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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e072622, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Children with bone and joint infections are traditionally treated with intravenous antibiotics for 3-10 days, followed by oral antibiotics. Oral-only treatment has not been tested in randomised trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (3 months to 18 years) will be randomised 1:1 with the experimental group receiving high-dose oral antibiotics and the control group receiving intravenous antibiotics with a shift in both groups to standard oral antibiotics after clinical and paraclinical improvement. Children in need of acute surgery or systemic features requiring intravenous therapy, including septic shock, are excluded. The primary outcome is defined as a normal blinded standardised clinical assessment 6 months after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are non-acute treatment failure and recurrent infection. Outcomes will be compared by a non-inferiority assumption with an inferiority margin of 5%. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has the potential to reduce unnecessary hospitalisation and use of intravenous antibiotics in children with bone or joint infections. Due to the close follow-up, exclusion of severely ill children and predefined criteria for discontinuation of the allocated therapy, we expect the risk of treatment failure to be minimal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04563325.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Administration, Intravenous , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 163: 114851, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309415

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge obstacle to the health system due to the high rate of contagion. It is postulated that intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) can lower the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related inflammation and prevent the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The main advantages of IVIG treatment might be targeting cytokine storm in severe and critical COVID-19 by influences on complement, innate immune cells, effector T-cells, and Tregs. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs evaluating the safety and efficacy of IVIG in patients with severe/critical COVID-19 were performed. It seems that early administration of high-dose IVIG (in the acceleration phase of the disease) in severe or especially critical COVID-19 may be an effective therapeutic option, but there are no strong data to use it routinely. The results regarding mortality reduction are inconclusive. Additionally, IVIG treatment carries a risk of complications that should be considered when initiating treatment. However, given the COVID-19 mortality rate and limited therapeutic options, the use of IVIG is worth considering. This review summarizes the development and highlights recent advances in treatment with IVIG of severe/critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous
3.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1813-1826, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients underwent randomization (with 541 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo). Those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 11), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 18) among those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49; P<0.001, by a log-rank test). In an analysis that used a proportional-odds model with an eight-category ordinal scale, the patients who received remdesivir were found to be more likely than those who received placebo to have clinical improvement at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9, after adjustment for actual disease severity). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 6.7% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo by day 15 and 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo by day 29 (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.03). Serious adverse events were reported in 131 of the 532 patients who received remdesivir (24.6%) and in 163 of the 516 patients who received placebo (31.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
4.
J Infus Nurs ; 46(2): 87-96, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286418

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were faced with challenges when caring for patients, safely administering intravenous (IV) medications and solutions, and protecting themselves from the virus. To address these challenges, nurses moved infusion pumps outside of intensive care unit (ICU) rooms of patients with COVID-19 to minimize their exposure to the virus, conserve personal protective equipment, and efficiently administer IV medications and solutions. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore and describe nurses' perception of managing infusion pumps outside the ICU rooms of patients with COVID-19 at 6 acute care hospitals. Eight interviews were conducted with ICU nurse managers, assistant nurse managers, clinical nurses, and vascular access team staff. From the interviews, the overarching theme was "figure out a way," with the subtheme "no clear-cut policy." Additional themes were: (1) limiting nurses' exposure, (2) increased risk for infection and error, (3) teamwork, and (4) roller coaster of emotions. The findings from this study revealed that, during this unprecedented pandemic, nurses were innovative and figured out a way to care for patients who were critically ill with COVID-19. Understanding this experience provides insight into creating policies and procedures to guide patient care in future pandemics or emergency care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , Pandemics , Administration, Intravenous , Infusion Pumps
5.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 67(3): e0151422, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269374

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (human) investigational product (COVID-HIGIV) is a purified immunoglobulin preparation containing SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal antibodies. This single-center clinical trial aimed to characterize the safety and pharmacokinetics of COVID-HIGIV in healthy, adult volunteers. Participants were enrolled to receive one of three doses of COVID-HIGIV (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) or placebo in a 2:2:2:1 randomization scheme. Between 24 December 2020 and 27 July 2021, 28 participants met eligibility and were randomized with 27 of these 28 (96.4%) being administered either COVID-HIGIV (n = 23) or placebo (n = 4). Only one SAE was observed, and it occurred in the placebo group. A total of 18 out of 27 participants (66.7%) reported 50 adverse events (AEs) overall. All COVID-HIGIV-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient. The most frequent AEs (>5% of participants) reported in the safety population were headache (n = 6, 22.2%), chills (n = 3, 11.1%), increased bilirubin (n = 2, 7.4%), muscle spasms (n = 2, 7.4%), seasonal allergies (n = 2, 7.4%), pyrexia (n = 2, 7.4%), and oropharyngeal pain (n = 2, 7.4%). Using the SARS-CoV-2 binding IgG immunoassay (n = 22, specific for pharmacokinetics), the geometric means of Cmax (AU/mL) for the three COVID-HIGIV dose levels (low to high) were 7.69, 17.02, and 33.27 AU/mL; the average values of Tmax were 7.09, 7.93, and 5.36 h, respectively. The half-life of COVID-HIGIV per dose level was 24 d (583 h), 31 d (753 h), and 26 d (619 h) for the 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg groups, respectively. The safety and pharmacokinetics of COVID-HIGIV support its development as a single-dose regimen for postexposure prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Administration, Intravenous , Double-Blind Method
6.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e059288, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the time required and concerns raised by various perspectives of participants regarding administering subcutaneous and intravenous trastuzumab for patients with breast cancer (BC). DESIGN: This observational time-motion study design with mixed-methods research (cross-sectional surveys and semistructured interviews) was conducted. The time spent on preparing or administering trastuzumab by different healthcare professionals (HCPs) was recorded. The data were analysed by descriptive/inferential statistical analyses, followed by thematic analyses. SETTING: Outpatient and inpatient administration units of a single medical centre in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients with early-stage BC who received subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab (n=93), and HCPs including two attending physicians, a nurse practitioner, two pharmacists and two nurses. RESULT: Based on the perspectives of patients and HCPs, the subcutaneous form of trastuzumab was more efficient, less expensive and produced less discomfort in outpatient units than inpatient units. More participants preferred the subcutaneous form over the intravenous form in both outpatient and inpatient units. Pharmacists and nurse practitioners spent threefold more time on patients when preparing and administering the intravenous form in both outpatient and inpatient units. The concerns raised by patients and HCPs varied in certain aspects, including the injection skills, speed, mental distress (eg, needle phobia) and pain associated with the subcutaneous form. Almost all patients preferred receiving the subcutaneous form in outpatient units after the initial COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Patients with early-stage BC preferred receiving subcutaneous trastuzumab in outpatient units rather than inpatient units or the intravenous form before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Such findings may serve as real-world evidence to facilitate better quality of care regarding administration of subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab in medical settings, and its feasible resolutions to balance the quality, concerns and efficiency of anticancer administration during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Injections, Subcutaneous , Administration, Intravenous , Receptor, ErbB-2
7.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113372, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287980

ABSTRACT

Aseptic meningitis is a rare but potentially serious complication of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. In this case series, meningitic symptoms following intravenous immunoglobulin initiation in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome were rare (7/2,086 [0.3%]). However, they required the need for additional therapy and/or readmission.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Meningitis, Aseptic , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis , Meningitis, Aseptic/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Disease Progression
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(1): 174-176, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230762

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a new entity and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Covid-19 is a pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive disease, provoking fungal infections, especially by Aspergillus species. We describe the case of a critically ill Covid-19 female patient, who was diagnosed with CAPA infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She was given intravenous Remdesivir. Her chest X-ray a few days after admission showed multiple cavities. Her condition initially improved but deteriorated again, with worsening hypoxia and pneumothorax and multiple cavitary lesions on HRCT of the chest. Despite optimal treatment, she could not recover. Interestingly, she had no predisposing risk factor for pulmonary aspergillosis, such as chronic lung disease, diabetes or use of immunosuppressants such as Tocilizumab. CAPA is an emerging entity with worsening hypoxia, and failure to improve can be an early sign. Early identification and treatment can improve survival and outcomes in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Intravenous , Hypoxia , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Immunotherapy ; 14(14): 1133-1147, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963293

ABSTRACT

Background: The authors describe the developmental process of intravenous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin from anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody-containing plasma. Furthermore, the authors investigated its safety and protective activity in animal models. Materials & methods: The manufacturing process included standard ethanol fractionation, chromatographic purification steps and virus removal or inactivation. Results: The authors produced pure and safe immunoglobulin for intravenous administration, with 98.1 ± 6.5 mg/ml protein content, of which 97.6 ± 0.7% was IgG. The concentration factor of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies was 9.4 ± 1.4-times. Safety studies in animals showed no signs of acute/chronic toxicity or allergenic or thrombogenic properties. Intravenous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin protected immunosuppressed hamsters against SARS-Cov-2. Conclusion: The obtained results can allow the start of clinical trials to study the safety and efficacy in healthy adults.


An intravenous immunoglobulin with a high concentration of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies was prepared from COVID-19 convalescent plasma, which could be utilized as a passive immunization tool in regard to COVID-19 treatment. The manufacturing process employed conforms to commonly held business standards within the intravenous immunoglobulin industry and includes plasma ethanol fractionation following chromatographic purification and special virus removal or inactivation steps. The results of the preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the immunoglobulin produced in this study is pure and safe enough to be considered for intravenous applications. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody concentration was found to have increased 9.4 ± 1.4-times compared with human plasma. The anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin showed no signs of toxicity and did not cause any blood clot formations when administered to rabbits. Furthermore, the anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin was demonstrated to protect immunosuppressed hamsters against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intravenous , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy
15.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 148-159, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of death as well as long-term disability in survivors. Erythropoietin has been hypothesized to have neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but its effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes when given in conjunction with therapeutic hypothermia are unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 501 infants born at 36 weeks or more of gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to receive erythropoietin or placebo, in conjunction with standard therapeutic hypothermia. Erythropoietin (1000 U per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo was administered intravenously within 26 hours after birth, as well as at 2, 3, 4, and 7 days of age. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 36 months of age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, a Gross Motor Function Classification System level of at least 1 (on a scale of 0 [normal] to 5 [most impaired]), or a cognitive score of less than 90 (which corresponds to 0.67 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: Of 500 infants in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 257 received erythropoietin and 243 received placebo. The incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 52.5% in the erythropoietin group and 49.5% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.24; P = 0.74). The mean number of serious adverse events per child was higher in the erythropoietin group than in the placebo group (0.86 vs. 0.67; relative risk, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of erythropoietin to newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy did not result in a lower risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than placebo and was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02811263.).


Subject(s)
Erythropoietin , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neuroprotective Agents , Administration, Intravenous , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Erythropoietin/administration & dosage , Erythropoietin/adverse effects , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/adverse effects , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 183, 2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clarithromycin may act as immune-regulating treatment in sepsis and acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome. However, clinical evidence remains inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether clarithromycin improves 28-day mortality among patients with sepsis, respiratory and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial in patients with sepsis. Participants with ratio of partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200 and more than 3 SOFA points from systems other than the respiratory function were enrolled between December 2017 and September 2019. Patients were randomized to receive 1 gr of clarithromycin or placebo intravenously once daily for 4 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality; sepsis response (defined as at least 25% decrease in SOFA score by day 7); sepsis recurrence; and differences in peripheral blood cell populations and leukocyte transcriptomics. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were allocated to each arm. By day 28, 27 (49.1%) patients in the clarithromycin and 25 (45.5%) in the placebo group died (risk difference 3.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) - 15.7 to 22.7]; P = 0.703, adjusted OR 1.03 [95%CI 0.35-3.06]; P = 0.959). There were no statistical differences in 90-day mortality and sepsis response. Clarithromycin was associated with lower incidence of sepsis recurrence (OR 0.21 [95%CI 0.06-0.68]; P = 0.012); significant increase in monocyte HLA-DR expression; expansion of non-classical monocytes; and upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Serious and non-serious adverse events were equally distributed. CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin did not reduce mortality among patients with sepsis with respiratory and multiple organ dysfunction. Clarithromycin was associated with lower sepsis recurrence, possibly through a mechanism of immune restoration. Clinical trial registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03345992 registered 17 November 2017; EudraCT 2017-001056-55.


Subject(s)
Clarithromycin , Sepsis , Administration, Intravenous , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications
17.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103856, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many repurposed drugs have progressed rapidly to Phase 2 and 3 trials in COVID19 without characterisation of Pharmacokinetics /Pharmacodynamics including safety data. One such drug is nafamostat mesylate. METHODS: We present the findings of a phase Ib/IIa open label, platform randomised controlled trial of intravenous nafamostat in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonitis. Patients were assigned randomly to standard of care (SoC), nafamostat or an alternative therapy. Nafamostat was administered as an intravenous infusion at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/h for a maximum of seven days. The analysis population included those who received any dose of the trial drug and all patients randomised to SoC. The primary outcomes of our trial were the safety and tolerability of intravenous nafamostat as an add on therapy for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonitis. FINDINGS: Data is reported from 42 patients, 21 of which were randomly assigned to receive intravenous nafamostat. 86% of nafamostat-treated patients experienced at least one AE compared to 57% of the SoC group. The nafamostat group were significantly more likely to experience at least one AE (posterior mean odds ratio 5.17, 95% credible interval (CI) 1.10 - 26.05) and developed significantly higher plasma creatinine levels (posterior mean difference 10.57 micromol/L, 95% CI 2.43-18.92). An average longer hospital stay was observed in nafamostat patients, alongside a lower rate of oxygen free days (rate ratio 0.55-95% CI 0.31-0.99, respectively). There were no other statistically significant differences in endpoints between nafamostat and SoC. PK data demonstrated that intravenous nafamostat was rapidly broken down to inactive metabolites. We observed no significant anticoagulant effects in thromboelastometry. INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, we did not observe evidence of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant or antiviral activity with intravenous nafamostat, and there were additional adverse events. FUNDING: DEFINE was funded by LifeArc (an independent medical research charity) under the STOPCOVID award to the University of Edinburgh. We also thank the Oxford University COVID-19 Research Response Fund (BRD00230).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Benzamidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Benzamidines/pharmacokinetics , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Guanidines/adverse effects , Guanidines/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
18.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(17): 1415-1423, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860803

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This report calls attention to the potential risks of diminished kidney function when administering immune globulin (IG). The goal is to increase awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney function impairment in patients receiving IG and provide recommendations for screening, monitoring, and management to promote risk prevention and mitigation. SUMMARY: Human IG preparations for intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) administration are the mainstay of treatment in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. Increasingly, IVIG at high doses (1,000 to 2,400 mg/kg) is also used as a treatment for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Although some autoinflammatory disorders respond to a single course of IVIG therapy, the majority of patients require long-term, regular infusions, thereby increasing the overall risks. Often, both patients and physicians treating adults with IG are unaware of underlying CKD or kidney function impairment. This lack of awareness constitutes a major risk factor for potential worsening, particularly when using high doses of IVIG. Therefore, screening of all patients for CKD and kidney function impairment before the use of IG is essential. Identification of the cause of kidney impairment is strongly encouraged, as IG therapy may need to be modified. CONCLUSION: As detailed here, there are potential risks to patients with impaired kidney function with administration of IG, particularly at high doses. Product selection, volume, route of administration, and rate of infusion may impact those with compromised kidney function. Therefore, screening of all patients for CKD and kidney function impairment before the use of IVIG and SCIG, as well as ongoing monitoring and management, is critical. As with all potential adverse drug reactions, the best approach is to prevent them.


Subject(s)
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
20.
Adv Ther ; 39(1): 178-192, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813867

ABSTRACT

Since 1955, the only available H1 antihistamines for intravenous administration have been first-generation formulations and, of those, only intravenously administered (IV) diphenhydramine is still approved in the USA. Orally administered cetirizine hydrochloride, a second-generation H1 antihistamine, has been safely used over-the-counter for many years. In 2019, IV cetirizine was approved for the treatment of acute urticaria. In light of this approval, this narrative review discusses the changing landscape of IV antihistamines for the treatment of histamine-mediated conditions. Specifically, IV antihistamines will be discussed as a treatment option for acute urticaria and angioedema, as premedication to prevent infusion reactions related to anticancer agents and other biologics, and as an adjunct treatment for anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions. Before the development of IV cetirizine, randomized controlled trials of IV antihistamines for these indications were lacking. Three randomized controlled trials have been conducted with IV cetirizine versus IV diphenhydramine in the ambulatory care setting. A phase 3 trial of IV cetirizine 10 mg versus IV diphenhydramine 50 mg was conducted in 262 adults who presented to the urgent care/emergency department with acute urticaria requiring antihistamines. For the primary efficacy endpoint, defined as change from baseline in a 2-h patient-rated pruritus score, non-inferiority of IV cetirizine to IV diphenhydramine was demonstrated (score - 1.6 vs - 1.5, respectively; 95% CI - 0.1, 0.3). Compared with IV diphenhydramine, IV cetirizine demonstrated fewer adverse effects including less sedation, a significantly shorter length of stay in the treatment center, and fewer returns to the treatment center at 24 and 48 h. Similar findings were demonstrated in another phase 2 acute urticaria trial and in a phase 2 trial assessing IV cetirizine for pretreatment for infusion reactions in the oncology/immunology setting. IV cetirizine is associated with similar patient outcomes, fewer adverse effects, and increased treatment center efficiency than IV diphenhydramine.


Subject(s)
Cetirizine , Urticaria , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Cetirizine/adverse effects , Diphenhydramine/adverse effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/adverse effects , Humans , Urticaria/chemically induced , Urticaria/drug therapy
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