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2206359, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231273

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate, SCB-2019, in adults in the SPECTRA phase 2/3 efficacy study. We extended the study to include 1278 healthy 12-17-year-old adolescents in Belgium, Colombia, and the Philippines who received either two doses of SCB-2019 or placebo 21 days apart, to assess immunogenicity as neutralizing antibodies against prototype SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern, and safety and reactogenicity as solicited and unsolicited adverse events with a comparator group of young adults (18-25 years). In participants with no evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection SCB-2019 immunogenicity in adolescents was non-inferior to that in young adults; respective geometric mean neutralizing titers (GMT) against prototype SARS-CoV-2 14 days after the second vaccination were 271 IU/mL (95% CI: 211-348) and 144 IU/mL (116-178). Most adolescents (1077, 84.3%) had serologic evidence of prior SAR-CoV-2 exposure at baseline; in these seropositive adolescents neutralizing GMTs increased from 173 IU/mL (135-122) to 982 IU/mL (881-1094) after the second dose. Neutralizing titers against Delta and Omicron BA SARS-CoV-2 variants were also increased, most notably in those with prior exposure. SCB-2019 vaccine was well tolerated with generally mild or moderate, transient solicited and unsolicited adverse events that were comparable in adolescent vaccine and placebo groups except for injection site pain - reported after 20% of SCB-2019 and 7.3% of placebo injections. SCB-2019 vaccine was highly immunogenic against SARS-CoV-2 prototype and variants in adolescents, especially in those with evidence of prior exposure, with comparable immunogenicity to young adults. Clinical trial registration: EudraCT 2020-004272-17; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04672395.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2
3.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 595-608, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection, lower respiratory tract disease, clinical complications, and death in older adults. There is currently no licensed vaccine against RSV infection. METHODS: In an ongoing, international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, adults 60 years of age or older to receive a single dose of an AS01E-adjuvanted RSV prefusion F protein-based candidate vaccine (RSVPreF3 OA) or placebo before the RSV season. The primary objective was to show vaccine efficacy of one dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine against RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease, confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), during one RSV season. The criterion for meeting the primary objective was a lower limit of the confidence interval around the efficacy estimate of more than 20%. Efficacy against severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease and RSV-related acute respiratory infection was assessed, and analyses according to RSV subtype (A and B) were performed. Safety was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 24,966 participants received one dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine (12,467 participants) or placebo (12,499). Over a median follow-up of 6.7 months, vaccine efficacy against RT-PCR-confirmed RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease was 82.6% (96.95% confidence interval [CI], 57.9 to 94.1), with 7 cases (1.0 per 1000 participant-years) in the vaccine group and 40 cases (5.8 per 1000 participant-years) in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 62.4 to 99.9) against severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease (assessed on the basis of clinical signs or by the investigator) and 71.7% (95% CI, 56.2 to 82.3) against RSV-related acute respiratory infection. Vaccine efficacy was similar against the RSV A and B subtypes (for RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease: 84.6% and 80.9%, respectively; for RSV-related acute respiratory infection: 71.9% and 70.6%, respectively). High vaccine efficacy was observed in various age groups and in participants with coexisting conditions. The RSVPreF3 OA vaccine was more reactogenic than placebo, but most adverse events for which reports were solicited were transient, with mild-to-moderate severity. The incidences of serious adverse events and potential immune-mediated diseases were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and prevented RSV-related acute respiratory infection and lower respiratory tract disease and severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease in adults 60 years of age or older, regardless of RSV subtype and the presence of underlying coexisting conditions. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; AReSVi-006 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04886596.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Internationality , Vaccine Efficacy
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280417

ABSTRACT

Since vaccines are in fact manufactured chemical compounds such as drugs, the appearance of side effects following their use is not surprising. Similarly, as the main goal of vaccines is to stimulate the immune system bringing out the production of protective antibodies, autoimmune-related side effects as a consequence of increased immune activity do not seem irrational. Fortunately, the rate of such side effects is low; however, the importance of reporting adverse events following vaccinations, understanding the mechanisms behind their appearance, making early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment cannot be overemphasized. In fact, autoimmune-related side effects of vaccines, particularly those based on adjuvants, were reported long before the introduction of the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). Nevertheless, ASIA gathered and united the side effects of vaccines under one title, a step which helped organize the research and call for better immune stimulators than adjuvants. New technologies and methods of making vaccines were clearly noticed during the pandemic of COVID-19 after the introduction of mRNA-based vaccines. In our current paper, we introduce the notion of side effects to vaccines, particularly those of autoimmune nature, the mechanisms of ASIA, and the main vaccines linked with the syndrome including the recent COVID-19 vaccines. The transition from side effects to ASIA is the main idea behind our work.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines , Syndrome , Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 213(1): 87-101, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280416

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants, as the name indicates, are adjoined material aimed to assist in functioning as when added to vaccines they are meant to boost the effect and strongly stimulate the immune system. The response of the immune system can be unpredictable, and the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) was developed to address possible adverse reactions of an autoimmune and inflammatory type that may be caused by adjuvants. While ASIA, as a syndrome, was coined and defined in 2011; reports describing patients with vague and nonspecific clinical symptoms following vaccinations appeared much earlier. In other words, ASIA came to define, arrange, and unite the variety of symptoms, related to autoimmunity, caused not by the vaccine itself, rather by the adjuvant part of the vaccine such as aluminum, among others. Accordingly, the introduction of ASIA enabled better understanding, proper diagnosis, and early treatment of the disorder. Furthermore, ASIA was shown to be associated with almost all body systems and various rheumatic and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and systemic sclerosis. In addition, the correlation between COVID-19 and ASIA was noticed during the pandemic. In this review, we summarized the reported effects of adjuvants and medical literature before and after ASIA was defined, the several ways ASIA can manifest and impact different systems of the body, and the incidences of ASIA during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to clarify, that vaccines are among, if not the, most effective means of fighting infectious diseases however, we believe that vaccines manufacturing is not above criticism, particularly when it comes to added substances possessing a risk of side effects.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
6.
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2184-2197, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous interim data from a phase I study of AKS-452, a subunit vaccine comprising an Fc fusion of the respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor binding domain (SP/RBD) emulsified in the water-in-oil adjuvant, Montanide™ ISA 720, suggested a good safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy adults. This phase I study was completed and two dosing regimens were further evaluated in this phase II study. METHODS: This phase II randomized, open-labelled, parallel group study was conducted at a single site in The Netherlands with 52 healthy adults (18 - 72 years) receiving AKS-452 subcutaneously at one 90 µg dose (cohort 1, 26 subjects) or two 45 µg doses 28 days apart (cohort 2, 26 subjects). Serum samples were collected at the first dose (day 0) and at days 28, 56, 90, and 180. Safety and immunogenicity endpoints were assessed, along with induction of IgG isotypes, cross-reactive immunity against viral variants, and IFN-γ T cell responses. RESULTS: All AEs were mild/moderate (grades 1 or 2), and no SAEs were attributable to AKS-452. Seroconversion rates reached 100% in both cohorts, although cohort 2 showed greater geometric mean IgG titers that were stable through day 180 and associated with enhanced potencies of SP/RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition and live virus neutralization. AKS-452-induced IgG titers strongly bound mutant SP/RBD from several SARS-CoV-2 variants (including Omicrons) that were predominantly of the favorable IgG1/3 isotype and IFN-γ-producing T cell phenotype. CONCLUSION: These favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles of the candidate vaccine as demonstrated in this phase II study are consistent with those of the phase I study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04681092) and suggest that a total of 90 µg received in 2 doses may offer a greater duration of cross-reactive neutralizing titers than when given in a single dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin G , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Double-Blind Method
7.
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2253-2260, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the safety of SCB-2019, a protein subunit vaccine candidate containing a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) trimer fusion protein, combined with CpG-1018/alum adjuvants. METHODS: This ongoing phase 2/3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial is being conducted in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Philippines, and South Africa in participants ≥ 12 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 2 doses of SCB-2019 or placebo administered intramuscularly 21 days apart. Here, we present the safety results of SCB-2019 over the 6-month period following 2-dose primary vaccination series in all adult participants (≥18 years of age). RESULTS: A total of 30,137 adult participants received at least one dose of study vaccine (n = 15,070) or placebo (n = 15,067) between 24 March 2021 and 01 December 2021. Unsolicited adverse events, medically-attended adverse events, adverse events of special interest, and serious adverse events were reported in similar frequencies in both study arms over the 6-month follow-up period. Vaccine-related SAEs were reported by 4 of 15,070 SCB-2019 recipients (hypersensitivity reactions in two participants, Bell's palsy, and spontaneous abortion) and 2 of 15,067 placebo recipients (COVID-19, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in one participant and spontaneous abortion in the other one). No signs of vaccine-associated enhanced disease were observed. CONCLUSIONS: SCB-2019 administered as a 2-dose series has an acceptable safety profile. No safety concerns were identified during the 6-month follow-up after the primary vaccination. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04672395; EudraCT: 2020-004272-17.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Protein Subunits , Abortion, Spontaneous/chemically induced , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/chemically induced
8.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(5): 103287, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220459

ABSTRACT

In 2011, a syndrome entitled ASIA (Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants; Shoenfeld's syndrome) was first described. ASIA aimed to organize under a single umbrella, the existing evidence regarding certain environmental factors which possess immune stimulatory properties, in order to shed light on a common pathway of autoimmune pathogenesis. Such environmental immune stimulators, or adjuvants, include among others: aluminum salts as in vaccines, various medical implants, as well as various infectious agents. After the launch of the ASIA syndrome, the expansion and recognition of this syndrome by different researchers from different countries began. During the past decades, evidence had been accumulating that (auto)immune symptoms can be triggered by exposure to environmental immune stimulatory factors that act as an adjuvant in genetically susceptible individuals. A panoply of unexplained subjective and autonomic-related symptoms has been reported in patients with ASIA syndrome. The current review summarizes and updates accumulated knowledge from the past decades, describing new adjuvants- (e.g. polypropylene meshes) and vaccine- (e.g. HPV and COVID vaccines) induced ASIA. Furthermore, a direct association between inflammatory/autoimmune diseases with ASIA syndrome, will be discussed. Recent cases will strengthen some of the criteria depicted in ASIA syndrome such as clear improvement of symptoms by the removal of adjuvants (e.g. silicone breast implants) from the body of patients. Finally, we will introduce additional factors to be included in the criteria for ASIA syndrome such as: (1) dysregulated non-classical autoantibodies directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the autonomic nervous system and (2)) small fiber neuropathy (SFN), both of which might explain, at least in part, the development of 'dysautonomia' reported in many ASIA patients.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Syndrome , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 316-319, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus, one of the most common viral infections worldwide, frequently manifests as condyloma acuminata, or anogenital warts. First-line treatment of this condition includes the use of imiquimod, a topical immunomodulator. CASE: We describe a case of a localized skin ulceration necessitating surgical debridement after the use of topical imiquimod for 24 hours in a patient with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. After debridement, the patient's wound healed appropriately, with regular wound clinic visits and diabetes education. CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should use caution when prescribing imiquimod in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Condylomata Acuminata , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Administration, Topical , Aminoquinolines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Imiquimod/adverse effects
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058795, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention in randomised clinical trials in relation to human vaccine development. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis assessing the certainty of evidence with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). DATA SOURCES: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science until 29 June 2021, and Chinese databases until September 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials irrespective of type, status and language of publication, with trial participants of any sex, age, ethnicity, diagnosis, comorbidity and country of residence. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias with Cochrane's RoB tool 1. Dichotomous data were analysed as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences. We explored both fixed-effect and random-effects models, with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was quantified with I2 statistic. We GRADE assessed the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 102 randomised clinical trials (26 457 participants). Aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention may have no effect on serious adverse events (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43; very low certainty) and on all-cause mortality (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.41; very low certainty). No trial reported on quality of life. Aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention may increase adverse events (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.20; very low certainty). We found no or little evidence of a difference between aluminium adjuvants versus placebo or no intervention when assessing serology with geometric mean titres or concentrations or participants' seroprotection. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence at very low certainty, we were unable to identify benefits of aluminium adjuvants, which may be associated with adverse events considered non-serious.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Aluminum/administration & dosage , Aluminum/adverse effects , Humans , Placebos , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vaccines/adverse effects
12.
N Engl J Med ; 386(22): 2084-2096, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-like particles (CoVLP) that are produced in plants and display the prefusion spike glycoprotein of the original strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are combined with an adjuvant (Adjuvant System 03 [AS03]) to form the candidate vaccine. METHODS: In this phase 3, multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 85 centers, we assigned adults (≥18 years of age) in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of the CoVLP+AS03 vaccine or placebo 21 days apart. The primary objective of the trial was to determine the efficacy of the CoVLP+AS03 vaccine in preventing symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) beginning at least 7 days after the second injection, with the analysis performed after the detection of at least 160 cases. RESULTS: A total of 24,141 volunteers participated in the trial; the median age of the participants was 29 years. Covid-19 was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assay in 165 participants in the intention-to-treat population; all viral samples that could be sequenced contained variants of the original strain. Vaccine efficacy was 69.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.7 to 78.8) against any symptomatic Covid-19 caused by five variants that were identified by sequencing. In a post hoc analysis, vaccine efficacy was 78.8% (95% CI, 55.8 to 90.8) against moderate-to-severe disease and 74.0% (95% CI, 62.1 to 82.5) among the participants who were seronegative at baseline. No severe cases of Covid-19 occurred in the vaccine group, in which the median viral load for breakthrough cases was lower than that in the placebo group by a factor of more than 100. Solicited adverse events were mostly mild or moderate and transient and were more frequent in the vaccine group than in the placebo group; local adverse events occurred in 92.3% and 45.5% of participants, respectively, and systemic adverse events in 87.3% and 65.0%. The incidence of unsolicited adverse events was similar in the two groups up to 21 days after each dose (22.7% and 20.4%) and from day 43 through day 201 (4.2% and 4.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The CoVLP+AS03 vaccine was effective in preventing Covid-19 caused by a spectrum of variants, with efficacy ranging from 69.5% against symptomatic infection to 78.8% against moderate-to-severe disease. (Funded by Medicago; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04636697.).


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Vaccine/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Vaccine/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Vaccine/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 222-233, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607212

ABSTRACT

Although antivirals are important tools to control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, effective vaccines are essential to control the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Plant-derived virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates have previously demonstrated immunogenicity and efficacy against influenza. Here, we report the immunogenicity and protection induced in rhesus macaques by intramuscular injections of a VLP bearing a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (CoVLP) vaccine candidate formulated with or without Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) or cytidine-phospho-guanosine (CpG) 1018. Although a single dose of the unadjuvanted CoVLP vaccine candidate stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, booster immunization (at 28 days after priming) and adjuvant administration significantly improved both responses, with higher immunogenicity and protection provided by the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP. Fifteen micrograms of CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 induced a polyfunctional interleukin-2 (IL-2)-driven response and IL-4 expression in CD4 T cells. Animals were challenged by multiple routes (i.e., intratracheal, intranasal, and ocular) with a total viral dose of 106 plaque-forming units of SARS-CoV-2. Lower viral replication in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as fewer SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and immune cell infiltrates in the lungs concomitant with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemotactic factors in the BALF were observed in animals immunized with the CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03. No clinical, pathologic, or virologic evidence of vaccine-associated enhanced disease was observed in vaccinated animals. The CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 was therefore selected for vaccine development and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polysorbates/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Squalene/adverse effects , Tobacco/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/adverse effects , alpha-Tocopherol/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Drug Compounding/methods , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta , Male , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Squalene/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage
14.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102738, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466582

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune endocrine diseases (AIED), are thought to develop following environmental exposure in patients with genetic predisposition. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and vaccines against it could represent new environmental triggers for AIED. We report a patient, with history of vitiligo vulgaris and 8 years of type 2 diabetes, who came to our institution because of fever, weight loss, asthenia and thyrotoxicosis occurred 4 weeks later the administration of BNT162B2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Clinical, biochemical and instrumental work-up demonstrated Graves' disease and autoimmune diabetes mellitus. The occurrence of these disorders could be explained through different mechanism such as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome), mRNA "self-adjuvant" effect, molecular mimicry between human and viral proteins and immune disruption from external stimuli. However further studies are needed to better understand the underlying pathogenesis of AIED following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/etiology , Graves Disease/etiology , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , C-Peptide/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyrotoxicosis/pathology , Vitiligo/pathology
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(12): 1645-1653, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 for children and adolescents will play an important role in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2, in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial of CoronaVac in healthy children and adolescents aged 3-17 years old at Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Zanhuang (Hebei, China). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 exposure or infection history were excluded. Vaccine (in 0·5 mL aluminum hydroxide adjuvant) or aluminum hydroxide only (alum only, control) was given by intramuscular injection in two doses (day 0 and day 28). We did a phase 1 trial in 72 participants with an age de-escalation in three groups and dose-escalation in two blocks (1·5 µg or 3·0 µg per injection). Within each block, participants were randomly assigned (3:1) by means of block randomisation to receive CoronaVac or alum only. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) by means of block randomisation to receive either CoronaVac at 1·5 µg or 3·0 µg per dose, or alum only. All participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to group allocation. The primary safety endpoint was adverse reactions within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one dose. The primary immunogenicity endpoint assessed in the per-protocol population was seroconversion rate of neutralising antibody to live SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days after the second injection. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04551547. FINDINGS: Between Oct 31, 2020, and Dec 2, 2020, 72 participants were enrolled in phase 1, and between Dec 12, 2020, and Dec 30, 2020, 480 participants were enrolled in phase 2. 550 participants received at least one dose of vaccine or alum only (n=71 for phase 1 and n=479 for phase 2; safety population). In the combined safety profile of phase 1 and phase 2, any adverse reactions within 28 days after injection occurred in 56 (26%) of 219 participants in the 1·5 µg group, 63 (29%) of 217 in the 3·0 µg group, and 27 (24%) of 114 in the alum-only group, without significant difference (p=0·55). Most adverse reactions were mild and moderate in severity. Injection site pain was the most frequently reported event (73 [13%] of 550 participants), occurring in 36 (16%) of 219 participants in the 1·5 µg group, 35 (16%) of 217 in the 3·0 µg group, and two (2%) in the alum-only group. As of June 12, 2021, only one serious adverse event of pneumonia has been reported in the alum-only group, which was considered unrelated to vaccination. In phase 1, seroconversion of neutralising antibody after the second dose was observed in 27 of 27 participants (100·0% [95% CI 87·2-100·0]) in the 1·5 µg group and 26 of 26 participants (100·0% [86·8-100·0]) in the 3·0 µg group, with the geometric mean titres of 55·0 (95% CI 38·9-77·9) and 117·4 (87·8-157·0). In phase 2, seroconversion was seen in 180 of 186 participants (96·8% [93·1-98·8]) in the 1·5 µg group and 180 of 180 participants (100·0% [98·0-100·0]) in the 3·0 µg group, with the geometric mean titres of 86·4 (73·9-101·0) and 142·2 (124·7-162·1). There were no detectable antibody responses in the alum-only groups. INTERPRETATION: CoronaVac was well tolerated and safe and induced humoral responses in children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. Neutralising antibody titres induced by the 3·0 µg dose were higher than those of the 1·5 µg dose. The results support the use of 3·0 µg dose with a two-immunisation schedule for further studies in children and adolescents. FUNDING: The Chinese National Key Research and Development Program and the Beijing Science and Technology Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
17.
Thyroid ; 31(9): 1436-1439, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189426

ABSTRACT

Background: The autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) comprises four entities, including the postvaccination phenomenon, which appears after being exposed to adjuvants in vaccines that increase the immune response. There is limited information about autoimmune endocrine diseases and ASIA after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. Patient's Findings: Two female health care workers received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and three days later developed clinical manifestations of thyroid hyperactivity, with increased thyroid hormone levels on thyroid function tests, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated antithyroid antibodies. Summary: Vaccines have been shown to trigger an immune response that leads to a broad spectrum of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disease. Our patients met the diagnostic criteria for ASIA; they were exposed to an adjuvant (vaccine), and they developed clinical manifestations of thyroid hyperfunction within a few days, with the appearance of antithyroid antibodies, despite being healthy before vaccination. Conclusion: Graves' disease can occur after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graves Disease/chemically induced , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , BNT162 Vaccine , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Female , Graves Disease/blood , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Graves Disease/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167649

ABSTRACT

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic warrants an imperative necessity for effective and safe vaccination, to restrain Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) including transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality. In this regard, intensive medical and biological research leading to the development of an arsenal of vaccines, albeit incomplete preconditioned evaluation, due to emergency. The subsequent scientific gap raises some concerns in the medical community and the general public. More specifically, the accelerated vaccine development downgraded the value of necessary pre-clinical studies to elicit medium- and long-term beneficial or harmful consequences. Previous experience and pathophysiological background of coronaviruses' infections and vaccine technologies, combined with the global vaccines' application, underlined the obligation of a cautious and qualitative approach, to illuminate potential vaccination-related adverse events. Moreover, the high SARS-CoV-2 mutation potential and the already aggregated genetical alterations provoke a rational vagueness and uncertainty concerning vaccines' efficacy against dominant strains and the respective clinical immunity. This review critically summarizes existing evidence and queries regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, to motivate scientists' and clinicians' interest for an optimal, individualized, and holistic management of this unprecedented pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases/chemically induced , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Drug Approval , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hippocratic Oath , Humans , Long Term Adverse Effects/chemically induced , Models, Animal , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(6): 770-777, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165861

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related mortality in high-risk individuals is substantial and current treatment options are limited. There is convincing evidence that the COVID-19 vaccines reduce the severity of infection and prevent deaths. Three COVID-19 vaccines are approved in the United Kingdom with many more in development. There are limited data on the triggers and mechanisms of anaphylaxis to these vaccines. We review the potential allergenic compounds in the COVID-19 vaccines and describe an innovative allergy support model for the vaccination hubs that allows most patients with severe allergy be immunized. Finally, we propose a practical algorithm for the investigations of anaphylaxis to these vaccines.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Decision Support Techniques , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision-Making , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/therapy , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Excipients/adverse effects
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031266, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130416

ABSTRACT

Importance: Trivalent adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and trivalent high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) are US-licensed for adults aged 65 years and older. Data are needed on the comparative safety, reactogenicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) effects of these vaccines. Objective: To compare safety, reactogenicity, and changes in HRQOL scores after aIIV3 vs HD-IIV3. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized blinded clinical trial was a multicenter US study conducted during the 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019 influenza seasons. Among 778 community-dwelling adults aged at least 65 years and assessed for eligibility, 13 were ineligible and 8 withdrew before randomization. Statistical analysis was performed from August 2019 to August 2020. Interventions: Intramuscular administration of aIIV3 or HD-IIV3 after age-stratification (65-79 years; ≥80 years) and randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportions of participants with moderate-to-severe injection-site pain and 14 other solicited reactions during days 1 to 8, using a noninferiority test (5% noninferiority margin), and serious adverse events (SAE) and adverse events of clinical interest (AECI), including new-onset immune-mediated conditions, during days 1 to 43. Changes in HRQOL scores before and after vaccination (days 1, 3) were also compared between study groups. Results: A total of 757 adults were randomized, 378 to receive aIIV3 and 379 to receive HD-IIV3. Of these participants, there were 420 women (55%) and 589 White individuals (78%) with a median (range) age of 72 (65-97) years. The proportion reporting moderate-to-severe injection-site pain, limiting or preventing activity, after aIIV3 (12 participants [3.2%]) (primary outcome) was noninferior compared with HD-IIV3 (22 participants [5.8%]) (difference -2.7%; 95% CI, -5.8 to 0.4). Ten reactions met noninferiority criteria for aIIV3; 4 (moderate-to-severe injection-site tenderness, arthralgia, fatigue, malaise) did not. It was inconclusive whether these 4 reactions occurred in higher proportions of participants after aIIV3. No participant sought medical care for a vaccine reaction. No AECI was observed. Nine participants had at least SAE after aIIV3 (2.4%; 95% CI,1.1% to 4.5%); 3 had at least 1 SAE after HD-IIV3 (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 2.2%). No SAE was associated with vaccination. Changes in prevaccination and postvaccination HRQOL scores were not clinically meaningful and not different between the groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Overall safety and HRQOL findings were similar after aIIV3 and HD-IIV3, and consistent with prelicensure data. From a safety standpoint, this study's results support using either vaccine to prevent influenza in older adults. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03183908.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL