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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153049, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730084

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak and widespread of the COVID-19 pandemic, large numbers of disposable face masks (DFMs) were abandoned in the environment. This study first investigated the sorption and desorption behaviors of four antibiotics (tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and triclosan (TCS)) on DFMs in the freshwater and seawater. It was found that the antibiotics in the freshwater exhibited relatively higher sorption and desorption capacities on the DFMs than those in the seawater. Here the antibiotics sorption processes were greatly related to their zwitterion species while the effect of salinity on the sorption processes was negligible. However, the desorption processes were jointly dominated by solution pH and salinity, with greater desorption capacities at lower pH values and salinity. Interestingly, we found that the distribution coefficient (Kd) of TCS (0.3947 L/g) and SMX (0.0399 L/g) on DFMs was higher than those on some microplastics in freshwater systems. The sorption affinity of the antibiotics onto the DFMs followed the order of TCS > SMX > CIP > TC, which was positively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) of the antibiotics. Besides, the sorption processes of the antibiotics onto the DFMs were mainly predominated by film diffusion and partitioning mechanism. Overall, hydrophobic interaction regulated the antibiotics sorption processes. These findings would help to evaluate the environmental behavior of DFMs and to provide the analytical framework of their role in the transport of other pollutants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Fresh Water/chemistry , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Plastics/chemistry , Seawater/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 127901, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573490

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to evaluate the adsorption capacity and mechanism of two antiviral drugs AVDs (lopinavir (LOP) and ritonavir (RIT)) on three various sewage sludges (SSLs). The results showed that SSLs differed in the structure and chemical composition and LOP and RIT had a high affinity to the studied SSLs (Kd in ranges 2076-3449 L/kg). The adsorption capacities differed between SSLs and ranged 7.55-8.71 mg/g (RIT) and 8.10-8.64 mg/g (LOP). The Freundlich model provided a best fitting of adsorption isotherms of all AVDs-SSLs. The adsorption kinetics were best described by pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption of LOP and RIT on SSLs was exothermic, spontaneous, and thermodynamically feasible. The sorption of LOP and RIT to SSLs was complex due to the diverse chemical composition of SSLs and the differences in the chemical structure of AVDs. Analysis of binary solution of both AVDs showed the competition effect between AVDs and a decrease in adsorption efficiency (3-17%) compared to single solutions. The amount of desorbed AVDs from all SSLs was low (less than 15%). The findings of the present work are significant in the prediction of fate and persistence of AVDs on SSLs in the context of their further transmission and possible environmental contamination.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Antiviral Agents , Kinetics , Lopinavir , Ritonavir , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 191-200, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655440

ABSTRACT

At present, the most powerful new drugs for COVID-19 are antibody proteins. In addition, there are some star small molecule drugs. However, there are few studies on nanomaterials. Here, we study the intact graphene (IG), defective graphene (DG), and graphene oxide (GO) interacting with COVID-19 protein. We find that they show progressive inhibition of COVID-19 protein. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 3CL Mpro and graphene-related materials (GRMs): IG, DG, and GO. The results show that Mpro can be absorbed onto the surfaces of investigated materials. DG and GO interacted with Mpro more intensely, causing the decisive part of Mpro to become more flexible. Further analysis shows that compared to IG and GO, DG can inactivate Mpro and inhibit its expression effectively by destroying the active pocket of Mpro. Our work not only provides detailed and reliable theoretical guidance for the application of GRMs in treating with SARS-CoV-2 but also helps in developing new graphene-based anti-COVID-19 materials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adsorption , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Graphite/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124043, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635125

ABSTRACT

In this review, we present the environmental perspectives of the viruses and antiviral drugs related to SARS-CoV-2. The present review paper discusses occurrence, fate, transport, susceptibility, and inactivation mechanisms of viruses in the environment as well as environmental occurrence and fate of antiviral drugs, and prospects (prevalence and occurrence) of antiviral drug resistance (both antiviral drug resistant viruses and antiviral resistance in the human). During winter, the number of viral disease cases and environmental occurrence of antiviral drug surge due to various biotic and abiotic factors such as transmission pathways, human behaviour, susceptibility, and immunity as well as cold climatic conditions. Adsorption and persistence critically determine the fate and transport of viruses in the environment. Inactivation and disinfection of virus include UV, alcohol, and other chemical-base methods but the susceptibility of virus against these methods varies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major reserviors of antiviral drugs and their metabolites and transformation products. Ecotoxicity of antiviral drug residues against aquatic organisms have been reported, however more threatening is the development of antiviral resistance, both in humans and in wild animal reservoirs. In particular, emergence of antiviral drug-resistant viruses via exposure of wild animals to high loads of antiviral residues during the current pandemic needs further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollutants , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Adsorption , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Environmental Pollutants/therapeutic use , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Water Purification
5.
Small Methods ; 5(5): e2001108, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599126

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemoperfusion/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Titanium/administration & dosage , Adsorption , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Titanium/chemistry
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 426: 128076, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587274

ABSTRACT

Usage of disposable plastic products and disinfectants has been skyrocketing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The random disposal of plastic products may result in greater microplastic pollution. Benzalkonium chloride is known as one of the most common ingredients of disinfectants. In this study, the adsorption behavior of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC12, BAC14, BAC16) on polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) and the combined toxic effects were investigated using batch adsorption experiment and Daphnia magna. The results showed that PE-MPs had strong adsorption capacity for BACs and the adsorption capacity increased (11.03-22.77 mg g-1) with their octanol-water distribution coefficients. The effect of pH was negligible while dissolved organic matter inhibited the adsorption. A slightly inverse relationship between particle size of PE-MPs and adsorption was observed. Additionally, the MP aging with UV/H2O2 increased the adsorption of BAC12 but decreased that of relatively hydrophobic BAC14 and BAC16. The survival rate of Daphnia magna increased up to 100% in the presence of PE-MPs depending upon their adsorption capacities, suggesting that PE-MPs do not act as a carrier but rather as a scavenger for BACs. This study provides important information necessary for environmental risk assessment with regard to the combined pollution of MPs and toxic chemicals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Benzalkonium Compounds/toxicity , Chlorides , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Microplastics , Pandemics , Plastics , Polyethylene/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
7.
Chemosphere ; 289: 133213, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561142

ABSTRACT

Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic has been increasing the consumption of some drugs, such as chloroquine (CQN) and dipyrone (DIP), which are continuously discharged into water resources through domestic sewage treatment systems. The presence of these drugs in water bodies is worrisome due to their high toxicity, which makes crucial their monitoring and removal, especially by means of advanced technologies. Given this scenario, a new adsorbent material was synthesized through the combination of babassu coconut activated carbon and graphene oxide (GAC-GO). This study was evaluated in batch adsorption processes, aiming at the treatment of water contaminated with CQN and DIP. Characterization analyzes using physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques indicated that the GAC-GO functionalization was successfully performed. The equilibrium time of the adsorption process was 18 and 12 h for CQN and DIP, respectively. Kinetic and isothermal data better fitted to pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models for both drugs. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the process is endothermic and the maximum adsorption capacities of CQN and DIP were 37.65 and 62.43 mg g-1, respectively, both at 318 K. The study of the effect of ionic strength, which simulates a real effluent, demonstrated that the synthesized adsorbent has potential application for the treatment of effluents. Furthermore, satisfactory removal rates were verified for the removal of other contaminants in both simple solutions and synthetic mixtures, evidencing the versatile profile of the adsorbent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , COVID-19/drug therapy , Charcoal , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
8.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(44): 9221-9229, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550364

ABSTRACT

Ethyl butyrate (EB) was identified in recent research as a prominent biomarker of COVID-19, as concentrations of EB were higher in exhaled breath of COVID-19 patients. Electronic sensitivities of pristine, Al- and Si-doped BC3 nanosheets to the EB molecule were investigated in this study using density functional theory. It is found that the pure BC3 was ineffective in sensing EB due to low adsorption energy and sensitivity. Aluminum- and silicon-doped BC3 nanosheets were effective in forming a strong interaction with EB and were also sensitive. Our calculations show that the band gaps of the Al-doped and Si-doped BC3 sheets were significantly decreased upon EB adsorption, which increased the electrical conductance of the sheets and the sensitivity. However, Si-doped BC3 had a recovery time of almost 22 hours, making it less potent than Al-doped BC3, which had a recovery time of just 7.7 minutes. The shorter recovery time of the Al-doped BC3 sheet is due to its moderate adsorption energy of 25.8 kcal mol-1. These results can help facilitate the development of an EB biosensor for COVID-19 testing and other similar applications.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Butyrates/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adsorption , COVID-19/virology , Humans
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 449, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549458

ABSTRACT

Treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals is challenging. Heavy metals are non-degradable, persistent in the environment, have a high dispersion capacity by water, can bioaccumulate, and represent risks to human and environmental health. Conventional treatment methods have disadvantages; however, adsorption in biomass is a highly promising method with high efficiency and low cost that avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional methods. Black tea (BT) wastes and water hyacinth (WH) have attracted attention for their ability to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Utilizing these approaches can remove contaminants and effectively manage problematic invasive species and wastes. The conventional uses of BT and WH were efficient for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Due to the unique and distinct properties and advantages of biochar and nano-forms of biosorbents, the use of BT and WH in these forms is promising to achieve sustainable heavy metals removal from wastewater. However, more study is needed to confirm preliminary results.


Subject(s)
Eichhornia , Metals, Heavy , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Tea , Waste Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 427: 127903, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536649

ABSTRACT

Increases in plastic-related pollution and their weathering can be a serious threat to environmental sustainability and human health, especially during the present COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus) pandemic. Planetary risks of plastic waste disposed from diverse sources are exacerbated by the weathering-driven alterations in their physical-chemical attributes and presence of hazardous pollutants mediated through adsorption. Besides, plastic polymers act as vectors of toxic chemical contaminants and pathogenic microbes through sorption onto the 'plastisphere' (i.e., plastic-microbe/biofilm-environment interface). In this review, the effects of weathering-driven alterations on the plastisphere are addressed in relation to the fate/cycling of environmental contaminants along with the sorption/desorption dynamics of micro-/nano-scale plastic (MPs/NPs) polymers for emerging contaminants (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and certain heavy metals). The weathering processes, pathways, and mechanisms governing the adsorption of specific environmental pollutants on MPs/NPs surface are thus evaluated in relation to the physicochemical alterations based on several kinetic and isotherm studies. Consequently, the detailed evaluation on the role of the complex associations between weathering and physicochemical properties of plastics should help us gain a better knowledge with respect to the transport, behavior, fate, and toxicological chemistry of plastics along with the proper tactics for their sustainable remediation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
11.
Chemosphere ; 291(Pt 3): 132995, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520761

ABSTRACT

The latent dangers of waterborne viral transmission have become a major public health concern. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were decorated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to adsorb severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike pseudovirus and three human enteric viruses (HuNoV, HRV, and HAdV). The successful combination of CTAB with rGO-Fe3O4 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, Brunner-Emmet-Teller, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The adsorption of HuNoV and HAdV followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, while that of HRV conformed to the pseudo-second-order model. CTAB-functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 exhibited exceptionally high adsorption of HuNoV, HRV, HAdV and SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus, with maximum adsorption capacities of 3.55 × 107, 7.01 × 107, 2.21 × 107 and 6.92 × 106 genome copies mg-1, respectively. Moreover, the composite could effectively adsorb the four types of virus particles from coastal, tap, and river water. In addition, concentrating the virions using CTAB functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites before qPCR analysis significantly improved the detection limit. The results indicate that viruses are captured on the surface of CTAB functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites through electrostatic interactions and the intrinsic adsorption ability of rGO. Overall, CTAB-functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites are promising materials for the adsorption and detection of human enteric viruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 from complex aqueous environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Adsorption , Cetrimonium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(44): 9221-9229, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493243

ABSTRACT

Ethyl butyrate (EB) was identified in recent research as a prominent biomarker of COVID-19, as concentrations of EB were higher in exhaled breath of COVID-19 patients. Electronic sensitivities of pristine, Al- and Si-doped BC3 nanosheets to the EB molecule were investigated in this study using density functional theory. It is found that the pure BC3 was ineffective in sensing EB due to low adsorption energy and sensitivity. Aluminum- and silicon-doped BC3 nanosheets were effective in forming a strong interaction with EB and were also sensitive. Our calculations show that the band gaps of the Al-doped and Si-doped BC3 sheets were significantly decreased upon EB adsorption, which increased the electrical conductance of the sheets and the sensitivity. However, Si-doped BC3 had a recovery time of almost 22 hours, making it less potent than Al-doped BC3, which had a recovery time of just 7.7 minutes. The shorter recovery time of the Al-doped BC3 sheet is due to its moderate adsorption energy of 25.8 kcal mol-1. These results can help facilitate the development of an EB biosensor for COVID-19 testing and other similar applications.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Butyrates/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adsorption , COVID-19/virology , Humans
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(8): 11304-11319, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427397

ABSTRACT

Accounting for SARS-CoV-2 adsorption on solids suspended in wastewater is a necessary step towards the reliable estimation of virus shedding rate in a sewerage system, based on measurements performed at a terminal collection station, i.e., at the entrance of a wastewater treatment plant. This concept is extended herein to include several measurement stations across a city to enable the estimation of spatial distribution of virus shedding rate. This study presents a pioneer general model describing the most relevant physicochemical phenomena with a special effort to reduce the complicated algebra. This is performed both in the topology regime, introducing a discrete-continuous approach, and in the domain of independent variables, introducing a monodisperse moment method to reduce the dimensionality of the resulting population balance equations. The resulting simplified model consists of a large system of ordinary differential equations. A sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to some key parameters for a single pipe topology. Specific numerical techniques are employed for the integration of the model. Finally, a parametric case study for an indicative-yet realistic-sewerage piping system is performed to show how the model is applied to SARS-CoV-2 adsorption on wastewater solids in the presence of other competing species. This is the first model of this kind appearing in scientific literature and a first step towards setting up an inverse problem to assess the spatial distribution of virus shedding rate based on its concentration in wastewater.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Waste Water
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): e69-e70, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415867
17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): e72-e74, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415866
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389391

ABSTRACT

Endotoxin removal therapy with polymyxin B immobilized fiber column (PMX) has been clinically applied for sepsis and septic shock patients since 1994. The effectiveness and usefulness of this therapy have been demonstrated for more than a quarter of a century. However, a documented survival benefit has not yet been demonstrable in a large, multicenter, randomized and controlled trial. Following the findings derived from a large sepsis clinical trial with PMX in North America, a new trial is ongoing to determine if PMX has a long-term survival benefit when administered to septic patients. Another approach to support a survival benefit from intervention with PMX is to utilize a detailed analysis available from a large clinical data base. The endotoxin adsorption capacity of PMX columns in vitro and the effectiveness of PMX columns can be further demonstrable in animal models. The capability of PMX and details of its mechanism of action to intervene in the sepsis cascade and impede organ dysfunction in septic patients is not fully understood. The surface antigen expression in monocytes and neutrophils are improved after PMX therapy. Immunomodulatory effects as a result of endotoxin removal and/or other mechanisms of action have been suggested. These effects and other potential immune effects may explain some of the improved effects upon organ dysfunction of sepsis and septic shock patients. Endotoxemia may be involved in the pathophysiology of other diseases than sepsis. A rapid diagnostic method to detect and target endotoxemia could allow us to practice precision medicine and expand the clinical indications of endotoxin removal therapy.


Subject(s)
Cotton Fiber , Endotoxins/blood , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemoperfusion/methods , Immobilization/methods , Polymyxin B/chemistry , Sepsis/therapy , Shock, Septic/therapy , Adsorption , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Endotoxemia/blood , Endotoxemia/therapy , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Immobilization/instrumentation , Sepsis/blood , Shock, Septic/blood
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387130

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
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