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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286870, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorrect use of inhalers is a problem associated with poor patient outcomes. Despite improvement in the technique after verbal educations, this deteriorates over-time requiring re-enforcement through different educative strategies. This study aimed to assess the impact of a novel video-based teach-to-goal (TTG) educational intervention on: mastery of inhaler technique, disease control, medication adherence and disease-related quality of life (QoL) over-time among asthma and COPD patients. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT05664347. After baseline assessment participants received either a verbal (control group) or a video-based (intervention group) TTG strategy. After 3-month the intervention was assessed for impact on the intended outcomes. Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists, disease control using the Asthma control test and COPD assessment test respectively for asthma and COPD patients while adherence using the Morisky Green Levine scale. For QoL, the mini asthma quality of life questionnaire and the St. George respiratory questionnaire were used for asthmatic and COPD patients, respectively. Differences in outcomes between intervention-control groups were analyzed using either Chi-Square (X2)/Fisher Exact or Mann Whitney test. The impact of intervention on outcomes over-time was examined using either McNemar or Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: At baseline, intervention (n = 51) and control (n = 52) groups had comparable demographic/clinical characteristics. At follow-up, inhaler technique improved among intervention group compared to control group (93.4% vs 67%) and to baseline (93.4% to 49.5%), (P<0.05). Similarly, medication adherence ameliorated among the intervention group in comparison to control group (88.2% to 61.5%) and to baseline (88.2% to 66.7%), (P<0.05). In regards to disease control, results showed an amelioration among the intervention group compared to baseline (35.3% to 54.9%) (P<0.05). QoL scores improved significantly among asthma patients (intervention group) at follow-up vs baseline. Better scores were also observed for COPD patients compared to controls, (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Video-based (TTG) was effective in enhancing inhaler technique over time as well as improving disease control, medication adherence, and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05664347. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05664347.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Goals , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
2.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
3.
Ter Arkh ; 95(3): 203-209, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238556

ABSTRACT

AIM: Assess the functional state of trespiratory system and effectiveness of therapeutic tactics for broncho-obstructive syndrome (BOS) in patients in the post-COVID period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A two-center cohort prospective study included 10 456 and 89 patients, respectively. A comprehensive assessment of the respiratory system included clinical, laboratory and functional data, spirometry, body plethysmography, and a study of diffusive capacity of the lungs (DLCO). Therapy consisted of budesonide suspension or fixed combination beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol (EMD BDP/FORM). RESULTS: The frequency of BOS in the cohort was 72% (7497 patients). In 13% (n=974) of cases, bronchial asthma was diagnosed for the first time, in 4.4% (n=328) - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Risk factors for the development and decrease in DLCO in the post-COVID period were identified. In the group of complex instrumental examination of lung function, the absence of violations of spirometric data and indicators determined by body plethysmography was determined. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for BOS in post-COVID period are atopy, a history of frequent acute respiratory infections, smoking, blood eosinophilia, moderate and severe forms of COVID-19. The advantage of a fixed combination of EMD BDP/FORM in MART mode compared with nebulized suspension budesonide + solution of salbutamol in treatment of BOS was shown. Risk factors for DLCO disorders were established: severe COVID-19, hospitalization in the intensive care unit, the need for additional oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Beclomethasone/adverse effects , Formoterol Fumarate , Budesonide/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation
4.
Int J Pharm ; 640: 122983, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320484

ABSTRACT

While cocrystal engineering is an emerging formulation strategy to overcome drug delivery challenges, its therapeutic potential in non-oral applications remains not thoroughly explored. We herein report for the first time the successful synthesis of a cocrystal for remdesivir (RDV), an antiviral drug with broad-spectrum activities against RNA viruses. The RDV cocrystal was prepared with salicylic acid (SA) via combined liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) and thermal annealing. Formation of RDV-SA was found to be a thermally activated process, where annealing at high temperature after grinding was a prerequisite to facilitate the cocrystal growth from an amorphous intermediate, rendering it elusive under ambient preparing conditions. Through powder X-ray analysis with Rietveld refinement, the three-dimensional molecular structure of RDV-SA was resolved. The thermally annealed RDV-SA produced by LAG crystalized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21 with a unit cell volume of 1826.53(17) Å3, accommodating one pair of RDV and SA molecules in the asymmetric unit. The cocrystal formation was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. RDV-SA was further developed as inhaled dry powders by spray drying for potential COVID-19 therapy. The optimized RDV-SA dry powders exhibited a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.33 ± 0.2 µm and fine particle fraction of 41.39 ± 4.25 %, indicating the suitability for pulmonary delivery. Compared with the raw RDV, RDV-SA displayed a 15.43-fold higher fraction of release in simulated lung fluid at 120 min (p = 0.0003). RDV-SA was safe in A549 cells without any in vitro cytotoxicity observed in the RDV concentration from 0.05 to 10 µM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung , Particle Size , Powders/chemistry , Dry Powder Inhalers
5.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 36(3): 101-111, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314611

ABSTRACT

Background: Aerosol therapies with vented facemasks are considered a risk for nosocomial transmission of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The transmission risk can be decreased by minimizing aerosol leakage and filtering the exhaled air. Objective: In this study, we determined which closed facemask designs show the least leakage. Methods: Smoke leakage was quantified during in- and exhalation in a closed system with expiration filter for three infant, six child, and six adult facemasks (three times each mask), using age-appropriate anatomical face models and breathing patterns. To assess leakage, smoke release was recorded and cumulative average pixel intensity (cAPI) was calculated. Results: In the adult group, aircushion edges resulted in less leakage than soft edges (cAPI: 407 ± 250 vs. 774 ± 152) (p = 0.004). The Intersurgical® Economy 5 mask (cAPI: 146 ± 87) also released less smoke than the Intersurgical® Clearlite 5 (cAPI: 748 ± 68) mask with the same size, but different geometry and edge type (p-value <0.05). Moreover, mask size had an effect, as there was a difference between Intersurgical® Economy 4 (cAPI: 708 ± 346) and 5, which have the same geometry but a different size (p-value <0.05). Finally, repositioning masks increased the standard deviations. Mask leakage was not dependent on breathing patterns within the child group. Conclusions: Mask leakage can be minimized by using a closed system with a well-fitting mask that is appropriately positioned. To decrease leakage, and therewith minimize potential viral transmission, selecting a well-fitting mask with an aircushion edge is to be recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Infant , Humans , Masks , Administration, Inhalation , Pandemics , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Smoke
6.
Nitric Oxide ; 136-137: 1-7, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impairment of ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) matching is a common mechanism leading to hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While ventilation has been thoroughly investigated, little progress has been made to monitor pulmonary perfusion at the bedside and treat impaired blood distribution. The study aimed to assess real-time changes in regional pulmonary perfusion in response to a therapeutic intervention. METHODS: Single-center prospective study that enrolled adult patients with ARDS caused by SARS-Cov-2 who were sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The distribution of pulmonary perfusion was assessed through electrical impedance tomography (EIT) after the injection of a 10-ml bolus of hypertonic saline. The therapeutic intervention consisted in the administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), as rescue therapy for refractory hypoxemia. Each patient underwent two 15-min steps at 0 and 20 ppm iNO, respectively. At each step, respiratory, gas exchange, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and V/Q distribution was measured, with unchanged ventilatory settings. RESULTS: Ten 65 [56-75] years old patients with moderate (40%) and severe (60%) ARDS were studied 10 [4-20] days after intubation. Gas exchange improved at 20 ppm iNO (PaO2/FiO2 from 86 ± 16 to 110 ± 30 mmHg, p = 0.001; venous admixture from 51 ± 8 to 45 ± 7%, p = 0.0045; dead space from 29 ± 8 to 25 ± 6%, p = 0.008). The respiratory system's elastic properties and ventilation distribution were unaltered by iNO. Hemodynamics did not change after gas initiation (cardiac output 7.6 ± 1.9 vs. 7.7 ± 1.9 L/min, p = 0.66). The EIT pixel perfusion maps showed a variety of patterns of changes in pulmonary blood flow, whose increase positively correlated with PaO2/FiO2 increase (R2 = 0.50, p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of lung perfusion is feasible at the bedside and blood distribution can be modulated with effects that are visualized in vivo. These findings might lay the foundations for testing new therapies aimed at optimizing the regional perfusion in the lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Circulation , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Nitric Oxide , Hypoxia , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32420, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309751

ABSTRACT

Asthmatics seem less prone to adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and some data shows that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are protective. We gathered data on anecdotal ICS and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, given there is literature supporting ICS may reduce risk of severe infection. In addition, we fill gaps in current literature evaluating Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) as a risk assessment tool for COVID-19. This was a single-center, retrospective study designed and conducted to identify factors associated intubation and inpatient mortality. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Intubation was associated with male gender (OR, 2.815; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.348-5.881; P = .006) and increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.053; 95% CI, 1.009-1.099; P = .019). Asthma was associated with lower odds for intubation (OR, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.108-0.74; P = .01). 80% of patients taking pre-hospital ICS were not intubated (n = 8). In-patient mortality was associated with male gender (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.167-5.1; P = .018), older age (OR, 1.096; 95% CI, 1.052-1.142; P = <.001), and increasing BMI (OR, 1.079; 95% CI, 1.033-1.127; P = .001). Asthma was associated with lower in-patient mortality (OR, 0.221; 95% CI, 0.057-0.854; P = .029). CCI did not correlate with intubation (OR, 1.262; 95% CI, 0.923-1.724; P = .145) or inpatient mortality (OR, 0.896; 95% CI, 0.665-1.206; P = .468). Asthmatics hospitalized for COVID-19 had less adverse outcomes, and most patients taking pre-hospital ICS were not intubated. CCI score was not associated with intubation or inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation
8.
J Control Release ; 358: 128-141, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303394

ABSTRACT

Neutralising monoclonal antibody (mAb) is an important weapon in our arsenal for combating respiratory viral infections. However, the effectiveness of neutralising mAb has been impeded by the rapid emergence of mutant variants. Early administration of broad-spectrum mAb with improved delivery efficiency can potentially enhance efficacy and patient outcomes. WKS13 is a humanised mAb which was previously demonstrated to exhibit broad-spectrum activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. In this study, a dual targeting formulation strategy was designed to deliver WKS13 to both the nasal cavity and lower airways, the two critical sites of infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Dry powders of WKS13 were first prepared by spray drying, with cyclodextrin used as stabiliser excipient. Two-fluid nozzle (TFN) was used to produce particles below 5 µm for lung deposition (C-TFN formulation) and ultrasonic nozzle (USN) was used to produce particles above 10 µm for nasal deposition (C-USN formulation). Gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography studies showed that the structural integrity of mAb was successfully preserved with no sign of aggregation after spray drying. To achieve dual targeting property, C-TFN and C-USN were mixed at various ratios. The aerosolisation property of the mixed formulations dispersed from a nasal powder device was examined using a Next Generation Impactor (NGI) coupled with a glass expansion chamber. When the ratio of C-TFN in the mixed formulation increased, the fraction of particles deposited in the lung increased proportionally while the fraction of particles deposited in the nasal cavity decreased correspondingly. A customisable aerosol deposition profile could therefore be achieved by manipulating the mixing ratio between C-TFN and C-USN. Dual administration of C-TFN and C-USN powders to the lung and nasal cavity of hamsters, respectively, was effective in offering prophylactic protection against SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. Viral loads in both the lung tissues and nasal wash were significantly reduced, and the efficacy was comparable to systemic administration of unformulated WKS13. Overall, dual targeting powder formulation of neutralising mAb is a promising approach for prophylaxis of respiratory viral infections. The ease and non-invasive administration of dual targeting nasal powder may facilitate the widespread distribution of neutralising mAb during the early stage of unpredictable outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Humans , Powders , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Administration, Inhalation , Particle Size , Dry Powder Inhalers
9.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 36(3): 112-126, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302395

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread worldwide, the most common cause of ARDS has been the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Both the COVID-19-associated ARDS and the ARDS related to other causes-also defined as classical ARDS-are burdened by high mortality and morbidity. For these reasons, effective therapeutic interventions are urgently needed. Among them, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been studied in patients with ARDS since 1993 and it is currently under investigation. In this review, we aim at describing the biological and pharmacological rationale of iNO treatment in ARDS by elucidating similarities and differences between classical and COVID-19 ARDS. Thereafter, we present the available evidence on the use of iNO in clinical practice in both types of respiratory failure. Overall, iNO seems a promising agent as it could improve the ventilation/perfusion mismatch, gas exchange impairment, and right ventricular failure, which are reported in ARDS. In addition, iNO may act as a viricidal agent and prevent lung hyperinflammation and thrombosis of the pulmonary vasculature in the specific setting of COVID-19 ARDS. However, the current evidence on the effects of iNO on outcomes is limited and clinical studies are yet to demonstrate any survival benefit by administering iNO in ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Administration, Inhalation , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
10.
Ther Deliv ; 14(1): 5-9, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277259

ABSTRACT

Plain language summary The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed the healthcare systems worldwide. This calls for development of medicines that work effectively to decrease the death toll and severity of the infection. These medicines should be easy to administer to maintain patient compliance. Inhalation therapy is a needleless and painless route of administration that leads to fewer side effects. Various types of carriers are used for delivery of drugs via inhalation route. Vaccines can also be delivered via inhalation. Various researchers have studied vaccines via inhalation route, which have the potential to be translated into developing inhalable vaccines for COVID-19.


The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed the healthcare systems worldwide. This calls for development of medicines that work effectively to decrease the death toll and severity of the infection. These medicines should be easy to administer to maintain patient compliance. Inhalation therapy is a needleless and painless route of administration that leads to fewer side effects. Various types of carriers are used for delivery of drugs via inhalation route. Vaccines can also be delivered via inhalation. Various researchers have studied vaccines via inhalation route, which have the potential to be translated into developing inhalable vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Drug Delivery Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Administration, Inhalation
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275180

ABSTRACT

The health effects of particles are directly related to their deposition patterns (deposition site and amount) in human airways. However, estimating the particle trajectory in a large-scale human lung airway model is still a challenge. In this work, a truncated single-path, large-scale human airway model (G3-G10) with a stochastically coupled boundary method were employed to investigate the particle trajectory and the roles of their deposition mechanisms. The deposition patterns of particles with diameters (dp) of 1-10 µm are investigated under various inlet Reynolds numbers (Re = 100-2000). Inertial impaction, gravitational sedimentation, and combined mechanism were considered. With the increasing airway generations, the deposition of smaller particles (dp < 4 µm) increased due to gravitational sedimentation, while that of larger particles decreased due to inertial impaction. The obtained formulas of Stokes number and Re can predict the deposition efficiency due to the combined mechanism in the present model, and the prediction can be used to assess the dose-effect of atmospheric aerosols on the human body. Diseases in deeper generations are mainly attributed to the deposition of smaller particles under lower inhalation rates, while diseases at the proximal generations mainly result from the deposition of larger particles under higher inhalation rates.


Subject(s)
Lung , Models, Biological , Humans , Particle Size , Computer Simulation , Aerosols , Administration, Inhalation
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 24(4): 98, 2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254236

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel respiratory infections (e.g., COVID-19) and expeditious development of nanoparticle-based COVID-19 vaccines have recently reignited considerable interest in designing inhalable nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems as next-generation respiratory therapeutics. Among various available devices in aerosol delivery, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are preferable for delivery of nanoparticles due to their simplicity of use, high portability, and superior long-term stability. Despite research efforts devoted to developing inhaled nanoparticle-based DPI formulations, no such formulations have been approved to date, implying a research gap between bench and bedside. This review aims to address this gap by highlighting important yet often overlooked issues during pre-clinical development. We start with an overview and update on formulation and particle engineering strategies for fabricating inhalable nanoparticle-based dry powder formulations. An important but neglected aspect in in vitro characterization methodologies for linking the powder performance with their bio-fate is then discussed. Finally, the major challenges and strategies in their clinical translation are highlighted. We anticipate that focused research onto the existing knowledge gaps presented in this review would accelerate clinical applications of inhalable nanoparticle-based dry powders from a far-fetched fantasy to a reality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Powders , Administration, Inhalation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Translational Research, Biomedical , COVID-19 Vaccines , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Dry Powder Inhalers , Particle Size
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 151, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy, inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are inappropriately prescribed to provide relief in URTI symptoms. Extreme variation in ICS prescribing has been described at regional and sub-regional level. During 2020, extraordinary containment measures were implemented in attempt to halt Coronavirus, such as social distancing, lockdown, and the use of mask. Our objectives were to evaluate the indirect impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on prescribing patterns of ICSs in preschool children and to estimate the prescribing variability among pediatricians before and during the pandemic. METHODS: In this real-world study, we enrolled all children residing in the Lazio region (Italy), aged 5 years or less during the period 2017-2020. The main outcome measures were the annual ICS prescription prevalence, and the variability in ICS prescribing, for each study year. Variability was expressed as Median Odds Ratios (MORs). If the MOR is 1.00, there is no variation between clusters (e.g., pediatricians). If there is considerable between-cluster variation, the MOR will be large. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 210,996 children, cared by 738 pediatricians located in the 46 local health districts (LHDs). Before the pandemic, the percentage of children exposed to ICS was almost stable, ranging from 27.3 to 29.1%. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the ICS prescription prevalence dropped to 17.0% (p < 0.001). In each study year, a relevant (p < 0.001) variability was detected among both LHDs and pediatricians working in the same LHD. However, the variability among individual pediatricians was always higher. In 2020, the MOR among pediatricians was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71-1.83) whereas the MOR among LHDs was 1.29 (1.21-1.40). Furthermore, MORs remained stable over time, and no differences were detected in ICS prescription variability before and after pandemic outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: If on one hand the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic indirectly caused the reduction in ICS prescriptions, on the other the variability in ICS prescribing habits among both LHDs and pediatricians remained stable over the whole study time span (2017-2020), showing no differences between pre- pandemic and pandemic periods. The intra-regional drug prescribing variability underlines the lack of shared guidelines for appropriate ICS therapy in preschool children, and raises equity issues in access to optimal care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Child, Preschool , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation
14.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 29(3): 215-222, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283832

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three years after the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies have examined the association between asthma and COVID-related morbidity and mortality, with most showing that asthma does not increase risk. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) currently suggests that patients with severe asthma may, nonetheless, be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19-related morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to poor COVID-19 outcomes, our search yielded nine studies that quantified associations with severe asthma, seven that considered use of monoclonal antibodies (mAB), and 14 that considered inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use. mAb and ICS use have been used as measures of severe asthma in several studies. Severe asthma was significantly associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. The results for mAb and ICS were mixed. SUMMARY: An increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes in patients with severe asthma is possible. However, these studies remain sparse and suffer from several methodological limitations that hinder their interpretation. Additional evidence is needed to provide clear, cogent guidance for health agencies seeking to inform patients with asthma about potential risks due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Administration, Inhalation , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(3): e1010972, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273311

ABSTRACT

As evidenced by the worldwide pandemic, respiratory infectious diseases and their airborne transmission must be studied to safeguard public health. This study focuses on the emission and transport of speech-generated droplets, which can pose risk of infection depending on the loudness of the speech, its duration and the initial angle of exhalation. We have numerically investigated the transport of these droplets into the human respiratory tract by way of a natural breathing cycle in order to predict the infection probability of three strains of SARS-CoV-2 on a person who is listening at a one-meter distance. Numerical methods were used to set the boundary conditions of the speaking and breathing models and large eddy simulation (LES) was used for the unsteady simulation of approximately 10 breathing cycles. Four different mouth angles when speaking were contrasted to evaluate real conditions of human communication and the possibility of infection. Breathed virions were counted using two different approaches: the breathing zone of influence and direction deposition on the tissue. Our results show that infection probability drastically changes based on the mouth angle and the breathing zone of influence overpredicts the inhalation risk in all cases. We conclude that to portray real conditions, the probability of infection should be based on direct tissue deposition results to avoid overprediction and that several mouth angles must be considered in future analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Respiratory System , Administration, Inhalation , Respiration
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267981

ABSTRACT

The importance of wearing a facemask during a pandemic has been widely discussed, and a number of studies have been undertaken to provide evidence of a reduced infectious virus dose because of wearing facemasks. Here, one aspect that has received little attention is the fraction of breathing flow that is not filtered because it passes as leak flow between the mask and face. Its reduction would be beneficial in reducing the dose response. The results of the present study include the filter material pressure loss parameters, pressure distributions under masks, and the fraction of breathing flow leaked versus steady breathing flow in the range of 5 to 30 L min-1, for two commonly used facemasks mounted on mannequins, in the usual 'casual' way and in a 'tight' way by means of three different fitters placed over the mask to improve the seals. For the 'casual' mount, leaks were high: 83% to 99% for both masks at both exhalation and inhalation flows. For the 'tight' mount with different fitters, the masks showed different lower levels in the range of 18 to 66% of leakage, which, for exhalation, were nearly independent of flow rate, while for inhalation, were decreasing with increasing rates of respiration flows, probably because suction improved the sealing. In practice, masks are worn in a 'casual' mount, which would imply that nearly all contagious viruses found in aerosols small enough to follow air streams would be exhaled to and inhaled from the ambient air.


Subject(s)
Masks , Respiration , Aerosols , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(6): 1784-1797, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on children with chronic lung disease (CLD). OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence, risk factors for contracting COVID-19, and complications of COVID-19, in children with CLD. METHODS: This systematic review was based on articles published between January 1, 2020 and July 25, 2022. Children under 18 years old, with any CLD and infected with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Ten articles involving children with asthma and four involving children with cystic fibrosis (CF) were included in the analyses. The prevalence of COVID-19 in children with asthma varied between 0.14% and 19.1%. The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with reduced risk for COVID-19 (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.90). Uncontrolled asthma, younger age, AND moderate-severe asthma were not significant risk factors for contracting COVID-19. Children with asthma had an increased risk for hospitalization (RR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45) but were not more likely to require assisted ventilation (RR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.14-1.90). The risk of COVID-19 infection among children with CF was <1%. Posttransplant and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus (CFRDM) patients were at an increased risk for hospitalization and intensive care treatment. CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations were higher in children with asthma with COVID-19 infection. However, using ICS reduced the risk of COVID-19 infection. As for CF, postlung transplantation and CFRDM were risk factors for severe disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asthma/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
18.
J Pharm Sci ; 112(5): 1341-1344, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241643

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary delivery is the main route of administration for treatment of local lung diseases. Recently, the interest in delivery of proteins through the pulmonary route for treatment of lung diseases has significantly increased, especially after Covid-19 pandemic. The development of an inhalable protein combines the challenges of inhaled as well as biologic products since protein stability may be compromised during manufacture or delivery. For instance, spray drying is the most common technology for manufacture of inhalable biological particles, however, it imposes shear and thermal stresses which may cause protein unfolding and aggregation post drying. Therefore, protein aggregation should be evaluated for inhaled biologics as it could impact the safety and/or efficacy of the product. While there is extensive knowledge and regulatory guidance on acceptable limits of particles, which inherently include insoluble protein aggregates, in injectable proteins, there is no comparable knowledge for inhaled ones. Moreover, the poor correlation between in vitro setup for analytical testing and the in vivo lung environment limits the predictability of protein aggregation post inhalation. Thus, the purpose of this article is to highlight the major challenges facing the development of inhaled proteins compared to parenteral ones, and to share future thoughts to resolve them.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Humans , Protein Aggregates , Pandemics , Administration, Inhalation , Powders , Particle Size , Dry Powder Inhalers , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
19.
Nitric Oxide ; 133: 18-21, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232939

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 patients frequently experience with happy hypoxia. Sometimes, the level of nitric oxide (NO) in COVID-19 patients was found to be greater than in non-COVID-19 hypoxemics and most of the cases lower. Induced or inhaled NO has a long history of usage as a therapy for hypoxemia. Excessive production of ROS and oxidative stress lower the NO level and stimulates mitochondrial malfunction is the primary cause of hypoxia-mediated mortality in COVID-19. Higher level of NO in mitochondria also the cause of dysfunction, because, excess NO can also diffuse quickly into mitochondria or through mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). A precise dose of NO may increase oxygenation while also acting as an effective inhibitor of cytokine storm. NOS inhibitors may be used in conjunction with iNO therapy to compensate for the patient's optimal NO level. NO play a key role in COVID-19 happy hypoxia and a crucial component in the COVID-19 pathogenesis that demands a reliable and easily accessible biomarker to monitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitric Oxide , Humans , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Mitochondria , Administration, Inhalation
20.
J Microencapsul ; 40(4): 217-232, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230983

ABSTRACT

Azithromycin is an antibiotic proposed as a treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study is to develop dry powder formulations of azithromycin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocomposite microparticles for pulmonary delivery to improve the low bioavailability of azithromycin. Double emulsion method was used to produce nanoparticles, which were then spray dried to form nanocomposite microparticles. Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were analysed, and formulations were characterised by particle size, zeta potential, morphology, crystallinity and in-vitro aerosol dispersion performance. The addition of chitosan changed the neutrally-charged azithromycin only formulation to positively-charged nanoparticles. However, the addition of chitosan also increased the particle size of the formulations. It was observed in the NGI® data that there was an improvement in dispersibility of the chitosan-related formulations. It was demonstrated in this study that all dry powder formulations were able to deliver azithromycin to the deep lung regions, which suggested the potential of using azithromycin via pulmonary drug delivery as an effective method to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Humans , Azithromycin , Powders , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Particle Size
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