Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 177
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 843-855, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A previous efficacy trial found benefit from inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in patients not admitted to hospital, but effectiveness in high-risk individuals is unknown. We aimed to establish whether inhaled budesonide reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related hospital admissions or deaths among people at high risk of complications in the community. METHODS: PRINCIPLE is a multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial done remotely from a central trial site and at primary care centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 65 years or older or 50 years or older with comorbidities, and unwell for up to 14 days with suspected COVID-19 but not admitted to hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care, usual care plus inhaled budesonide (800 µg twice daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions, and followed up for 28 days. Participants were aware of group assignment. The coprimary endpoints are time to first self-reported recovery and hospital admission or death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. The primary analysis population included all eligible SARS-CoV-2-positive participants randomly assigned to budesonide, usual care, and other interventions, from the start of the platform trial until the budesonide group was closed. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86534580) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: The trial began enrolment on April 2, 2020, with randomisation to budesonide from Nov 27, 2020, until March 31, 2021, when the prespecified time to recovery superiority criterion was met. 4700 participants were randomly assigned to budesonide (n=1073), usual care alone (n=1988), or other treatments (n=1639). The primary analysis model includes 2530 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, with 787 in the budesonide group, 1069 in the usual care group, and 974 receiving other treatments. There was a benefit in time to first self-reported recovery of an estimated 2·94 days (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 1·19 to 5·12) in the budesonide group versus the usual care group (11·8 days [95% BCI 10·0 to 14·1] vs 14·7 days [12·3 to 18·0]; hazard ratio 1·21 [95% BCI 1·08 to 1·36]), with a probability of superiority greater than 0·999, meeting the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·99. For the hospital admission or death outcome, the estimated rate was 6·8% (95% BCI 4·1 to 10·2) in the budesonide group versus 8·8% (5·5 to 12·7) in the usual care group (estimated absolute difference 2·0% [95% BCI -0·2 to 4·5]; odds ratio 0·75 [95% BCI 0·55 to 1·03]), with a probability of superiority 0·963, below the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·975. Two participants in the budesonide group and four in the usual care group had serious adverse events (hospital admissions unrelated to COVID-19). INTERPRETATION: Inhaled budesonide improves time to recovery, with a chance of also reducing hospital admissions or deaths (although our results did not meet the superiority threshold), in people with COVID-19 in the community who are at higher risk of complications. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research and United Kingdom Research Innovation.


Subject(s)
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 159: 110753, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586985

ABSTRACT

For respiratory infections treatment and prevention, we analyze for the first time the possibility of providing a broad range medication based on metallic nanoparticles colloids (NpC) delivery by controlled aerosol inhalation. (i) Based on in-vitro data combined with aerosol deposition characteristics in the respiratory system, we calculate the required effective formulations, dosages and delivery parameters for an aerosol inhalation treatment. The goal is to achieve an effective NpC inhibitory concentration (IC) in the target airway surface liquid (ASL); (ii) We evaluate the clinical safety of such dosages, drawing on information from animal testing data and regulatory limits in the USA for such nanoparticles aerosol inhalation safety. Our analysis indicates a wide range of potentially safe and effective dosages that can be clinically explored, targeting the upper respiratory and bronchial tree system. Similar dosages can also provide antibacterial effectiveness for prophylactic treatment in hospital intensive care units to lower the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Our calculations are phenomenological, independent of mechanisms. Nevertheless, we highlight a mechanism of action by which any suitably designed NpC, with nanoparticles sized 2-10 nm and having a large negative zeta-potential, preferentially bind to viruses with predominantly positively-charged spike proteins. These will be ineffective against viruses with predominantly negatively-charged spike proteins. Accordingly, the popular silver metal base for NpC serves just as a construction ingredient, and other metal or metal-oxides which can serve to construct the noted nanoparticle properties would be similarly effective. We suggest that inhalation delivery of the proposed antiviral formulations could be applied as a first-line intervention while respiratory infections are primarily localized to the upper respiratory system and bronchial tree.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Animals , Humans , Lung , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet ; 398(10317): 2147, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560761
5.
Lancet ; 398(10317): 2146-2147, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562142
7.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2556-2565, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526359

ABSTRACT

Nezulcitinib (TD-0903), a lung-selective pan-Janus-associated kinase (JAK) inhibitor designed for inhaled delivery, is under development for treatment of acute lung injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This two-part, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose (part A) and multiple ascending dose (part B) phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of nezulcitinib in healthy participants. Part A included three cohorts randomized 6:2 to receive a single inhaled dose of nezulcitinib (1, 3, or 10 mg) or matching placebo. Part B included three cohorts randomized 8:2 to receive inhaled nezulcitinib (1, 3, or 10 mg) or matching placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome was nezulcitinib safety and tolerability assessed from treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). The secondary outcome was nezulcitinib PK. All participants completed the study. All TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity, and none led to treatment discontinuation. Overall (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and peak (maximal plasma concentration) plasma exposures of nezulcitinib were low and increased in a dose-proportional manner from 1 to 10 mg in both parts, with no suggestion of clinically meaningful drug accumulation. Maximal plasma exposures were below levels expected to result in systemic target engagement, consistent with a lung-selective profile. No reductions in natural killer cell counts were observed, consistent with the lack of a systemic pharmacological effect and the observed PK. In summary, single and multiple doses of inhaled nezulcitinib at 1, 3, and 10 mg were well-tolerated in healthy participants, with dose-proportional PK supporting once-daily administration.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imidazoles/adverse effects , Indazoles/adverse effects , Piperidines/adverse effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Area Under Curve , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Indazoles/administration & dosage , Indazoles/pharmacokinetics , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Young Adult
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714833, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506100

ABSTRACT

Background: The most severe cases of Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) develop into Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). It has been proposed that oxygenation may be inhibited by extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme, Genentech) is recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I that acts as a mucolytic by cleaving and degrading extracellular DNA. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the effects of dornase alfa in patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19. Methods: We performed a pilot, non-randomized, case-controlled clinical trial of inhaled dornase for patients who developed ARDS secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: Improvement in arterial oxygen saturation to inhaled fraction of oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was noted in the treatment group compared to control at day 2 (95% CI, 2.96 to 95.66, P-value = 0.038), as well as in static lung compliance at days 3 through 5 (95% CI, 4.8 to 19.1 mL/cmH2O, 2.7 to 16.5 mL/cmH2O, and 5.3 to 19.2 mL/cmH2O, respectively). These effects were not sustained at 14 days. A reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) myeloperoxidase-DNA (DNA : MPO) complexes (95% CI, -14.7 to -1.32, P-value = 0.01) was observed after therapy with dornase alfa. Conclusion: Treatment with dornase alfa was associated with improved oxygenation and decreased DNA : MPO complexes in BALF. The positive effects, however, were limited to the time of drug delivery. These data suggest that degradation of extracellular DNA associated with NETs or other structures by inhaled dornase alfa can be beneficial. We propose a more extensive clinical trial is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT04402970.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , DNA/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Pilot Projects , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e25163, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension restricts the ability of patients to perform routine physical activities. As part of pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment, inhaled iloprost can be administered via a nebulizer that tracks inhalation behavior. Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment is guided by intermittent clinical measurements, such as 6-minute walk distance, assessed during regular physician visits. Continuous digital monitoring of physical activity may facilitate more complete assessment of the impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension on daily life. Physical activity tracking with a wearable has not yet been assessed with simultaneous tracking of pulmonary arterial hypertension medication intake. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to digitally track the physical parameters of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who were starting treatment with iloprost using a Breelib nebulizer. The primary objective was to investigate correlations between changes in digital physical activity measures and changes in traditional clinical measures and health-related quality of life over 3 months. Secondary objectives were to evaluate inhalation behavior, adverse events, and changes in heart rate and sleep quality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension in World Health Organization functional class III who were adding inhaled iloprost to existing pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy. Daily distance walked, step count, number of standing-up events, heart rate, and 6-minute walk distance were digitally captured using smartwatch (Apple Watch Series 2) and smartphone (iPhone 6S) apps during a 3-month observation period (which began when iloprost treatment began). Before and at the end of the observation period (within 2 weeks), we also evaluated 6-minute walk distance, Borg dyspnea, functional class, B-type natriuretic peptide (or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D questionnaire), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 18 were included in the full analysis (observation period: median 91.5 days, IQR 88.0 to 92.0). Changes from baseline in traditional and digital 6-minute walk distance were moderately correlated (r=0.57). Physical activity (daily distance walked: median 0.4 km, IQR -0.2 to 1.9; daily step count: median 591, IQR -509 to 2413) and clinical measures (traditional 6-minute walk distance: median 26 m, IQR 0 to 40) changed concordantly from baseline to the end of the observation period. Health-related quality of life showed little change. Total sleep score and resting heart rate slightly decreased. Distance walked and step count showed short-term increases after each iloprost inhalation. No new safety signals were identified (safety analysis set: n=30). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that despite challenges, parallel monitoring of physical activity, heart rate, and iloprost inhalation is feasible in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and may complement traditional measures in guiding treatment; however, the sample size of this study limits generalizability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03293407; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03293407. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/12144.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Walking
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048591, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495462

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pre-emptive inhaled antibiotics may be effective to reduce the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among critically ill patients. Meta-analysis of small sample size trials showed a favourable signal. Inhaled antibiotics are associated with a reduced emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the benefit of a 3-day course of inhaled antibiotics among patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days on the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Academic, investigator-initiated, parallel two group arms, double-blind, multicentre superiority randomised controlled trial. Patients invasively ventilated more than 3 days will be randomised to receive 20 mg/kg inhaled amikacin daily for 3 days or inhaled placebo (0.9% Sodium Chloride). Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia will be recorded based on a standardised diagnostic framework from randomisation to day 28 and adjudicated by a centralised blinded committee. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol and amendments have been approved by the regional ethics review board and French competent authorities (Comité de protection des personnes Ouest I, No.2016-R29). All patients will be included after informed consent according to French law. Results will be disseminated in international scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2016-001054-17 and NCT03149640.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Administration, Inhalation , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMJ ; 375: e068060, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if inhaled and intranasal ciclesonide are superior to placebo at decreasing respiratory symptoms in adult outpatients with covid-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Three Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia). PARTICIPANTS: 203 adults aged 18 years and older with polymerase chain reaction confirmed covid-19, presenting with fever, cough, or dyspnoea. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive either inhaled ciclesonide (600 µg twice daily) and intranasal ciclesonide (200 µg daily) or metered dose inhaler and nasal saline placebos for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was symptom resolution at day 7. Analyses were conducted on the modified intention-to-treat population (participants who took at least one dose of study drug and completed one follow-up survey) and adjusted for stratified randomisation by sex. RESULTS: The modified intention-to-treat population included 203 participants: 105 were randomly assigned to ciclesonide (excluding two dropouts and one loss to follow-up) and 98 to placebo (excluding three dropouts and six losses to follow-up). The median age was 35 years (interquartile range 27-47 years) and 54% were women. The proportion of participants with resolution of symptoms by day 7 did not differ significantly between the intervention group (42/105, 40%) and control group (34/98, 35%); absolute adjusted risk difference 5.5% (95% confidence interval -7.8% to 18.8%). Results might be limited to the population studied, which mainly included younger adults without comorbidities. The trial was stopped early, therefore could have been underpowered. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, the combination of inhaled and intranasal ciclesonide did not show a statistically significant increase in resolution of symptoms among healthier young adults with covid-19 presenting with prominent respiratory symptoms. As evidence is insufficient to determine the benefit of inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids in the treatment of covid-19, further research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04435795.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnenediones/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnenediones/therapeutic use , Self Report , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468173

ABSTRACT

Effective treatment of respiratory infections continues to be a major challenge. In high doses (≥160 ppm), inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) has been shown to act as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, including its efficacy in vitro for coronavirus family. However, the safety of prolonged in vivo implementation of high-dose iNO therapy has not been studied. Herein we aim to explore the feasibility and safety of delivering continuous high-dose iNO over an extended period of time using an in vivo animal model. Yorkshire pigs were randomized to one of the following two groups: group 1, standard ventilation; and group 2, standard ventilation + continuous iNO 160 ppm + methylene blue (MB) as intravenous bolus, whenever required, to maintain metHb <6%. Both groups were ventilated continuously for 6 hours, then the animals were weaned from sedation, mechanical ventilation and followed for 3 days. During treatment, and on the third post-operative day, physiologic assessments were performed to monitor lung function and other significative markers were assessed for potential pulmonary or systemic injury. No significant change in lung function, or inflammatory markers were observed during the study period. Both gas exchange function, lung tissue cytokine analysis and histology were similar between treated and control animals. During treatment, levels of metHb were maintained <6% by administration of MB, and NO2 remained <5 ppm. Additionally, considering extrapulmonary effects, no significant changes were observed in biochemistry markers. Our findings showed that high-dose iNO delivered continuously over 6 hours with adjuvant MB is clinically feasible and safe. These findings support the development of investigations of continuous high-dose iNO treatment of respiratory tract infections, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hemodynamics , Hemoglobin A/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Methemoglobin/analysis , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrites/analysis , Swine
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463704

ABSTRACT

The delivery of a dexamethasone formulation directly into the lung appears as an appropriate strategy to strengthen the systemic administration, reducing the dosage in the treatment of lung severe inflammations. For this purpose, a hyaluronic acid-dexamethasone formulation was developed, affording an inhalable reconstituted nanosuspension suitable to be aerosolized. The physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the formulation were tested: size, stability, loading of the spray-dried dry powder, reconstitution capability upon redispersion in aqueous media. Detailed structural insights on nanoparticles after reconstitution were obtained by light and X-ray scattering techniques. (1) The size of the nanoparticles, around 200 nm, is in the proper range for a possible engulfment by macrophages. (2) Their structure is of the core-shell type, hosting dexamethasone nanocrystals inside and carrying hyaluronic acid chains on the surface. This specific structure allows for nanosuspension stability and provides nanoparticles with muco-inert properties. (3) The nanosuspension can be efficiently aerosolized, allowing for a high drug fraction potentially reaching the deep lung. Thus, this formulation represents a promising tool for the lung administration via nebulization directly in the pipe of ventilators, to be used as such or as adjunct therapy for severe lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/chemistry , Hyaluronic Acid/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
17.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
19.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 200, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the airway epithelium. Asthma affects over 300 million people world-wide, many of whom may encounter SARS-CoV-2. Epidemiologic data suggests that asthmatics who get infected may be at increased risk of more severe disease. Our objective was to assess whether maintenance inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a major treatment for asthma, is associated with airway ACE2 expression in asthmatics. METHODS: Large airway epithelium (LAE) of asthmatics treated with maintenance ICS (ICS+), asthmatics not treated with ICS (ICS-), and healthy controls (controls) was analyzed for expression of ACE2 and other coronavirus infection-related genes using microarrays. RESULTS: As a group, there was no difference in LAE ACE2 expression in all asthmatics vs controls. In contrast, subgroup analysis demonstrated that LAE ACE2 expression was higher in asthmatics ICS+ compared to ICS‾ and ACE2 expression was higher in male ICS+ compared to female ICS+ and ICS‾ of either sex. ACE2 expression did not correlate with serum IgE, absolute eosinophil level, or change in FEV1 in response to bronchodilators in either ICS- or ICS+. CONCLUSION: Airway ACE2 expression is increased in asthmatics on long-term treatment with ICS, an observation that should be taken into consideration when assessing the use of inhaled corticosteroids during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Asthma/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/enzymology , Asthma/genetics , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Up-Regulation , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
20.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121122, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433361

ABSTRACT

Herein, we demonstrated the development and characterization of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of edoxaban (EDX); and investigated the in-vitro anticoagulation effect for the management of pulmonary or cerebral coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 infection. The formulations were prepared by mixing the inhalable micronized drug with a large carrier lactose and dispersibility enhancers, leucine, and magnesium stearate. The drug-excipient interaction was studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. The drug and excipients showed no physical inter particulate interaction. The in-vitro drug aerosolization from the developed formulation was determined by a Twin Stage Impinger (TSI) at a flow rate of 60 ± 5 L /min. The amount of drug deposition was quantified by an established HPLC-UV method. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of EDX API from drug alone formulation was 7%, whereas the formulations with excipients increased dramatically to almost 7-folds up to 47%. The developed DPI formulation of EDX showed a promising in-vitro anticoagulation effect at a very low concentration. This novel DPI formulation of EDX could be a potential and effective inhalation therapy for managing pulmonary venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with COVID-19 infection. Further studies are warranted to investigate the toxicity and clinical application of the inhaled EDX DPI formulation.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Dry Powder Inhalers , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Particle Size , Powders
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...