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2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 979641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141709

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective ability of a chimpanzee replication-deficient adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine (BV-AdCoV-1) expressing a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in golden Syrian hamsters. Intranasal administration of BV-AdCoV-1 elicited strong humoral and cellular immunity in the animals. Furthermore, vaccination prevented weight loss, reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus titers in the lungs as well as lung pathology and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 live challenge. In addition, there was no vaccine-induced enhanced disease nor immunopathological exacerbation in BV-AdCoV-1-vaccinated animals. Furthermore, the vaccine induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral strain and the B.1.617.2, Omicron(BA.1), Omicron(BA.2.75) and Omicron(BA.4/5) variants of concern. These results demonstrate that BV-AdCoV-1 is potentially a promising candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to curtail pandemic spread in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , Administration, Intranasal , Pan troglodytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6792, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117248

ABSTRACT

Few live attenuated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are in pre-clinical or clinical development. We seek to attenuate SARS-CoV-2 (isolate WA1/2020) by removing the polybasic insert within the spike protein and the open reading frames (ORFs) 6-8, and by introducing mutations that abolish non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1)-mediated toxicity. The derived virus (WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A) replicates to 100- to 1000-fold-lower titers than the ancestral virus and induces little lung pathology in both K18-human ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic mice and Syrian hamsters. Immunofluorescence and transcriptomic analyses of infected hamsters confirm that three-pronged genetic modifications attenuate the proinflammatory pathways more than the removal of the polybasic cleavage site alone. Finally, intranasal administration of just 100 PFU of the WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A elicits robust antibody responses in Syrian hamsters and protects against SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and pneumonia. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that live but sufficiently attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may be attainable by rational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mesocricetus , Antibody Formation , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18694, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a diverse host species range with variable outcomes, enabling differential host susceptibility studies to assess suitability for pre-clinical countermeasure and pathogenesis studies. Baseline virological, molecular and pathological outcomes were determined among multiple species-one Old World non-human primate (NHP) species (cynomolgus macaques), two New World NHP species (red-bellied tamarins; common marmosets) and Syrian hamsters-following single-dose, atraumatic intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2/Victoria-01. After serial sacrifice 2, 10 and 28-days post-infection (dpi), hamsters and cynomolgus macaques displayed differential virus biodistribution across respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Uniquely, New World tamarins, unlike marmosets, exhibited high levels of acute upper airway infection, infectious virus recovery associated with mild lung pathology representing a host previously unrecognized as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Across all species, lung pathology was identified post-clearance of virus shedding (antigen/RNA), with an association of virus particles within replication organelles in lung sections analysed by electron microscopy. Disrupted cell ultrastructure and lung architecture, including abnormal morphology of mitochondria 10-28 dpi, represented on-going pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 in predominantly asymptomatic hosts. Infection kinetics and host pathology comparators using standardized methodologies enables model selection to bridge differential outcomes within upper and lower respiratory tracts and elucidate longer-term consequences of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Tissue Distribution , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Macaca fascicularis
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272594, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098731

ABSTRACT

With the rapid progress made in the development of vaccines to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, almost >90% of vaccine candidates under development and a 100% of the licensed vaccines are delivered intramuscularly (IM). While these vaccines are highly efficacious against COVID-19 disease, their efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection of upper respiratory tract and transmission is at best temporary. Development of safe and efficacious vaccines that are able to induce robust mucosal and systemic immune responses are needed to control new variants. In this study, we have used our nanoemulsion adjuvant (NE01) to intranasally (IN) deliver stabilized spike protein (S-2P) to induce immunogenicity in mouse and hamster models. Data presented demonstrate the induction of robust immunity in mice resulting in 100% seroconversion and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in a hamster challenge model. There was a significant induction of mucosal immune responses as demonstrated by IgA- and IgG-producing memory B cells in the lungs of animals that received intranasal immunizations compared to an alum adjuvanted intramuscular vaccine. The efficacy of the S-2P/NE01 vaccine was also demonstrated in an intranasal hamster challenge model with SARS-CoV-2 and conferred significant protection against weight loss, lung pathology, and viral clearance from both upper and lower respiratory tract. Our findings demonstrate that intranasal NE01-adjuvanted vaccine promotes protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease through activation of three arms of immune system: humoral, cellular, and mucosal, suggesting that an intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may play a role in addressing a unique public health problem and unmet medical need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal , Mice , Humans , Animals , Cricetinae , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Science ; 378(6622): eabo2523, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088384

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has highlighted the need for vaccines that not only prevent disease but also prevent transmission. Parenteral vaccines induce robust systemic immunity but poor immunity at the respiratory mucosa. We developed a vaccine strategy that we call "prime and spike," which leverages existing immunity generated by primary vaccination (prime) to elicit mucosal immune memory within the respiratory tract by using unadjuvanted intranasal spike boosters (spike). We show that prime and spike induces robust resident memory B and T cell responses, induces immunoglobulin A at the respiratory mucosa, boosts systemic immunity, and completely protects mice with partial immunity from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using divergent spike proteins, prime and spike enables the induction of cross-reactive immunity against sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , Memory T Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology
7.
Med (N Y) ; 3(10): 705-721.e11, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The continual emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern, in particular the newly emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant and its BA.X lineages, has rendered ineffective a number of previously FDA emergency use authorized SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody therapies. Furthermore, those approved antibodies with neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1 are reportedly ineffective against the subset of Omicron subvariants that contain a R346K substitution, BA.1.1, and the more recently emergent BA.2, demonstrating the continued need for discovery and characterization of candidate therapeutic antibodies with the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity required to treat newly diagnosed COVID-19 linked to recently emerged variants of concern. METHODS: Following a campaign of antibody discovery based on the vaccination of Harbor H2L2 mice with defined SARS-CoV-2 spike domains, we have characterized the activity of a large collection of spike-binding antibodies and identified a lead neutralizing human IgG1 LALA antibody, STI-9167. FINDINGS: STI-9167 has potent, broad-spectrum neutralizing activity against the current SARS-COV-2 variants of concern and retained activity against each of the tested Omicron subvariants in both pseudotype and live virus neutralization assays. Furthermore, STI-9167 nAb administered intranasally or intravenously provided protection against weight loss and reduced virus lung titers to levels below the limit of quantitation in Omicron-infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: With this established activity profile, a cGMP cell line has been developed and used to produce cGMP drug product intended for intravenous or intranasal use in human clinical trials. FUNDING: Funded by CRIPT (no. 75N93021R00014), DARPA (HR0011-19-2-0020), and NCI Seronet (U54CA260560).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(11): 1279-1289, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062197

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants urge the development of effective mucosal vaccines to provide broad-spectrum protection against the initial infection and thereby curb the transmission potential. Here, we designed a chimeric triple-RBD immunogen, 3Ro-NC, harboring one Delta RBD and two Omicron RBDs within a novel protein scaffold. 3Ro-NC elicits potent and broad RBD-specific neutralizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Notably, intranasal immunization with 3Ro-NC plus the mucosal adjuvant KFD (3Ro-NC + KFDi.n) elicits coordinated mucosal IgA and higher neutralizing antibody specificity (closer antigenic distance) against the Omicron variant. In Omicron-challenged human ACE2 transgenic mice, 3Ro-NC + KFDi.n immunization significantly reduces the tissue pathology in the lung and lowers the viral RNA copy numbers in both the lung (85.7-fold) and the nasal turbinate (13.6-fold). Nasal virologic control is highly correlated with RBD-specific secretory IgA antibodies. Our data show that 3Ro-NC plus KFD is a promising mucosal vaccine candidate for protection against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, pathology and transmission potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 995235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043451

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines are administered by the intramuscular route, but this vaccine administration failed to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection in the upper respiratory tract, mainly due to the absence of virus-specific mucosal immune responses. It is hypothesized that intranasal (IN) vaccination could induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses that blocked SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 progression. Here, we evaluated in mice IN administration of three modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine candidates expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, either the full-length native S or a prefusion-stabilized [S(3P)] protein; SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses and efficacy were determined after a single IN vaccine application. Results showed that in C57BL/6 mice, MVA-based vaccine candidates elicited S-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavages, respectively, and neutralizing antibodies against parental and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC), with MVA-S(3P) being the most immunogenic vaccine candidate. IN vaccine administration also induced polyfunctional S-specific Th1-skewed CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell immune responses locally (in lungs and bronchoalveolar lymph nodes) or systemically (in spleen). Remarkably, a single IN vaccine dose protected susceptible K18-hACE2 transgenic mice from morbidity and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, with MVA-S(3P) being the most effective candidate. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 viruses were undetectable in lungs and nasal washes, correlating with high titers of S-specific IgGs and neutralizing antibodies against parental SARS-CoV-2 and several VoC. Moreover, low histopathological lung lesions and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lungs and nasal washes were detected in vaccinated animals. These results demonstrated that a single IN inoculation of our MVA-based vaccine candidates induced potent immune responses, either locally or systemically, and protected animal models from COVID-19. These results also identified an effective vaccine administration route to induce mucosal immunity that should prevent SARS-CoV-2 host-to-host transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccinia virus/genetics
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 957107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022741

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is primarily an airborne infection of the upper respiratory tract, which on reaching the lungs causes the severe acute respiratory disease, COVID-19. Its first contact with the immune system, likely through the nasal passages and Waldeyer's ring of tonsils and adenoids, induces mucosal immune responses revealed by the production of secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies in saliva, nasal fluid, tears, and other secretions within 4 days of infection. Evidence is accumulating that these responses might limit the virus to the upper respiratory tract resulting in asymptomatic infection or only mild disease. The injectable systemic vaccines that have been successfully developed to prevent serious disease and its consequences do not induce antibodies in mucosal secretions of naïve subjects, but they may recall SIgA antibody responses in secretions of previously infected subjects, thereby helping to explain enhanced resistance to repeated (breakthrough) infection. While many intranasally administered COVID vaccines have been found to induce potentially protective immune responses in experimental animals such as mice, few have demonstrated similar success in humans. Intranasal vaccines should have advantage over injectable vaccines in inducing SIgA antibodies in upper respiratory and oral secretions that would not only prevent initial acquisition of the virus, but also suppress community spread via aerosols and droplets generated from these secretions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Vaccine ; 40(41): 5892-5903, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004588

ABSTRACT

To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a need to develop vaccines to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. One candidate is a nasal vaccine capable of inducing secretory IgA antibodies in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, the initial site of infection. However, regarding the development of COVID-19 vaccines, there is concern about the potential risk of inducing lung eosinophilic immunopathology as a vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease as a result of the T helper 2 (Th2)-dominant adaptive immune response. In this study, we investigated the protective effect against virus infection induced by intranasal vaccination of recombinant trimeric spike protein derived from SARS-CoV-2 adjuvanted with CpG oligonucleotides, ODN2006, in mouse model. The intranasal vaccine combined with ODN2006 successfully induced not only systemic spike-specific IgG antibodies, but also secretory IgA antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Secretory IgA antibodies showed high protective ability against SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants) compared to IgG antibodies in the serum. The nasal vaccine of this formulation induced a high number of IFN-γ-secreting cells in the draining cervical lymph nodes and a lower spike-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio compared to that of subcutaneous vaccination with alum as a typical Th2 adjuvant. These features are consistent with the induction of the Th1 adaptive immune response. In addition, mice intranasally vaccinated with ODN2006 showed less lung eosinophilic immunopathology after viral challenge than mice subcutaneously vaccinated with alum adjuvant. Our findings indicate that intranasal vaccine adjuvanted with ODN2006 could be a candidate that can prevent the infection of antigenically different variant viruses, reducing the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Alum Compounds , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Lung , Mice , Oligonucleotides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3725, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004778

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses and protective efficacy following the intranasal administration of inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) loaded in polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles coupled with heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LTB) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA). Here, 42- to 3-week-old PRRSV-free pigs were randomly allocated into 7 groups of 6 pigs each. Two groups represented the negative (nonvaccinated pigs/nonchallenged pigs, NoVacNoChal) and challenge (nonvaccinated/challenged, NoVacChal) controls. The pigs in the other 5 groups, namely, PLA nanoparticles/challenged (blank NPs), LTB-DDA coupled with PLA nanoparticles/challenged (adjuvant-blank NPs), PLA nanoparticles-encapsulating inactivated PRRSV/challenged (KNPs), LTB-DDA coupled with PLA nanoparticles loaded with inactivated PRRSV/challenged pigs (adjuvant-KNPs) and inactivated PRRSV/challenged pigs (inactivated PRRSV), were intranasally vaccinated with previously described vaccines at 0, 7 and 14 days post-vaccination (DPV). Serum and nasal swab samples were collected weekly and assayed by ELISA to detect the presence of IgG and IgA, respectively. Viral neutralizing titer (VNT) in sera, IFN-γ-producing cells and IL-10 secretion in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also measured. The pigs were intranasally challenged with PRRSV-2 at 28 DPV and necropsied at 35 DPV, and then macro- and microscopic lung lesions were evaluated. The results demonstrated that following vaccination, adjuvant-KNP-vaccinated pigs had significantly higher levels of IFN-γ-producing cells, VNT and IgG in sera, and IgA in nasal swab samples and significantly lower IL-10 levels than the other vaccinated groups. Following challenge, the adjuvant-KNP-vaccinated pigs had significantly lower PRRSV RNA and macro- and microscopic lung lesions than the other vaccinated groups. In conclusion, the results of the study demonstrated that adjuvant-KNPs are effective in eliciting immune responses against PRRSV and protecting against PRRSV infections over KNPs and inactivated PRRSV and can be used as an adjuvant for intranasal PRRSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Enterotoxins , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-10 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Polyesters , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Swine
15.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2446-2458, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets and aerosols. Consequently, people are required to wear masks and maintain a social distance to avoid spreading of the virus. Despite the success of the commercially available vaccines, the virus is still uncontained globally. Given the tropism of SARS-CoV-2, a mucosal immune reaction would help to reduce viral shedding and transmission locally. Only seven out of hundreds of ongoing clinical trials are testing the intranasal delivery of a vaccine against COVID-19. METHODS: In the current study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a traditional vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying RBD of SARS-CoV-2 for intranasal administration in a murine model. The candidate vaccine platform, CuMVTT -RBD, has been optimized to incorporate a universal T helper cell epitope derived from tetanus-toxin and is self-adjuvanted with TLR7/8 ligands. RESULTS: CuMVTT -RBD vaccine elicited a strong systemic RBD- and spike-IgG and IgA antibodies of high avidity. Local immune response was assessed, and our results demonstrate a strong mucosal antibody and plasma cell production in lung tissue. Furthermore, the induced systemic antibodies could efficiently recognize and neutralize different variants of concern (VOCs). CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that intranasal administration of CuMVTT -RBD induces a protective systemic and local specific antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
16.
Virus Res ; 319: 198857, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984221

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic globally, the ongoing threat of new challenges of mucosal infections was once again reminded human beings. Hence, access to the next-generation vaccine to elicit mucosal immunity is required to reduce virus shedding. SARS-CoV-2 retains a unique polybasic cleavage motif in its spike protein, recognized by the host furin protease. The proteolytic furin cleavage site at the junction of S1/S2 glycoprotein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we examined the protective immunity of a double-deleted PRRA/GTNGTKR motifs cold-adapted live-attenuated candidate vaccines as a called "KaraVac." using a hamster animal model of infected attenuated SARS-CoV-2. The KaraVac vaccinated hamsters were challenged against the wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. No apparent bodyweight loss and histopathological lesions were observed in the hamsters. The establishment of sterilizing immunity was induced via stimulating a robust neutralizing antibody (NAb) response in a hamster model. Consequently, deletions in the spike sequence and inoculation into hamsters provide resistance to the subsequent challenge with WT SARS-CoV-2. We have suggested that deletion of the furin cleavage site and GTNGTKR motifs in the spike sequence attenuates the virus from the parental strain and can be used as a potent immunogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974326

ABSTRACT

The nasal route of immunization has become a real alternative to injections. It is indeed described as more efficient at inducing immune protection, since it initiates both mucosal and systemic immunity, thus protecting against both the infection itself and the transmission of pathogens by the host. However, the use of immunomodulators should be limited since they induce inflammation. Here we investigated in vitro the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of antigen immunogenicity by starch nanoparticles (NPL) delivery systems in H292 epithelial cells, as well as the NPL's immunomodulatory effect. We observed that NPL had no intrinsic immunomodulatory effect but enhanced the immunogenicity of an E. coli lysate (Ag) merely by increasing its intracellular delivery. Moreover, we demonstrated the importance of the NPL density on their efficiency by comparing reticulated (NPL) and non-reticulated particles (NPL·NR). These results show that an efficient delivery system is sufficient to induce a mucosal immune response without the use of immunomodulators.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Starch , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Antigens , Escherichia coli , Immunity, Mucosal
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4503, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacting an increasing toll worldwide, with new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging that exhibit higher infectivity rates and that may partially evade vaccine and antibody immunity. Rapid deployment of non-invasive therapeutic avenues capable of preventing infection by all SARS-CoV-2 variants could complement current vaccination efforts and help turn the tide on the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA using locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides (LNA ASOs). We identify an LNA ASO binding to the 5' leader sequence of SARS-CoV-2 that disrupts a highly conserved stem-loop structure with nanomolar efficacy in preventing viral replication in human cells. Daily intranasal administration of this LNA ASO in the COVID-19 mouse model potently suppresses viral replication (>80-fold) in the lungs of infected mice. We find that the LNA ASO is efficacious in countering all SARS-CoV-2 "variants of concern" tested both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, inhaled LNA ASOs targeting SARS-CoV-2 represents a promising therapeutic approach to reduce or prevent transmission and decrease severity of COVID-19 in infected individuals. LNA ASOs are chemically stable and can be flexibly modified to target different viral RNA sequences and could be stockpiled for future coronavirus pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Humans , Mice , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(654): eabn1413, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949951

ABSTRACT

To combat the HIV epidemic and emerging threats such as SARS-CoV-2, immunization strategies are needed that elicit protection at mucosal portals of pathogen entry. Immunization directly through airway surfaces is effective in driving mucosal immunity, but poor vaccine uptake across the mucus and epithelial lining is a limitation. The major blood protein albumin is constitutively transcytosed bidirectionally across the airway epithelium through interactions with neonatal Fc receptors (FcRn). Exploiting this biology, here, we demonstrate a strategy of "albumin hitchhiking" to promote mucosal immunity using an intranasal vaccine consisting of protein immunogens modified with an amphiphilic albumin-binding polymer-lipid tail, forming amph-proteins. Amph-proteins persisted in the nasal mucosa of mice and nonhuman primates and exhibited increased uptake into the tissue in an FcRn-dependent manner, leading to enhanced germinal center responses in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Intranasal immunization with amph-conjugated HIV Env gp120 or SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins elicited 100- to 1000-fold higher antigen-specific IgG and IgA titers in the serum, upper and lower respiratory mucosa, and distal genitourinary mucosae of mice compared to unmodified protein. Amph-RBD immunization induced high titers of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in serum, nasal washes, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, intranasal amph-protein immunization in rhesus macaques elicited 10-fold higher antigen-specific IgG and IgA responses in the serum and nasal mucosa compared to unmodified protein, supporting the translational potential of this approach. These results suggest that using amph-protein vaccines to deliver antigen across mucosal epithelia is a promising strategy to promote mucosal immunity against HIV, SARS-CoV-2, and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Administration, Intranasal , Albumins , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lipids , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
CNS Drugs ; 36(7): 739-770, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930607

ABSTRACT

While the intranasal administration of drugs to the brain has been gaining both research attention and regulatory success over the past several years, key fundamental and translational challenges remain to fully leveraging the promise of this drug delivery pathway for improving the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In response, this review highlights the current state of understanding of the nose-to-brain drug delivery pathway and how both biological and clinical barriers to drug transport using the pathway can been addressed, as illustrated by demonstrations of how currently approved intranasal sprays leverage these pathways to enable the design of successful therapies. Moving forward, aiming to better exploit the understanding of this fundamental pathway, we also outline the development of nanoparticle systems that show improvement in delivering approved drugs to the brain and how engineered nanoparticle formulations could aid in breakthroughs in terms of delivering emerging drugs and therapeutics while avoiding systemic adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Administration, Intranasal , Brain/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Nose , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism
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