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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847284

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of risk behaviors among Israeli adolescents (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between different risk behaviors were examined and so was whether specific characteristics could predict risk behaviors in adolescents. The study consisted of 1020 Israeli adolescents aged 15-18. Study subjects completed an online survey between the first and second lockdowns in Israel (April 2020 to September 2020). Participants reported the frequency at which they engaged in four different risky behaviors: general risky behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption (binge drinking), and cannabis use. The most prevalent risky behavior in the sample was binge drinking (33.8%). The four measured risky behaviors were significantly correlated. Among participants who had previously engaged in a risky behavior assessed, most did not change the behavior frequency during the pandemic. All independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and emotional, health excluding friends' support, physical activity volume, and coronavirus restrictions) were significantly different between participants engaging vs. not engaging in risky behaviors. Our findings suggest that family support is one of the most influential factors in preventing risky behavior during the pandemic, and they emphasize the importance of family-based interventions with children and adolescents from elementary to high school.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk-Taking
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841375

ABSTRACT

Adolescents' depressive social withdrawal is a relevant concern for mental health professionals, and it is widespread among community teenagers in form of subclinical symptoms. Different studies suggest that insecure attachment representations increase the adolescents' likelihood to show symptoms of withdrawal (e.g., loneliness). This study explored the effect of the general attachment internal working model (IWM) and the independent and cumulative effects of the specific attachment representations of parents-in terms of secure base/safe haven-and peers on adolescents' withdrawal. Additionally, the mediation of peer attachment on the effect of parental attachment on symptoms was explored. All analyses were conducted controlling for the difference between teenagers living with parents together or divorced/separated, as children of divorcees are considered more exposed to stressors. Ninety-one adolescents aged 12-17 years old were assessed online during the COVID pandemic period, employing the Youth Self-Report to assess withdrawal and the Friends and Family Interview to assess attachment-general IWM and attachment-specific representations. Results show no influence of parents together/separated or of the general IWM on withdrawal, but higher parent secure base/safe haven and peer attachment cumulatively predicted 10-21% less withdrawal. Moreover, more positive peer attachment mediated 61% of the effect of the parental secure attachment on withdrawal, revealing an indirect effect of parental attachment on withdrawal through peer attachment. In conclusion, both parents and peers are influential on adolescent mental health, and fostering positive peer relationships can buffer the effect of dysfunctional family relationships on teenagers' withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Object Attachment , Parent-Child Relations , Peer Group
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7458, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821619

ABSTRACT

Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents' prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10-25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint). Results from the first timepoint showed that emotional support directed to friends peaked in mid-adolescence, whereas emotional support towards family members showed a gradual increase from childhood to young adulthood. Furthermore, daily emotional support increased between the first and second timepoint. Daily emotional support to friends predicted giving behavior to all targets, whereas emotional support to family was specifically associated with giving to COVID-19 targets. These findings elucidate the relation between daily actions and prosocial giving to societally-relevant targets in times of crisis, underlying the importance of prosocial experiences during adolescence.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends , Humans , Pandemics , Peer Group , Young Adult
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 235: 109448, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding what sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for use are associated with adolescent solitary alcohol and marijuana use. METHODS: Data from 7845 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 2015 to 2021 were used to examine cross-sectional associations between sociodemographics, heavy drinking/marijuana use, reasons for use, and past 12-month solitary alcohol or marijuana use among past 12-month users. Historical trends and possible differences related to the COVID-19 pandemic also were examined. RESULTS: Solitary use prevalence increased from 2015 to 2021 with no evidence of significant COVID-19 deviations. In 2021, solitary alcohol use was reported by 32.1% (SE 3.01) and solitary marijuana use by 55.8% (4.72) of those reporting past 12-month use. Common and substance-specific sociodemographic risk factors were observed. Binge drinking was associated with solitary alcohol use; frequent marijuana use was associated with solitary marijuana use. Reasons for use related to coping with negative affect were associated with solitary use. Compulsive use reasons were more strongly associated with solitary alcohol than marijuana use. Drinking to have a good time with friends was negatively associated with solitary alcohol use but this association was not seen for solitary marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana when they were alone has increased among those who report using each substance. Associations between solitary use and (a) higher levels of consumption and (b) coping with negative affect highlight the importance of solitary use as a risk indicator.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Marijuana Smoking , Marijuana Use , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
6.
J Genet Psychol ; 183(3): 263-277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774060

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected people's health, daily routine, and behaviors. Its effects have been most pronounced for the youngest and oldest generations. Their daily lives have completely changed throughout the pandemic. Self-transcendence values and positive orientation could facilitate optimal adjustment to this situation by promoting prosociality. The present study aimed to discover if applying a new, web-based intervention could activate self-transcendence values in a group of Italian adolescents, fostering COVID-19 prosocial behaviors while also considering the role of positive orientation. The study adopted a longitudinal, web-based, and quasi-experimental design. One hundred and forty adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age were involved in the study two times (T1-T2). Participants were assigned to an intervention or control group. All participants completed the self-transcendence subscale extracted from the 21-item Portrait Values Questionnaire, the Positive Orientation Scale, and the COVID-19 Prosocial Experiences Scale. The results showed that adolescents' self-transcendence values and positive orientation were positively associated with COVID-19 prosociality. However, the relationship between self-transcendence values and COVID-19 prosocial behaviors was significantly more robust in the intervention group. Finally, a three-way interaction (self-transcendence*group*positive orientation) emerged as significant. For the intervention group, the effect of self-transcendence values on COVID-19 prosocial behaviors was significant only for adolescents who reported a strong positive orientation. Limitations of the study, future research developments, and practical implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 28-34, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771896

ABSTRACT

Youths have experienced disruptions to school and home life since the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020. During January-June 2021, CDC conducted the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES), an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705). ABES data were used to estimate the prevalence of disruptions and adverse experiences during the pandemic, including parental and personal job loss, homelessness, hunger, emotional or physical abuse by a parent or other adult at home, receipt of telemedicine, and difficulty completing schoolwork. Prevalence estimates are presented for all students and by sex, race and ethnicity, grade, sexual identity, and difficulty completing schoolwork. Since the beginning of the pandemic, more than half of students found it more difficult to complete their schoolwork (66%) and experienced emotional abuse by a parent or other adult in their home (55%). Prevalence of emotional and physical abuse by a parent or other adult in the home was highest among students who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (74% emotional abuse and 20% physical abuse) and those who identified as other or questioning (76% and 13%) compared with students who identified as heterosexual (50% and 10%). Overall, students experienced insecurity via parental job loss (29%), personal job loss (22%), and hunger (24%). Disparities by sex and by race and ethnicity also were noted. Understanding health disparities and student disruptions and adverse experiences as interconnected problems can inform school and community initiatives that promote adolescent health and well-being. With community support to provide coordinated, cross-sector programming, schools can facilitate linkages to services that help students address the adverse experiences that they faced during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Public health and health care professionals, communities, schools, families, and adolescents can use these findings to better understand how students' lives have been affected during the pandemic and what challenges need to be addressed to promote adolescent health and well-being during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Schools , Students/psychology , United States/epidemiology
8.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 22-27, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771895

ABSTRACT

Perceived racism in school (i.e., a student's report of being treated badly or unfairly because of their race or ethnicity) is an important yet understudied determinant of adolescent health and well-being. Knowing how perceived racism influences adolescent health can help reduce health inequities. CDC's 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES), an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), was conducted during January-June 2021 to assess student behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. CDC analyzed data from ABES to measure perceived racism and the extent to which perceptions of racism are associated with demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics. Mental health and behavioral characteristics analyzed included mental health status; virtual connection with others outside of school; serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions; and feeling close to persons at school. Demographic characteristics analyzed included sex, race and ethnicity, and grade. Prevalence of perceived racism and associations between perceived racism and demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics are reported overall and stratified by race and ethnicity. Approximately one third (35.6%) of U.S. high school students reported perceived racism. Perceived racism was highest among Asian (63.9%), Black (55.2%), and multiracial students (54.5%). Students who reported perceived racism had higher prevalences of poor mental health (38.1%); difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions (44.1%); and not feeling close to persons at school (40.7%). Perceived racism was higher among those students who reported poor mental health than those who did not report poor mental health during the pandemic among Asian (67.9% versus 40.5%), Black (62.1% versus 38.5%), Hispanic (45.7% and 22.9%), and White students (24.5% versus 12.7%). A better understanding of how negative health outcomes are associated with student experiences of racism can guide training for staff and students to promote cultural awareness and antiracist and inclusivity interventions, which are critical for promoting safe school environments for all students.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Racism , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , Students/psychology , United States/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 16-21, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771894

ABSTRACT

Disruptions and consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including school closures, social isolation, family economic hardship, family loss or illness, and reduced access to health care, raise concerns about their effects on the mental health and well-being of youths. This report uses data from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), to assess U.S. high school students' mental health and suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also examines whether mental health and suicidality are associated with feeling close to persons at school and being virtually connected to others during the pandemic. Overall, 37.1% of students experienced poor mental health during the pandemic, and 31.1% experienced poor mental health during the preceding 30 days. In addition, during the 12 months before the survey, 44.2% experienced persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness, 19.9% had seriously considered attempting suicide, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. Compared with those who did not feel close to persons at school, students who felt close to persons at school had a significantly lower prevalence of poor mental health during the pandemic (28.4% versus 45.2%) and during the past 30 days (23.5% versus 37.8%), persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness (35.4% versus 52.9%), having seriously considered attempting suicide (14.0% versus 25.6%), and having attempted suicide (5.8% versus 11.9%). The same pattern was observed among students who were virtually connected to others during the pandemic (i.e., with family, friends, or other groups by using a computer, telephone, or other device) versus those who were not. Comprehensive strategies that improve feelings of connectedness with others in the family, in the community, and at school might foster improved mental health among youths during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Suicide , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , United States/epidemiology
10.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 8-15, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771893

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with established risk factors for adolescent substance use, including social isolation, boredom, grief, trauma, and stress. However, little is known about adolescent substance use patterns during the pandemic. CDC analyzed data from the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), to examine the prevalence of current use of tobacco products, alcohol, and other substances among U.S. high school students. Prevalence was examined by demographic characteristics and instructional models of the students' schools (in-person, virtual, or hybrid). During January-June 2021, 31.6% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, alcohol, or marijuana or current misuse of prescription opioids. Current alcohol use (19.5%), electronic vapor product (EVP) use (15.4%), and marijuana use (12.8%) were more prevalent than prescription opioid misuse (4.3%), current cigarette smoking (3.3%), cigar smoking (2.3%), and smokeless tobacco use (1.9%). Approximately one third of students who used EVPs did so daily, and 22.4% of students who drank alcohol did so ≥6 times per month. Approximately one in three students who ever used alcohol or other drugs reported using these substances more during the pandemic. The prevalence of substance use was typically higher among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native students, older students, and gay, lesbian, or bisexual students than among students of other racial or ethnic groups, younger students, and heterosexual students. The prevalence of alcohol use also was higher among non-Hispanic White students than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Students only attending school virtually had a lower prevalence of using most of the substances examined than did students attending schools with in-person or hybrid models. These findings characterizing youth substance use during the pandemic can help inform public health interventions and messaging to address these health risks during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Students , United States/epidemiology
11.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 1-7, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771892

ABSTRACT

Many U.S. schools closed nationwide in March 2020 to prevent the spread of COVID-19. School closures and online-only instruction have negatively affected certain students, with studies showing adverse effects of the pandemic on mental health. However, little is known about other experiences such as economic and food insecurity and abuse by a parent, as well as risk behaviors such as alcohol and drug use among youths across the United States during the pandemic. To address this gap, CDC developed the one-time, online Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES), which was conducted during January-June 2021 to assess student behaviors and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic among high school students, including unintentional injury, violence, tobacco product use, sexual behaviors, and dietary behaviors. This overview report of the ABES MMWR Supplement describes the ABES methodology, including the student questionnaire and administration, sampling, data collection, weighting, and analysis. ABES used a stratified, three-stage cluster probability-based sampling approach to obtain a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 attending public and private schools. Teachers of selected classes provided students with access to the anonymous online survey while following local consent procedures. Data were collected using a 110-item questionnaire during January-June 2021 in 128 schools. A total of 7,998 students submitted surveys, and 7,705 of these surveys had valid data (i.e., ≥20 questions answered). The school response rate was 38%, the student response rate was 48%, and the overall response rate was 18%. Information on mode of instruction and school-provided equipment was also collected from all sampled schools. This overview report provides student- and school-level characteristics obtained from descriptive analyses, and the other reports in the ABES MMWR Supplement include information on substance use, mental health and suicidality, perceived racism, and disruptions to student life among high school students. Findings from ABES during the COVID-19 pandemic can help guide parents, teachers, school administrators, community leaders, clinicians, and public health officials in decision-making for student support and school health programs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 25(3): 242-248, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention on physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among urban adolescents in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Eight high schools were randomly assigned to either intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). Participants (n = 160 per group, 40 school) were in grades 8-9. A 12-week multi-component intervention was developed based on the WHO's Health-Promoting Schools framework. The IG received weekly supervised circuit exercise (30 min/week), health education session (10 min/week) with health educational materials, and lunchtime sports activities (20 min/week). The main outcome measures included self-reported PA, ST, knowledge on PA and SB, which were assessed at baseline, 8 and 12 weeks. Repeated measures ANCOVA was used to evaluate the intervention effects. RESULTS: Total PA (MET-min/week) was increased from baseline to 8 and 12 weeks in the IG (3%-5%) but decreased in the CG (5%-3%) and significantly improved in the IG compared to the CG (p < 0.001) over time. Average ST (min/day) reduced from baseline to 8 and 12 weeks in the IG (28%-35%), while remained unchanged in the CG (6%-5%). The IG had a significantly lower average ST than the CG at 12 weeks. The average knowledge scores on PA and SB were significantly higher in the IG than the CG at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our intervention has demonstrated some promising effects on increasing PA, reducing ST, and improving PA and SB knowledge. This study underscores the need for a scaled-up evaluation in other locations including rural settings.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Screen Time , Adolescent , Exercise , Health Education , Health Promotion , Humans , Schools
13.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(5): 729-735, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676791

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preventive health behavior during COVID-19 protects not only oneself but also the welfare of others. However, little attention has been paid to prosocial motivation in adolescents, who are often viewed as selfish and egocentric. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the role of empathy in adolescents' preventive health behavior using longitudinal data. METHODS: A total of 442 Chinese adolescents (mean age of youth = 13.35 years; 49.5% girls and 50.5% boys) completed two-wave longitudinal surveys over the span of two months during the pandemic (Time 1: July 2020; Time 2: September 2020). At T1, participants reported on their empathic concern, perspective taking, and concern for personal health. At both T1 and T2, participants reported on their preventive health behavior and COVID-related worry. RESULTS: Adolescents who showed greater empathic concern tend to engage in more preventive health behavior over time (p < .01). However, greater empathic concern also predicted adolescents' greater worry about COVID-19 over time (p < .01). In comparison, adolescents' perspective-taking and concern for personal health did not predict their health behavior or worry over time. Notably, the longitudinal effect of empathic concern on preventive health behavior and COVID-related worry remained (ps < .05) after taking into account adolescents' perspective-taking and concern for personal health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight adolescents' prosocial motivation in engaging in preventive health behavior during the pandemic and also point out the potential negative influence of empathic concern on adolescent mental health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Preventive Health Services
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 217-228, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically restricted adolescents' lives. We used nationwide Norwegian survey data from 2014-2021 (N = 227,258; ages 13-18) to examine psychosocial outcomes in adolescents before and during the pandemic. Multilevel models revealed higher depressive symptoms and less optimistic future life expectations during the pandemic, even when accounting for the measures' time trends. Moreover, alcohol and cannabis use decreased, and screen time increased. However, the effect sizes of all observed changes during the pandemic were small. Overall, conduct problems and satisfaction with social relationships remained stable. Girls, younger adolescents and adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds showed more adverse changes during the pandemic. Estimated changes in psychosocial outcomes varied little with municipality infection rates and restrictions. These findings can inform means and interventions to reduce negative psychological outcomes associated with the pandemic and identify groups that need particular attention during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health , Psychology , Screen Time , Social Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Norway/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Acad Pediatr ; 22(3): 413-421, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent recreational screen time and to determine sociodemographic predictors of recreational screen time reporting differences during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (N = 5335, ages 10-14) a national prospective cohort study in the United States collected in May 2020. We compared parent-reported, adolescent-reported, and a parent-adolescent differences in recreational screen time hours per day across 5 screen categories. RESULTS: Adolescents' total recreational screen time per day was reported as 4.46 hours by parents and 3.87 hours by adolescents. Parents reported higher levels of their child's texting, video chatting, and total recreational screen time, while adolescents reported higher multiplayer gaming and social media use. Larger discrepancies in total recreational screen time were found in older, Black, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. Larger discrepancies in total recreational screen time were also found among unmarried/unpartnered parents. CONCLUSIONS: Given discrepancies in parent-adolescent recreational screen time reporting during the pandemic, a period of high screen use, pediatricians should encourage family discussions about adolescent media use through the development of a Family Media Use Plan. The digital media industry could provide more opportunities for parental monitoring of recreational screen time within product designs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Aged , Child , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Prospective Studies , Screen Time , United States/epidemiology
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e20210163, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: identify the reasons for attempting suicide from the perspective of adolescents. METHODS: qualitative study conducted with ten adolescents who attempted suicide and were attending a Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-Juvenil located in a city in the south of Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were held in July 2020 using WhatsApp. Data were analyzed according to Minayo's Content Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: the adolescents' reports listed the reasons that triggered suicide attempts, such as changes in the adolescents' life cycle and violence, which led them to attempt suicide to solve problems. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Data analysis revealed the reasons that triggered suicide attempts from the adolescents' perspective and difficulties to cope with problems, probably explained by their lack of experience in dealing with frustrations and disappointments.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Suicide, Attempted , Adolescent , Emotions , Humans , Perception , Violence
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 105-121, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616178

ABSTRACT

Recently, sexual health scholars have expressed concerns regarding adolescents' use of sexually explicit internet materials (SEIM) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, using latent growth curve modeling, the current study explored adolescents' changes in the frequency of SEIM use before, during, and after a strict lockdown period was established in Belgium. Attention was given to individual differences (i.e., gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, pubertal timing, and sensation seeking). A three-wave panel study over a 15-month period among 522 adolescents was used (Mage = 15.36, SD = 1.51, 67.1% girls). In general, SEIM use did not significantly increase over a 15-month period in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Only gender predicted a change in SEIM use frequencies with girls showing a greater, increasing change of SEIM use than boys. When addressing why adolescents used SEIM during a strict lockdown period, sexual arousal, stress, and boredom regulation motivations emerged as the most prevalent motivations. Loneliness regulation was the least prominent motivation. Individual differences were found regarding the gratifications sought according to adolescents' gender, pubertal timing, and sensation seeking. The findings offer a response to sexual scholars' worries in terms of adolescents' SEIM use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Erotica , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Internet , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(1): 39-45, 2022 02.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580015

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Argentina established a preventive and mandatory social isolation policy (ASPO, for its acronym in Spanish) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To explore the behaviors and habits of the adolescent population during the ASPO and the extent of compliance. POPULATION AND METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative, cross sectional study in Argentine adolescents aged 12-20 years. An anonymous, semi-structured questionnaire was administered during epidemiological weeks 34 to 36. RESULTS: A total of 1535 questionnaires were analyzed. Participants' average age was 16 years; 72% were females. Non-compliance with the ASPO during the first 3 months was 27% versus 59% during the past month. A good to excellent family environment was described by 73%, and 87% performed educational activities. The average non-educational screen time was 6.8 hours per day. Results. A total of 1535 questionnaires were analyzed. Participants' average age was 16 years; 72% were females. Non-compliance with the ASPO during the first 3 months was 27% versus 59% during the past month. A good to excellent family environment was described by 73%, and 87% performed educational activities. The average non-educational screen time was 6.8 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: Most adolescents maintained their educational activities, spent a lot of noneducational screen time, and referred a low drug use. Adherence to the ASPO decreased progressively over time. The main positive aspects were strengthening family bonds and discovering or returning to activities; whereas negative aspects were emotional distress and not being able to see family members or friends.


Introducción. En marzo de 2020 comenzó en Argentina el aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) debido a la pandemia por COVID-19. Objetivo. Explorar las conductas y hábitos de la población adolescente durante el ASPO y su grado de acatamiento. Población y métodos. Estudio cualicuantitativo de corte transversal en adolescentes de Argentina entre 12 y 20 años. Se envió un cuestionario semiestructurado anónimo durante las semanas epidemiológicas 34 a 36. Resultados. Se analizaron 1535 cuestionarios. La edad promedio fue 16 años, el 72 % de sexo femenino. El incumplimiento del ASPO durante los primeros 3 meses fue del 27 % frente el 59 % durante el último mes. El 73 % refirió un clima familiar bueno a excelente y el 87 % realizó actividades educativas. El tiempo promedio de pantallas sin fines educativos fue de 6,8 horas por día. INTRODUCCIÓN El adolescente, como sujeto social, participa de un mundo de relaciones primarias y secundarias que lo contienen, afectan y transforman. Durante la adolescencia, los seres humanos experimentamos una serie de cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales, conocidos como crisis de la adolescencia, una crisis vital y normativa. Cualquier otra crisis que aparezca en ese momento afectará la búsqueda de independencia y de interacción social característica de esta etapa.1 El 70 % manifestó que no consumió drogas durante el último mes. Describieron como aspectos positivos: afianzar vínculos familiares (34 %) y descubrir o retomar actividades (20 %); y como negativos: malestares emocionales (23 %) y no ver a la familia o a los amigos (21 %). a. Sección de Adolescencia, Servicio de Clínica Pediátrica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Correspondencia: Alfredo Eymann: alfredo.eymann@ hospitalitaliano.org.ar Financiamiento: Ninguno. Conflicto de intereses: Ninguno que declarar. Recibido: 31-5-2021 Aceptado: 26-8-2021 Conclusiones. La mayoría de los adolescentes mantuvo actividades educativas, estuvo un elevado tiempo en pantallas sin fines educativos y refirió un bajo consumo de drogas. El cumplimiento del ASPO fue decreciendo a lo largo del tiempo. Los principales aspectos positivos fueron afianzar vínculos familiares y descubrir o retomar actividades, y los negativos, malestares emocionales y no poder ver a la familia o a los amigos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 258-268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially increased the risk for adolescent depression. Even pre-pandemic, <50% of youth with depression accessed care, highlighting needs for accessible interventions. Accordingly, this randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04634903 ) tested online single-session interventions (SSIs) during COVID-19 in adolescents with elevated depression symptoms (N = 2,452, ages 13-16). Adolescents from all 50 US states, recruited via social media, were randomized to one of three SSIs: a behavioural activation SSI, an SSI teaching that traits are malleable and a supportive control. We tested each SSI's effects on post-intervention outcomes (hopelessness and agency) and three-month outcomes (depression, hopelessness, agency, generalized anxiety, COVID-19-related trauma and restrictive eating). Compared with the control, both active SSIs reduced three-month depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.18), decreased post-intervention and three-month hopelessness (d = 0.16-0.28), increased post-intervention agency (d = 0.15-0.31) and reduced three-month restrictive eating (d = 0.12-17). Several differences between active SSIs emerged. These results confirm the utility of free-of-charge, online SSIs for high-symptom adolescents, even in the high-stress COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/therapy , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533418

ABSTRACT

This study explored relations between COVID-19 news source, trust in COVID-19 information source, and COVID-19 health literacy in 194 STEM-oriented adolescents and young adults from the US and the UK. Analyses suggest that adolescents use both traditional news (e.g., TV or newspapers) and social media news to acquire information about COVID-19 and have average levels of COVID-19 health literacy. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that the association between traditional news media and COVID-19 health literacy depends on participants' level of trust in their government leader. For youth in both the US and the UK who used traditional media for information about COVID-19 and who have higher trust in their respective government leader (i.e., former US President Donald Trump and UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson) had lower COVID-19 health literacy. Results highlight how youth are learning about the pandemic and the importance of not only considering their information source, but also their levels of trust in their government leaders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/standards , Leadership , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trust , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior , Male , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
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