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1.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(1): 77-79, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776451

ABSTRACT

Managing a pandemic offers lessons for preparing for similar episodes in future. The importance of surveillance in One World-One Health mode and the need to share information expeditiously to mobilize national and international resources has been evident. Pandemics cause disruption to normal social and economic activity, which would be tolerated better if there is trust in authorities. Governments need to guard against over centralization in a health crisis as it discourages community involvement and willing compliance with pandemic-related restrictions. Health emergencies can be managed effectively if health systems have been strengthened during normal times. Financial flexibility needs to be built into the public financial management systems to fund the unanticipated expenditure. The pandemic has underscored the global interdependence and the need to have systems for a global response to health emergencies. Health systems have to be reengineered to better deal with future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Administrative Personnel , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013812, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the impact of COVID-19, national and subnational governments implemented a variety of measures in order to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. While these measures were imposed with the intention of controlling the pandemic, they were also associated with severe psychosocial, societal, and economic implications on a societal level. One setting affected heavily by these measures is the school setting. By mid-April 2020, 192 countries had closed schools, affecting more than 90% of the world's student population. In consideration of the adverse consequences of school closures, many countries around the world reopened their schools in the months after the initial closures. To safely reopen schools and keep them open, governments implemented a broad range of measures. The evidence with regards to these measures, however, is heterogeneous, with a multitude of study designs, populations, settings, interventions and outcomes being assessed. To make sense of this heterogeneity, we conducted a rapid scoping review (8 October to 5 November 2020). This rapid scoping review is intended to serve as a precursor to a systematic review of effectiveness, which will inform guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review is reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and was registered with the Open Science Framework. OBJECTIVES: To identify and comprehensively map the evidence assessing the impacts of measures implemented in the school setting to reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the types of measures implemented in different school settings, the outcomes used to measure their impacts and the study types used to assess these. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, MEDLINE, Embase, the CDC COVID-19 Research Articles Downloadable Database for preprints, and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease on 8 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that assessed the impact of measures implemented in the school setting. Eligible populations were populations at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2, or developing COVID-19 disease, or both, and included people both directly and indirectly impacted by interventions, including students, teachers, other school staff, and contacts of these groups, as well as the broader community. We considered all types of empirical studies, which quantitatively assessed impact including epidemiological studies, modelling studies, mixed-methods studies, and diagnostic studies that assessed the impact of relevant interventions beyond diagnostic test accuracy. Broad outcome categories of interest included infectious disease transmission-related outcomes, other harmful or beneficial health-related outcomes, and societal, economic, and ecological implications. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data from included studies in a standardized manner, and mapped them to categories within our a priori logic model where possible. Where not possible, we inductively developed new categories. In line with standard expectations for scoping reviews, the review provides an overview of the existing evidence regardless of methodological quality or risk of bias, and was not designed to synthesize effectiveness data, assess risk of bias, or characterize strength of evidence (GRADE). MAIN RESULTS: We included 42 studies that assessed measures implemented in the school setting. The majority of studies used mathematical modelling designs (n = 31), while nine studies used observational designs, and two studies used experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Studies conducted in real-world contexts or using real data focused on the WHO European region (EUR; n = 20), the WHO region of the Americas (AMR; n = 13), the West Pacific region (WPR; n = 6), and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR; n = 1). One study conducted a global assessment and one did not report on data from, or that were applicable to, a specific country. Three broad intervention categories emerged from the included studies: organizational measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 36), structural/environmental measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 11), and surveillance and response measures to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 19). Most studies assessed SARS-CoV-2 transmission-related outcomes (n = 29), while others assessed healthcare utilization (n = 8), other health outcomes (n = 3), and societal, economic, and ecological outcomes (n = 5). Studies assessed both harmful and beneficial outcomes across all outcome categories. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogeneous and complex evidence base of measures implemented in the school setting. This review is an important first step in understanding the available evidence and will inform the development of rapid reviews on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/organization & administration , Administrative Personnel , Humans , School Teachers , Students
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2853-e2860, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to perform a seroprevalence survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high-risk groups. METHODS: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the 7 hospitals, prehospital services, and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited to be tested by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Beijing, China). RESULTS: A total of 25 950 participants were invited. Of these, 17 971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. After adjustment for assay sensitivity and specificity, the overall seroprevalence was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%; difference: 10.7 percentage points [95% CI, 9.5-12.2]). In the high-prevalence area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence (29.7%), whereas departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence (2.2%). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. CONCLUSIONS: We found large differences in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions that should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission. Regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Administrative Personnel , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Denmark/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497177

ABSTRACT

The world is in the midst of a crisis unlike any other in recent memory. COVID-19 is a pandemic that is urgent, global in scope, and has huge consequences. The policy sciences provide insights into unfolding trends, and this article uses the lessons of the literature to better understanding the policymaking shifts and population acceptability of COVID-19. The author attempts to investigate how policymakers' emotions and narratives affect policy decisions and form policymaker-population relationships. The author addresses policymaking processes, transitions, interpretations of policy responses, policy implementation through multilateral topics and evaluating policy progress and failure. Trust is linked to cultural norms, values, and faiths in policy literature, and it is seen as a component of key social and economic policy outcomes. The author ends by identifying understudied facets of policymaking that need to be addressed during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ ; 374: n2039, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495285
14.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 29(1): 11-15, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel beta coronavirus, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the causative pathogen for the present pandemic. The objective of the study was to measure the levels of IgG antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 during the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Odisha State, India to know the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, the prevalence of herd immunity in the population, the distribution of IgG-positive cases examined according to ABO blood groups and the number of blood donors with higher neutralizing IgG antibody titre who later on were converted into Plasma Donors donating Convalescent Plasma (CP). METHOD: This observational prospective study was conducted for a duration of three months on 1032 number of Blood donors consisting of 1025 number of males and 07 number of females. The samples of donors were subjected to Electro- chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. RESULT: Out of 1032 Donors, 370(35.9%) were SARS-COV-2 IgG positive which included 303 donors (29.36%) with neutralizing antibody titre of SARS-COV2 IgG antibodies above 1:80. SARS-COV-2 IgG positive cases consisted of 367(35.8%) male and 3(42.9%) female donors. The number of IgG positive cases were highest in 21-40 years' age group i.e. 323 out of 869(37.2%). In terms of Blood group, 145(42.4%) out of 342 were from B RhD positive group. Out of 22 donors who were positive with COVID 19 in the past with neutralizing IgG antibody titre more than 1:80, 6(27.3%) persons came for voluntary convalescent plasma(CP) donation. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was detected among blood donors which indicated a high level of exposure to the virus within the population and development of innate immunity against the virus. Policy makers can add the protocol of antibody testing in the screening of blood donors to enhance the number of Plasma Donation cases for the treatment of serious COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Administrative Personnel , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet ; 398(10296): 186-188, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405838
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256073, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403299

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Heightened immigration enforcement may induce fear in undocumented patients when coming to the Emergency Department (ED) for care. Limited literature examining health system policies to reduce immigrant fear exists. In this multi-site qualitative study, we sought to assess provider and system-level policies on caring for undocumented patients in three California EDs. METHODS: We recruited 41 ED providers and administrators from three California EDs (in San Francisco, Oakland, and Sylmar) with large immigrant populations. Participants were recruited using a trusted gatekeeper and snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews and analyzed the transcripts using constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: We interviewed 10 physicians, 11 nurses, 9 social workers, and 11 administrators, and identified 7 themes. Providers described existing policies and recent policy changes that facilitate access to care for undocumented patients. Providers reported that current training and communication around policies is limited, there are variations between who asks about and documents status, and there remains uncertainty around policy details, laws, and jurisdiction of staff. Providers also stated they are taking an active role in building safety and trust and see their role as supporting undocumented patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces ED-level health system perspectives and recommendations for caring for undocumented patients. There is a need for active, multi-disciplinary ED policy training, clear policy details including the extent of providers' roles, protocols on the screening and documentation of status, and continual reassessment of our health systems to reduce fear and build safety and trust with our undocumented communities.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Fear , Health Policy , Trust , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Qualitative Research
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047157, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most research on loneliness comes from the health sciences, statistically seeking to measure the health-related effects of feeling alone or isolated. There is a need to expand on this understanding and explore loneliness as a more complex social phenomenon. In this article, we present a qualitative design for studying the intersection between loneliness, technology and culture. Conceptualising this as the cultural dialectic between loneliness and technology, we aim to unpack the reciprocal ways by which understandings of loneliness shape technology, while technologies also affect society's understandings of loneliness. In elucidating this dialectic, we aim to develop new knowledge and a novel theoretical framework for understanding loneliness and its technological solutions, which, in turn, can enable better solutions to contemporary problems of loneliness. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will adopt a qualitative approach that combines interviews, participant observation and textual analysis to explore loneliness and its technological solutions from the perspectives of policy-makers, producers, professionals and users in Norway and the UK. The data will be analysed through an analytical framework combining insights from discourse theory and philosophical debates on presence, which will allow us to capture and rethink fundamental assumptions about loneliness and technology. Outcomes will be revised understandings of loneliness, relevant to researchers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, clinicians, educators and the broader public. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been evaluated and approved by the data protection officer at Oslo Metropolitan University and by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Additional ethical approval for data collection in the UK has been provided by the University of Oxford Interdivisional Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, international conference presentations and lay media.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Technology , Administrative Personnel , Data Collection , Humans , Qualitative Research , Research Design
19.
Am J Health Promot ; 35(7): 1028-1029, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358983
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26776, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354338

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus (COVID-19) disease outbreak was a public health emergency of international concern which eventually evolved into a pandemic. Nigeria was locked down in March, 2020 as the country battled to contain the spread of the disease. By August 2020, phase-by-phase easing of the lockdown was commenced and university students will soon return for academic activities. This study undertakes some epidemiological analysis of the Nigerian COVID-19 data to help the government and university administrators make informed decisions on the safety of personnel and students.The COVID-19 data on confirmed cases, deaths, and recovered were obtained from the website of the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) from April 2, 2020 to August 24, 2020. The infection rate, prevalence, ratio, cause-specific death rate, and case recovery rate were used to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the pandemic in Nigeria. Exponential smoothing was adopted in modeling the time series data and forecasting the pandemic in Nigeria up to January 31, 2021.The results indicated that the pandemic had infection rate of at most 3 infections per 1 million per day from April to August 2020. The death rate was 5 persons per 1 million during the period of study while recovery rate was 747 persons per 1000 infections. Analysis of forecast data showed steady but gradual decrease in the daily infection rate and death rate and substantial increase in the recovery rate, 975 recoveries per 1000 infections.In general, the epidemiological attributes of the pandemic from the original data and the forecast data indicated optimism in the decrease in the rate of infection and death in the future. Moreover, the infection rate, prevalence and death rate in January 2021 coincided with the predictions based on the analysis. Therefore, the Nigerian government is encouraged to allow universities in the country to reopen while university administrators set up the necessary protocols for strict adherence to safety measures.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , COVID-19/mortality , Forecasting/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria , Prevalence , Universities/organization & administration , Universities/statistics & numerical data
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