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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(21): 1695-1702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197774

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is an important immune-modulator with anti-inflammatory properties. While this prohormone has been studied extensively in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, findings have been inconsistent regarding its overall benefit in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most studies to date have been observational in nature, not accounting for the use of corticosteroids. Furthermore, the few randomized clinical trials designed to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 outcomes have been relatively small and thus insufficiently powered to assure a balance of corticosteroid use between study arms. The current perspective addresses the interaction of vitamin D and corticosteroids as a potential explanation for the divergent results reported in the literature. Future research on vitamin D and COVID-19 will benefit by considering this interaction, especially among hospitalized patients requiring oxygen and mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 891, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of corticosteroids on patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is currently unknown. We aimed to investigate the association of corticosteroids on these patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study screened 5447 confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized between Jan 1, 2020 to Apr 18, 2020 in seven centers in China, where the prevalence of chronic HBV infection is moderate to high. Severe patients who had chronic HBV and acute SARS-cov-2 infection were potentially eligible. The diagnosis of chronic HBV infection was based on positive testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or HBV DNA during hospitalization and a medical history of chronic HBV infection. Severe patients (meeting one of following criteria: respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; severe respiratory distress; or SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air; or oxygen index < 300 mmHg) with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were identified. The bias of confounding variables on corticosteroids effects was minimized using multivariable logistic regression model and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity score. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV co-infection in COVID-19 patients was 4.1%. There were 105 patients with severe COVID-19/HBV co-infections (median age 62 years, 57.1% male). Fifty-five patients received corticosteroid treatment and 50 patients did not. In the multivariable analysis, corticosteroid therapy (OR, 6.32, 95% CI 1.17-34.24, P = 0.033) was identified as an independent risk factor for 28-day mortality. With IPTW analysis, corticosteroid treatment was associated with delayed SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (OR, 2.95, 95% CI 1.63-5.32, P < 0.001), increased risk of 28-day and in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.90, 95% CI 1.68-14.28, P = 0.004; OR, 5.64, 95% CI 1.95-16.30, P = 0.001, respectively), and acute liver injury (OR, 4.50, 95% CI 2.57-7.85, P < 0.001). Methylprednisolone dose per day and cumulative dose in non-survivors were significantly higher than in survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19/HBV co-infection, corticosteroid treatment may be associated with increased risk of 28-day and in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
3.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(6): 1431-1434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128926

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to highlight the potentially fatal risk of Strongyloidiasis Hyperinfection Syndrome for hospitalized immigrant patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease and undiagnosed Strongyloidiasis. We reviewed electronic medical records of immigrants from 2010 to 2022 and extracted the number of patients with eosinophilia, strongyloidiasis and COVID-19 infection, outpatient and hospitalized. While 885 outpatients were diagnosed with eosinophilia, only 356 (40.2%) were tested for strongyloidiasis and 160 (44.9%) yielded a reactive serology. COVID-19 infection was reported in 6,412 patients. 1135 (17.7%) of these patients sought hospital care. Patients with undiagnosed strongyloidiasis are at risk for a potentially fatal parasitosis if treated with systemic corticosteroids for COVID-19. This supports clinical guidelines in hospital settings for those with severe COVID-19. Strongyloidiasis should be considered by taking a thorough travel or migration history and testing before giving immunosuppressive drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eosinophilia , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis , Transients and Migrants , Animals , Humans , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Management of severe COVID-19 patients with persistent respiratory failure after acute phase treatment is not only challenging, but evidence for treatment is scarce, despite some authors reporting favourable clinical responses to corticosteroid therapy in histologically proven secondary organising pneumonia (OP). This study aimed to report the course of the disease, radiological pattern and clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients with persistent respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of severe COVID-19 patients who were admitted to a single tertiary centre from 1 January 2021 to 30 June 2021. The clinical data of the patients during admission and clinic follow-up, including radiological images, were traced using electronic medical records. RESULTS: In our cohort, the mortality rate for those with severe COVID-19 was 23.1% (173/749). Among the survivors, 46.2% (266/576) had persistent respiratory failure (PRF) after 14 days of illness. Of them, 70.3% (187/266) were followed up, and 68% (128/187) received oral corticosteroid (prednisolone) maintenance treatment. OP pattern made up the majority (81%) of the radiological pattern with a mean severity CT score of 10 (SD±3). The mean prednisolone dose was 0.68mg/kg/day with a mean treatment duration of 47 days (SD±18). About one-third of patients (67/187) had respiratory symptoms at 4 weeks (SD±3). Among 78.1% (146/187) who had a repeated CXR during follow-up, only 12 patients (8.2%, SD±3) had radiological improvement of less than 50% at 6 weeks (SD±3), with 2 of them later diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Functional assessments, such as the 6-minute walk test and the spirometry, were only performed in 52.4% and 15.5% of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the patients with severe COVID-19 had PRF, with a predominant radiological OP pattern. More than two-thirds of the PRF patients required prolonged oral corticosteroid treatment. Familiarising clinicians with the disease course, radiological patterns, and potential outcomes of this group of patients may better equip them to manage their patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Malaysia/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Pneumonia/complications , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118692

ABSTRACT

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder with an unknown cause characterized by high-spiking fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hyperferritinemia, and leukocytosis. The clinical course can be divided into three significant patterns, each with a different prognosis: Self-limited or monophasic, intermittent or polycyclic systemic, and chronic articular. Two criteria sets have been validated. The Yamaguchi criteria are the most generally used, although the Fautrel criteria offer the benefit of adding ferritin and glycosylated ferritin values. AOSD's pathogenesis is not yet completely understood. Chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18, play a crucial role in the progression of illness, resulting in the development of innovative targeted therapeutics. There are no treatment guidelines for AOSD due to its rarity, absence of controlled research, and lack of a standard definition for remission and therapy objectives. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids (CS), and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) are used in AOSD treatment. Biological therapy, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 inhibitors, as well as TNFα or Janus-kinases (JAKs) inhibitors, is administered to patients who do not react to CS and csDMARDs or achieve an inadequate response.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Adult , Humans , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/diagnosis , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/drug therapy , Interleukin-18 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1/therapeutic use
6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(10): 2585-2590, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104161

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids lower mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen support. In this observational retrospective study (September 2020-June 2021), we explored the association between receiving home corticosteroids without oxygen supply and 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Among a total of 794 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 763 were included into the study (males 68%; mean age 65 ±12 years), of whom 197 (26%) received home corticosteroids (mean daily prednisone equivalent-dose 40 mg ± 12 mg; range 10-50 mg; median 50 mg; IQR 25-50 mg; for 4 days). The overall 30-day mortality of the study population was 12%. The risk of death-adjusted for age, comorbidities, administration of remdesivir and respiratory failure severity-was lower (HR 0.405; p = 0.024) in patients receiving home corticosteroids. After stratifying the study population by age categories, home corticosteroids were associated with an adjusted decrease in mortality risk in patients > 77 years (HR 0.346; p = 0.040). Home corticosteroids may lower the 30-day mortality in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Steroids
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(2): JC3, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103352

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Ye Z, Rochwerg B, Wang Y, et al. Treatment of patients with nonsevere and severe coronavirus disease 2019: an evidence-based guideline. CMAJ. 2020;192:E536-45. 32350002.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Plasma , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation in the United Kingdom requested an evidence synthesis to investigate the relationship between asthma and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise evidence on the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in people with uncontrolled asthma or markers of asthma severity. METHODS: High-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or oral corticosteroids (OCS) were used as markers of asthma severity, following international or national asthma guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Adjusted point estimates were extracted for random-effects meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: After screening, 12 studies (11 in adults and one in children) met the eligibility criteria. Adults using high-dose ICS or OCS had a pooled adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.06-1.67, I2=0%) for hospitalisation and an aHR of 1.22 (95% CI 0.90-1.65, I2=70%) for mortality for COVID-19. We found insufficient evidence for associations between markers on COVID-19 mortality in the subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with severe asthma are at increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation compared to nonusers. Our analysis highlighted the dearth of studies in children with asthma investigating serious COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
9.
Ter Arkh ; 94(4): 497-502, 2022 May 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091496

ABSTRACT

Treatment of patients with long-term persistent symptoms after COVID-19 is an urgent problem for clinicians around the world. One of the most significant manifestations of post-COVID-19 syndrome is organizing pneumonia that is usually treat with corticosteroids. The paper presents a clinical case of typical course of post-COVID-19 organizing pneumonia in a patient without previous lung disease. Risk factors, diagnostic methods and treatment options in this group of patients are also discuss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
11.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(6): 733-740, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of topical corticosteroids is limited in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) due to rapid clearance from the nasal cavity and insufficient drug delivery to inflamed sinonasal passages. LYR-210 is an implantable corticosteroid matrix designed to provide up to 24 weeks of treatment to patients with CRS by locally delivering mometasone furoate (MF) to the sinonasal mucosa. In a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging LANTERN study, LYR-210 (7500 µg) achieved clinically relevant improvement in CRS cardinal symptom composite scores, the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), ethmoid opacification, and the need for rescue treatment at 24 weeks. OBJECTIVE: As the plasma MF concentrations of LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) were evaluated at weeks 4, 12, and 24 in the LANTERN study (data on file at Lyra Therapeutics, Inc.), this study aims to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of both doses of LYR-210 at earlier timepoints post-placement in patients with CRS. METHODS: Twenty-four surgically naïve adult patients with CRS were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter study and underwent in-office bilateral administration of LYR-210 (2500 µg) (n = 12 patients) or LYR-210 (7500 µg) (n = 12 patients) into the middle meatus. Plasma MF concentrations were determined pre-placement and 1-h post-placement (day 1), and on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Both LYR-210 doses were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. Systemic MF levels were dose-dependent and lower than reported values of other respiratory MF products. Plasma MF concentrations showed steady drug release from LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) that persisted through day 56. CONCLUSION: LYR-210 achieved dose-dependent, continuous local MF delivery at a steady rate with low systemic exposure for months.


Subject(s)
Pregnadienediols , Sinusitis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Chronic Disease , Drug Liberation , Humans , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnadienediols/adverse effects , Pregnadienediols/pharmacokinetics , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7297-7304, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia and hyperinflammatory state related to COVID-19 infection are fatal clinical conditions without definite treatment modalities. Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-1 targeted therapies have been proposed as treatment options. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of anakinra and tocilizumab added to corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and hyper-inflammatory syndrome in our tertiary clinical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and hyperinflammatory state who did not respond to initial treatments, including corticosteroids, were included in the study. The patients' electronic records were reviewed retrospectively and recorded according to a standardized data table. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with intubation. RESULTS: 388 patients were included in the study. 197 patients were intubated and most of them died (n=194/197, 98%). 67 patients received tocilizumab, and 97 patients received anakinra. Anakinra [OR: 0.440, 95% CI=0.244-0.794, p=0.006] and tocilizumab [OR: 0.491, 95% CI=0.256-0.943, p=0.033] were both associated with a decreased risk for intubation. However, having a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 10 [OR: 2.035, 95% CI=1.143-3.623, p=0.016], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level ≥ 400 [OR: 3.160, 95% CI=1.937-5.156, p<0.001] and age ≥ 50 [OR: 4.048, 95% CI=2.037-8.043, p < 0.001] was associated with an increased risk for intubation. CONCLUSIONS: Both anakinra and tocilizumab, added to initial standard COVID-19 treatments (including glucocorticoids) reduced the need for intubation in patients with COVID-19-associated severe pneumonia and hyperinflammatory syndrome. Given the high mortality rate of intubated patients with COVID-19, both treatments may have added benefits on mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1 , Lactate Dehydrogenases
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1390-1397, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Using steroids to manage hospitalised coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection has been shown to reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality. To date, low-dose dexamethasone and methylprednisolone corticosteroids have been effective in reducing the infection's progress in hospitalised patients. However, it is unknown if high dosages of corticosteroids can achieve a better clinical outcome. This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients who are given a 10-day low-dose corticosteroid treatment (IV 2 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone loading dose (LD) then 0.25 mg/kg four times a day (q.i.d.)) with patients given a 10-day high-dose corticosteroid treatment (IV 20 mg dexamethasone once daily (o.d.) or a 1.5 mg/kg prednisolone tablet o.d.). METHODOLOGY: Retrospective data on hospitalised COVID-19 patients were collected for this study, and the primary outcome measure was the patients' clinical status based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) on Day-5 and Day-10 post-steroid. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that using steroids significantly improved patients' clinical outcomes from a WHO OSCI level of 4 (0.1) on Day-1 to 2.6 (2.5) on Day-5 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in clinical outcome between low-dose and high-dose corticosteroid treatment on Day-5 (H = 2.15; p = 0.34) and Day-10 (H = 1.12; p = 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that using low-dose corticosteroids is recommended for hospitalised COVID-19 patients to ensure clinical outcomes are optimised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Malaysia , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(40): e30953, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063076

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoinflammatory illness of unknown cause. Its manifestations comprise fever; arthritis or arthralgia; and skin rash with high inflammatory markers and ferritin levels. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shares several clinical features and laboratory markers of AOSD: making it challenging to differentiate between the 2 conditions. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 29-year-old woman presented with fever, skin rash, and polyarthritis 4 weeks before admission. Two weeks after illness onset, she had an infection with symptoms similar to those of COVID-19. She observed that her symptoms worsened, and new symptoms appeared including headache; vomiting; diarrhea; and loss of taste and smell. The patient tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with AOSD complicated with COVID-19 after exclusion of other possible causes of her illness, such as infections, malignancy, or underlying rheumatological disease. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered corticosteroids and methotrexate. The patient responded quickly, particularly to corticosteroids. OUTCOMES: This is the second reported case of COVID-19 in a patient with AOSD. She experienced COVID-19 shortly after having AOSD, indicating that those with AOSD might have a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, she developed the most prevalent COVID-19 symptoms. However, distinguishing most of these symptoms from AOSD manifestations was difficult. LESSONS: Early diagnosis and differentiation between AOSD and COVID-19 and prompt initiation of treatment are required.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Arthritis/diagnosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exanthema/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins , Fever/etiology , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/complications , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/diagnosis , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/drug therapy
15.
J Crit Care ; 72: 154162, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim was to verify the impact of obesity on the long-term outcome of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study included patients admitted to the high-volume ECMO centre between March 2020 and March 2022. The impact of body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities and therapeutic measures on the short and 90-day outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: 292 patients were included, of whom 119(40.8%) were treated with veno-venous ECMO cannulated mostly (73%) in a local hospital. 58.5% were obese (64.7% on ECMO), the ECMO was most frequent in BMI > 40(49%). The ICU mortality (36.8% for obese vs 33.9% for the non-obese, p = 0.58) was related to ECMO only for the non-obese (p = 0.04). The 90-day mortalities (48.5% obese vs 45.5% non-obese, p = 0.603) of the ECMO and non-ECMO patients were not significantly influenced by BMI (p = 0.47, p = 0.771, respectively). The obesity associated risk factors for adverse outcome were age <50 (RR 2.14) and history of chronic immunosuppressive therapy (RR 2.11, p = 0.009). The higher dosage of steroids (RR 0.57, p = 0.05) associated with a better outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of obesity was not associated with worse short and long-term outcomes. ECMO in obese patients together with the use of steroids in the later stage of ARDS may improve survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Obesity/complications , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
16.
Med J Aust ; 217(7): 368-378, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Australian National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce was established in March 2020 to maintain up-to-date recommendations for the treatment of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The original guideline (April 2020) has been continuously updated and expanded from nine to 176 recommendations, facilitated by the rapid identification, appraisal, and analysis of clinical trial findings and subsequent review by expert panels. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: In this article, we describe the recommendations for treating non-pregnant adults with COVID-19, as current on 1 August 2022 (version 61.0). The Taskforce has made specific recommendations for adults with severe/critical or mild disease, including definitions of disease severity, recommendations for therapy, COVID-19 prophylaxis, respiratory support, and supportive care. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THE GUIDELINE: The Taskforce currently recommends eight drug treatments for people with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen (inhaled corticosteroids, casirivimab/imdevimab, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, regdanvimab, remdesivir, sotrovimab, tixagevimab/cilgavimab) and six for those who require supplemental oxygen (systemic corticosteroids, remdesivir, tocilizumab, sarilumab, baricitinib, casirivimab/imdevimab). Based on evidence of their achieving no or only limited benefit, ten drug treatments or treatment combinations are not recommended; an additional 42 drug treatments should only be used in the context of randomised trials. Additional recommendations include support for the use of continuous positive airway pressure, prone positioning, and endotracheal intubation in patients whose condition is deteriorating, and prophylactic anticoagulation for preventing venous thromboembolism. The latest updates and full recommendations are available at www.covid19evidence.net.au.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Anticoagulants , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Oxygen , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 56(10): 1460-1474, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic offered a unique opportunity to understand inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management during unexpected disruption. This could help to guide practice overall. AIMS: To compare prescribing behaviour for IBD flares and outcomes during the early pandemic with pre-pandemic findings METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study comprising patients who contacted IBD teams for symptomatic flares between March and June 2020 in 60 National Health Service trusts in the United Kingdom. Data were compared with a pre-pandemic cohort after propensity-matching for age and physician global assessment of disease activity. RESULTS: We included 1864 patients in each of the pandemic and pre-pandemic cohorts. The principal findings were reduced systemic corticosteroid prescription during the pandemic in Crohn's disease (prednisolone: pandemic 26.5% vs. 37.1%; p < 0.001) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (prednisolone: pandemic 33.5% vs. 40.7%, p < 0.001), with increases in poorly bioavailable oral corticosteroids in Crohn's (pandemic 15.6% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001) and UC (pandemic 11.8% vs. 5.2%; p < 0.001). Ustekinumab (Crohn's and UC) and vedolizumab (UC) treatment also significantly increased. Three-month steroid-free remission in each period was similar in Crohn's (pandemic 28.4% vs. 32.1%; p = 0.17) and UC (pandemic 36.4% vs. 40.2%; p = 0.095). Patients experiencing a flare and suspected COVID-19 were more likely to have moderately-to-severely active disease at 3 months than those with a flare alone. CONCLUSIONS: Despite treatment adaptations during the pandemic, steroid-free outcomes were comparable with pre-pandemic levels, although concurrent flare and suspected COVID-19 caused worse outcomes. These findings have implications for IBD management during future pandemics and for standard practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Ustekinumab , State Medicine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Prednisolone
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