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Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733


Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.

Masks , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Beijing
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117539, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245549


Background: Two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, several studies look at the consequences for the well-being and mental health of young people. In particular, creativity and resilience are cited in the scientific literature as resources that promote this well-being in adolescents and young adults. Purpose: This mini-literature review was created with the aim of examining how many articles have explored the relationship between creativity and resilience in adolescents and young adults since the onset of the pandemic. Methods: Particular attention was paid to how many of the articles actually related to the consequences of the pandemic, in which country they were published, their target population, and the models, instruments and variables used to analyze them. Results: Only 4 articles emerged from the screening, of which only one was actually related to pandemic consequences. All articles were published in Asian countries with a target group of university students. Three of the articles used mediation models to examine the relationship between resilience as an independent variable and creativity as a dependent variable. All articles used self-assessment instruments for creativity and resilience, both at the individual and group level. Significance: This mini-review offers us the opportunity to reflect on the lack of studies that have addressed the issue of youth resources in the form of creativity and resilience since the beginning of the pandemic. The results show us a still underdeveloped interest in creativity in the scientific literature, in contrast to what the media reports on the promotion of creativity in daily life.

Mental Health , Pandemics , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Asia
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 909-923, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237026


LGBTQ+ youth accessing healthcare settings manage the 'storms' of health conditions (e.g. pain, fatigue, social isolation, etc.) while navigating emerging identity exploration and understandings in settings which may have historically overlooked or disaffirmed these identities. The launch of National Health Service Rainbow Badges across the paediatric division of an inner-city hospital provided a context for staff to begin thinking about their practice, development needs and dilemmas in working with LGBTQ+ youth. Through a programme of activity that included staff training, surveys, focus groups and youth engagement, we gained insight into current practice in supporting LGBTQ+ youth and families. This paper presents our findings, ideas for responding to challenges, and areas for future development, including implications in light of the coronavirus pandemic.

Sexual and Gender Minorities , State Medicine , Adolescent , Child , Focus Groups , Humans , Social Environment
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 684-700, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20240059


O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a percepção sobre a massa corporal, comportamentos relacionados à saúde, e a saúde mental de escolares adolescentes durante o período de retorno às atividades escolares presenciais com o período anterior à pandemia de COVID-19. O estudo foi realizado com 425 escolares (16,96±1,39 anos; 60,2% do sexo feminino) selecionados aleatoriamente de escolas das redes pública e privada de Pelotas/RS. Para a coleta dos dados foi utilizado um questionário de autopreenchimento contendo perguntas retrospectivas e atuais sobre as variáveis analisadas. Os resultados indicaram que a percepção sobre a massa corporal, o nível de atividade física, o tempo de sono, e a saúde mental (apenas para as meninas) estão piores (p<0,05) no momento atual quando comparados ao período anterior à pandemia. Por outro lado, hábitos alimentares e tempo de tela recreativo apresentaram melhores resultados (p<0,05) no momento atual do que no período anterior à pandemia. Estes resultados mostram um complexo panorama em relação à saúde de adolescentes no período de retomada das atividades presencias, tornando o retorno às atividades escolares presenciais um desafio para os próprios adolescentes, seus familiares, para professores, e para as escolas.

The aim of this study was to compare the perception of body mass, health- related behaviors and mental health of adolescent schoolchildren during the period of return to face to face school activities with the period before COVID-19 pandemic. The study was carried out with 425 students (16.96±1.39 years; 60.2% female) randomly selected from public and private schools in Pelotas/RS. For data collection, a self-completion questionnaire was used, containing retrospective and current questions about analyzed outcomes. The results indicated that the perception of body mass, level of physical activity, sleep time, and mental health (only for girls) are worse (p<0.05) at present when compared to the period before the pandemic. On the other hand, eating habits and recreational screen time showed better results (p<0.05) at present than in the period before the pandemic. These results show a complex panorama concerning the health of adolescents in the period of resumption of face to face activities, making this return a challenge for the adolescents themselves, their families, teachers and for schools.

El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la percepción de masa corporal, comportamientos relacionados a la salud y salud mental de escolares adolescentes durante el período de retorno a las actividades escolares presenciales con el período anterior a la pandemia de COVID-19. El estudio fue realizado con 425 alumnos (16,96±1,39 años; 60,2% del sexo femenino) seleccionados aleatoriamente de escuelas públicas y privadas de Pelotas/RS. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizó un cuestionario auto-completado, conteniendo preguntas retrospectivas y actuales sobre los resultados analizados. Los resultados indicaron que la percepción de la masa corporal, el nivel de actividad física, el tiempo de sueño y la salud mental (sólo para las niñas) son peores (p<0,05) en la actualidad en comparación con el período anterior a la pandemia. Por otro lado, los hábitos alimentarios y el tiempo de pantalla recreativo mostraron mejores resultados (p<0,05) en la actualidad que en el periodo anterior a la pandemia. Estos resultados muestran un panorama complejo en relación a la salud de los adolescentes en el período de reanudación de las actividades presenciales, haciendo de este retorno un desafío para los propios adolescentes, sus familias, profesores y para las escuelas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Schools , Students , Adolescent Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Sleep , Exercise/psychology , Body Mass Index , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Behavior , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Screen Time , Sleep Duration
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e237471, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234645


Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the perception of undergraduate students on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Brazilian dental education. Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire hosted in Google Forms platform and publicized on Instagram® and Facebook®. The questionnaire was available between July 8-27, 2020. Absolute and relative frequencies were obtained for variables of interest using Pearson's chi-squared and considering 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of learning resource variables according to self-reported skin color, educational institution, and Brazilian region were presented using equiplots. Results: A total of 1,050 undergraduate dental students answered the questionnaire. Most students reported being in full-distance learning mode. Among the undergraduate students, 65.4% reported perceiving a very high impact in dental education, and 16.6% of students reported not being able to follow distance learning. In addition, 14% reported not having a personal laptop or desktop to study with, with this condition being more prevalent among non-white than white individuals. Conclusion: We conclude that Brazilian dental students perceived a high impact of COVID-19 on dental education, as well as one-sixth of the students reported not having adequate resources to continue with distance learning. It is important that different policies are developed at the institutional and governmental levels to reduce the impact of the pandemic on dental education

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental , Education, Distance , Education, Dental , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(6): 1-13, nov. 3, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234393


Introduction: The consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the body's ability to deal with dangerous situations and exposes people to trauma. Objective: To determine the association between the consumption of alcoholic beverages and the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures treated at a Cuban university hospital in the context of COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Maxillofacial Surgery unit at the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" General University Hospital during the year 2020. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained using generalized linear models. Results: In 58.23% of the cases, fractures were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The fundamental etiology was interpersonal violence (47.75%), regardless of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a prevalence of patients with nasal fractures (n=98; 55.06%), among which, 35.71% had consumed alcoholic beverages at the time of the trauma. Being male (p=0.005), the lack of university studies (p=0.007), the need for surgical treatment (p<0.001), the fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (p=0.023), and the traumas that occurred during the weekends (p<0.001) or during the month of June (p=0.029) were factors associated with a higher frequency of fractures related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a lower frequency of fractures associated with alcohol consumption during the months of January (p=0.006) and March (p=0.001). Conclusion: Six out of ten cases were under the influence of alcoholic beverages. There was a greater number of young and male patients, mainly due to interpersonal violence.

Introducción: La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas disminuye la capacidad del organismo para enfrentar situaciones de peligro y lo predispone a sufrir traumatismos diversos. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las características de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en un hospital universitario cubano en el contexto de la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal realizado en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" durante el 2020. Se obtuvieron razones de prevalencia, intervalos de confianza a 95% y valores p mediante modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: En el 58.23% de los casos las fracturas se relacionaron con la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. La etiología fundamental fue la violencia interpersonal (47.75%), independientemente del consumo o no de bebidas alcohólicas. Predominaron los pacientes con fracturas nasales (n=98; 55.06%), en los que el 35.71% había consumido bebidas alcohólicas en el momento del trauma. El sexo masculino (p=0.005), la carencia de estudios universitarios (p=0.007), la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico (p<0.001), las fracturas del complejo cigomático-maxilar (p=0.023), los traumas sucedidos durante los fines de semanas (p<0.001) o durante el mes de junio (p=0.029) fueron factores asociados a una mayor frecuencia de fracturas relacionadas con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Hubo menor frecuencia de fracturas asociadas a este consumo durante los meses de enero (p=0.006) y marzo (p= 0.001). Conclusión: Seis de cada diez casos estuvieron bajo los efectos de la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. Existió una mayor afectación de pacientes jóvenes, masculinos, a causa principalmente de la violencia interpersonal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull Fractures/etiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Maxillofacial Injuries/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , Alcoholism/complications , Pandemics
Psico USF ; 26(spe): 33-44, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20232251


This study aimed to estimate validity evidence based on the internal structure and accuracy of the adapted version of the Learning Strategies Assessment Scale for High School (EAVAP-EM), using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Participants were 701 first- to third-year high school students (M = 16.1; SD = 1.0), from public and private institutions in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. The CFA indicated the presence of the three factors of the EAVAP-EM, with adequate internal consistency. The instrument also showed good fit indices. There were positive and significant correlations between the factors, with magnitude ranging from medium to large. Moreover, students reported making more use of metacognitive strategies. The results evinced significant advances regarding measures with good psychometric parameters to assess learning strategies, considering their relevance to the psychoeducational context (AU).

Objetivou-se no presente estudo estimar indicadores de validade com base na estrutura interna e precisão da versão adaptada da Escala de Avaliação das Estratégias de Aprendizagem para o Ensino Médio (EAVAP-EM), por meio de uma análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC). Participaram 701 alunos do primeiro ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio (M = 16,1; DP = 1,0), provenientes de instituições públicas e particulares dos estados do Paraná e de São Paulo. A AFC indicou a presença dos três fatores da EAVAP-EM, com consistência interna considerada adequada, sendo que o instrumento apresentou bons índices de ajuste. Houve correlações positivas e significativas entre os fatores, com magnitude variando de média a grande. Ainda, os estudantes reportaram fazer mais uso de estratégias metacognitivas. Os resultados evidenciam importantes avanços no que concerne a medidas com bons indicadores psicométricos para avaliação das estratégias de aprendizagem, considerando sua relevância ao contexto psicoeducacional (AU).

El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar evidencias de validez a partir de la estructura interna y la precisión de la versión adaptada de la Escala de Evaluación de Estrategias de Aprendizaje para la Escuela Preparatoria (EAVAP-EM), mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC). Participaron 701 estudiantes de primero a tercer año de secundaria (M = 16.1; DS = 1.0), de instituciones públicas y privadas de las provincias de Paraná y São Paulo. El AFC indicó la presencia de los tres factores del EAVAP-EM, con consistencia interna considerada adecuada. El instrumento mostró índices de ajuste adecuados. Hubo correlaciones positivas y significativas entre los factores, cuya magnitud varió de moderada a alta. Además, los estudiantes informaron que hacen un mayor uso de las estrategias metacognitivas. Los resultados evidencian avances importantes en cuanto a medidas con buenos indicadores psicométricos para evaluar estrategias de aprendizaje, considerando su relevancia para el contexto psicoeducativo (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Psychometrics , Metacognition , Learning , Students/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Education, Primary and Secondary
BMJ ; 370: m2829, 2020 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237445
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28866, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244831


The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of a combination of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (NMV-r) for treating COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This retrospective cohort study used the TriNetX research network to identify adult diabetic patients with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2022. Propensity score matching was used to match patients who received NMV-r (NMV-r group) with those who did not receive NMV-r (control group). The primary outcome was all-cause hospitalization or death during the 30-day follow-up period. Two cohorts comprising 13 822 patients with balanced baseline characteristics were created using propensity score matching. During the follow-up period, the NMV-r group had a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization or death than the control group (1.4% [n = 193] vs. 3.1% [n = 434]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.497; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.420-0.589). Compared with the control group, the NMV-r group also had a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.508-0.723) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.076; 95% CI, 0.033-0.175). This lower risk was consistently observed in almost all subgroup analyses, which examined sex (male: 0.520 [0.401-0.675]; female: 0.586 [0.465-0.739]), age (age 18-64 years: 0.767 [0.601-0.980]; ≥65 years: 0.394 [0.308-0.505]), level of HbA1c (<7.5%: 0.490 [0.401-0.599]; ≥7.5%: 0.655 [0.441-0.972]), unvaccinated (0.466 [0.362-0.599]), type 1 DM (0.453 [0.286-0.718]) and type 2 DM (0.430 [0.361-0.511]). NMV-r can help reduce the risk of all-cause hospitalization or death in nonhospitalized patients with DM and COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
Front Public Health ; 11: 1124548, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244826


Introduction: Vaccination rates for the COVID-19 vaccine have recently been stagnant worldwide. We aim to analyze the potential patterns of vaccination development from the first three doses to reveal the possible trends of the next round of vaccination and further explore the factors influencing vaccination in the selected populations. Methods: On July 2022, a stratified multistage random sampling method in the survey was conducted to select 6,781 people from 4 provinces China, who were above the age of 18 years. Participants were divided into two groups based on whether they had a chronic disease. The data were run through Cochran-Armitage trend test and multivariable regression analyses. Results: A total of 957 participants with chronic disease and 5,454 participants without chronic disease were included in this survey. Vaccination rates for the first, second and booster doses in chronic disease population were93.70% (95% CI: 92.19-95.27%), 91.12% (95%CI: 94.43-95.59%), and 83.18% (95%CI: 80.80-85.55%) respectively. By contrast, the first, second and booster vaccination rates for the general population were 98.02% (95% CI: 97.65-98.39%), 95.01% (95% CI: 94.43-95.59%) and 85.06% (95% CI: 84.11-86.00%) respectively. The widening gap in vaccination rates was observed as the number of vaccinations increases. Higher self-efficacy was a significant factor in promoting vaccination, which has been observed in all doses of vaccines. Higher education level, middle level physical activity and higher public prevention measures play a positive role in vaccination among the general population, while alcohol consumption acts as a significant positive factor in the chronic disease population (p < 0.05). Conclusion: As the number of vaccinations increases, the trend of decreasing vaccination rate is becoming more pronounced. In future regular vaccinations, we may face low vaccination rates as the increasing number of infections and the fatigue associated with the prolonged outbreak hamper vaccination. Measures need to be found to counter this downward trend such as improving the self-efficacy of the population.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Surveys and Questionnaires
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314838, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244794


Importance: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on daily life, limited research exists on the prevalence and risk factors of suicidality and sadness among South Korean adolescents. Objectives: To examine whether the observed sadness and suicidality in the early to middle periods of the COVID-19 pandemic differed from the expected level and to investigate changes in risk factors for sadness and suicidality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide serial cross-sectional survey study used data on 1 109 776 Korean adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2005 to 2021. Exposure: The COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The pattern of changes in the percentage or proportion of sadness or suicidality, as well as the risk factors for sadness or suicidality. The transitional effect of the COVID-19 pandemic was assessed using weighted odds ratios (wORs) or weighted beta coefficients with 95% CIs. Results: Between 2005 and 2021, 1 109 776 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.7] years; 51.5% male adolescents; and 51.7% in grades 7-9 and 48.3% in grades 10-12) were included in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The slope of the long-term trends in sadness and suicidality decreased in the prepandemic period (sadness: from 37.8% [95% CI, 37.4%-38.2%] in 2005-2007 to 26.1% [95% CI, 25.9%-26.4%] in 2016-2019; suicidality: from 23.0% [95% CI, 22.7%-23.3%] in 2005-2007 to 12.3% [95% CI, 12.1%-12.5%] in 2016-2019), whereas the slope increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (sadness: from 25.0% [95% CI, 24.5%-25.6%] in 2020 to 26.6% [95% CI, 26.1%-27.1%] in 2021; trend difference in ß, 0.249 [95% CI, 0.236-0.262]; suicidality: from 10.7% [95% CI, 10.3%-11.1%] in 2020 to 12.5% [95% CI, 12.1%-12.9%] in 2021; trend difference in ß, 0.328 [95% CI, 0.312-0.344]). The trends presented a similar tendency in the subgroups according to sex, school grade, residential area, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Compared with the prepandemic period, the risk factors associated with sadness during the pandemic were younger age (wOR, 0.907; 95% CI, 0.881-0.933), female sex (wOR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.001-1.062), urban residence (wOR, 1.120; 95% CI, 1.087-1.153), current smoking status (wOR, 1.134; 95% CI, 1.059-1.216), and current alcohol use (wOR, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.002-1.102). Female sex (wOR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.021-1.109), urban residence (wOR, 1.117; 95% CI, 1.074-1.162), and low economic status (wOR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.180-1.403) were the risk factors significantly associated with suicidality after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationwide serial cross-sectional survey study of South Korean adolescents, the slope of the prevalence of sadness and suicidality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic after a decrease prior to the pandemic. The findings suggest that public health measures are needed to recognize vulnerable groups with risk factors and to prevent an increase in sadness and suicidality among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sadness , Risk Factors , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
Vaccine ; 41(30): 4422-4430, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244793


BACKGROUND: On 2/27/2021, FDA authorized Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad.26.COV2.S) for use in individuals 18 years of age and older. Vaccine safety was monitored using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national passive surveillance system, and v-safe, a smartphone-based surveillance system. METHODS: VAERS and v-safe data from 2/27/2021 to 2/28/2022 were analyzed. Descriptive analyses included sex, age, race/ethnicity, seriousness, AEs of special interest (AESIs), and cause of death. For prespecified AESIs, reporting rates were calculated using the total number of doses of Ad26.COV2.S administered. For myopericarditis, observed-to-expected (O/E) analysis was performed based on the number verified cases, vaccine administration data, and published background rates. Proportions of v-safe participants reporting local and systemic reactions, as well as health impacts, were calculated. RESULTS: During the analytic period, 17,018,042 doses of Ad26.COV2.S were administered in the United States, and VAERS received 67,995 reports of AEs after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Most AEs (59,750; 87.9 %) were non-serious and were similar to those observed during clinical trials. Serious AEs included COVID-19 disease, coagulopathy (including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome; TTS), myocardial infarction, Bell's Palsy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Among AESIs, reporting rates per million doses of Ad26.COV2.S administered ranged from 0.06 for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children to 263.43 for COVID-19 disease. O/E analysis revealed elevated reporting rate ratios (RRs) for myopericarditis; among adults ages 18-64 years, the RR was 3.19 (95 % CI 2.00, 4.83) within 7 days and 1.79 (95 % CI 1.26, 2.46) within 21 days of vaccination. Of 416,384 Ad26.COV2.S recipients enrolled into v-safe, 60.9 % reported local symptoms (e.g. injection site pain) and 75.9 % reported systemic symptoms (e.g., fatigue, headache). One-third of participants (141,334; 33.9 %) reported a health impact, but only 1.4 % sought medical care. CONCLUSION: Our review confirmed previously established safety risks for TTS and GBS and identified a potential safety concern for myocarditis.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Ad26COVS1 , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 74-83, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244757


INTRODUCTION: In addition to many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the COVID-19 pandemic also limited prophylaxis, including the implementation of the vaccination program among children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the implementation of the vaccination program in the area covered by the care of patients of a selected Primary Health Care clinic in the city of Krakow in the field of selected vaccinations during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study based on secondary data was conducted in a selected clinic (Kraków, Poland) that cares for 1,982 children aged 0-19 years. An analysis of the vaccination coverage in selected groups of children in 2019, 2020 and 2021 was carried out based on annual reports (MZ-54). Vaccination coverage against: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza and pneumococcal infection was analyzed. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: In the general vaccination status of two-year-olds, no significant differences were observed in the period 2019-2021 (p=0.156). The percentage of fully vaccinated increased from 77.6% in 2019, to 81.5% in 2020 and to 85.2% in 2021. However, a high rate of vaccination refusals was observed in 2021 (4.1%) in this group. The percentage of 2-year-olds vaccinated against pneumococci (PCV) and 3-year-olds against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP), and measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) in the years 2019-2021 was increasing. For DTP and MMR, this increase was significant (p<0.05). In the group of older children, in 2020 the percentage of 7- and 15-year-olds vaccinated decreased compared to 2019 and 2021, but the difference was insignificant (p>0.05). A significant difference in vaccination coverage was observed in the group of 19-year-olds, in which in 2020 the percentage of vaccinated was 58% (in 2019 - 74.6%, in 2021 - 81%). The largest number of children under the age of 5 were vaccinated against influenza in 2021, but it was only less than 2% of this group. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitary restrictions introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the vaccination status of children in selected age groups against the analyzed vaccine-preventable diseases. The exception is the group of 19-year-olds, whose vaccination coverage in 2020 was much lower than in 2019 and 2021. In addition, an increase in refusals of vaccination was observed, reaching 4.1% in 2021 in the group of the youngest patients.

COVID-19 , Diphtheria , Influenza, Human , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Mumps/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Vaccination , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(6): 137-140, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244750


At its October 2022 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices* (ACIP) approved the Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger, United States, 2023. The 2023 child and adolescent immunization schedule, available on the CDC immunization schedule website (, summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2022 immunization schedule† on the cover page, tables, notes, and appendix. Health care providers are advised to use the tables, notes, and appendix together to determine recommended vaccinations for patient populations. This immunization schedule is recommended by ACIP ( and approved by CDC (, the American Academy of Pediatrics (, the American Academy of Family Physicians (, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (, the American College of Nurse-Midwives (, the American Academy of Physician Associates (, and the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (

Advisory Committees , Immunization , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Immunization Schedule , United States , Vaccination
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244705


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic required science to provide answers rapidly to combat the outbreak. Hence, the reproducibility and quality of conducting research may have been threatened, particularly regarding privacy and data protection, in varying ways around the globe. The objective was to investigate aspects of reporting informed consent and data handling as proxies for study quality conduct. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was performed by searching PubMed and Embase. The search was performed on November 8th, 2020. Studies with hospitalised patients diagnosed with COVID-19 over 18 years old were eligible for inclusion. With a focus on informed consent, data were extracted on the study design, prestudy protocol registration, ethical approval, data anonymisation, data sharing and data transfer as proxies for study quality. For reasons of comparison, data regarding country income level, study location and journal impact factor were also collected. RESULTS: 972 studies were included. 21.3% of studies reported informed consent, 42.6% reported waivers of consent, 31.4% did not report consent information and 4.7% mentioned other types of consent. Informed consent reporting was highest in clinical trials (94.6%) and lowest in retrospective cohort studies (15.0%). The reporting of consent versus no consent did not differ significantly by journal impact factor (p=0.159). 16.8% of studies reported a prestudy protocol registration or design. Ethical approval was described in 90.9% of studies. Information on anonymisation was provided in 17.0% of studies. In 257 multicentre studies, 1.2% reported on data sharing agreements, and none reported on Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable data principles. 1.2% reported on open data. Consent was most often reported in the Middle East (42.4%) and least often in North America (4.7%). Only one report originated from a low-income country. DISCUSSION: Informed consent and aspects of data handling and sharing were under-reported in publications concerning COVID-19 and differed between countries, which strains study quality conduct when in dire need of answers.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Informed Consent
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e069217, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244402


OBJECTIVES: To describe self-reported characteristics and symptoms of treatment-seeking patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS). To assess the impact of symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patients' ability to work and undertake activities of daily living. DESIGN: Cross-sectional single-arm service evaluation of real-time user data. SETTING: 31 post-COVID-19 clinics in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 3754 adults diagnosed with PCS in primary or secondary care deemed suitable for rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: Patients using the Living With Covid Recovery digital health intervention registered between 30 November 2020 and 23 March 2022. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the baseline Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS measures the functional limitations of the patient; scores of ≥20 indicate moderately severe limitations. Other symptoms explored included fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-Eight Item Depression Scale), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, Seven-Item), breathlessness (Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale and Dyspnoea-12), cognitive impairment (Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Five-Item Version) and HRQoL (EQ-5D). Symptoms and demographic characteristics associated with more severe functional limitations were identified using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 3541 (94%) patients were of working age (18-65); mean age (SD) 48 (12) years; 1282 (71%) were female and 89% were white. 51% reported losing ≥1 days from work in the previous 4 weeks; 20% reported being unable to work at all. Mean WSAS score at baseline was 21 (SD 10) with 53% scoring ≥20. Factors associated with WSAS scores of ≥20 were high levels of fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment. Fatigue was found to be the main symptom contributing to a high WSAS score. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of this PCS treatment-seeking population was of working age with over half reporting moderately severe or worse functional limitation. There were substantial impacts on ability to work and activities of daily living in people with PCS. Clinical care and rehabilitation should address the management of fatigue as the dominant symptom explaining variation in functionality.

COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Adolescent , Young Adult , Aged
Thromb Res ; 228: 121-127, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244318


INTRODUCTION: The European Medicine Agency has authorized COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) from 12 years onwards. In elderly vitamin K antagonist (VKA) users, COVID-19 vaccination has been associated with an increased risk of supra- and subtherapeutic INRs. Whether this association is also observed in AYAs using VKA is unknown. Our aim was to describe the stability of anticoagulation after COVID-19 vaccination in AYA VKA users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-crossover study was performed in a cohort of AYAs (12-30 years) using VKAs. The most recent INR results before vaccination, the reference period, were compared with the most recent INR after the first and, if applicable, second vaccination. Several sensitivity analyses were performed in which we restricted our analysis to stable patients and patients without interacting events. RESULTS: 101 AYAs were included, with a median age [IQR] of 25 [7] years, of whom 51.5 % were male and 68.3 % used acenocoumarol. We observed a decrease of 20.8 % in INRs within range after the first vaccination, due to an increase of 16.8 % in supratherapeutic INRs. These results were verified in our sensitivity analyses. No differences were observed after the second vaccination compared to before and after the first vaccination. Complications after vaccination occurred less often than before vaccination (9.0 vs 3.0 bleedings) and were non-severe. CONCLUSIONS: the stability of anticoagulation after COVID-19 vaccination was decreased in AYA VKA users. However, the decrease might not be clinically relevant as no increase of complications nor significant dose adjustments were observed.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Adult , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Over Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Vitamin K
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 501-517, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244063


INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As SARS-CoV-2 moves into endemic status, vaccination remains a key element in protecting the health of individuals, societies, and economies worldwide. AREAS COVERED: NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD) is a recombinant protein vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer nanoparticles formulated with saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant (Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD). NVX-CoV2373 is authorized for emergency use in adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years in the United States and numerous other countries. EXPERT OPINION: In clinical trials, NVX-CoV2373 showed tolerable reactogenicity and favorable safety profiles characterized by mostly mild-to-moderate adverse events of short duration and by low rates of severe and serious adverse events comparable to those seen with placebo. The two-dose primary vaccination series resulted in robust increases in anti-spike protein immunoglobulin G, neutralizing antibody titers, and cellular immune responses. NVX-CoV2373 vaccination was associated with complete protection against severe disease and a high (90%) rate of protection against symptomatic disease in adults, including symptomatic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Additionally, the NVX-CoV2373 adjuvanted recombinant protein platform offers a means to address issues of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and global vaccine equity.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Child
Virol J ; 20(1): 106, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243616


BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity and virulence of the Omicron strain have weakened significantly pathogenesis of Omicron variants. Accumulating data indicated accessory proteins play crucial roles in host immune evasion and virus pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the impact of simultaneous deletion of accessory protein ORF7a, ORF7b and ORF8 on the clinical characteristics and specific immunity in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (BIPs) need to be verified. METHODS: Herein, plasma cytokines were identified using a commercial Multi-cytokine detection kit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudovirus neutralization assays were utilized to determine the titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells and memory B cells. RESULTS: A local COVID-19 outbreak was caused by the Omicron BA.2 variant, which featured a deletion of 871 base pairs (∆871 BA.2), resulting in the removal of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8. We found that hospitalized patients with ∆871 BA.2 had significantly shorter hospital stays than those with wild-type (WT) BA.2. Plasma cytokine levels in both ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 patients were within the normal range of reference, and there was no notable difference in the titers of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor or Omicron-specific binding IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers, effector T cells, and memory B cells frequencies between ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 infected adult patients. However, antibody titers in ∆871 BA.2 infected adolescents were higher than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous deletion of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 facilitates the rapid clearance of the BA.2 variant, without impacting cytokine levels or affecting SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity in Omicron-infected individuals.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay