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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 109-113, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112895

ABSTRACT

On March 19, 2020, the governor of California issued a statewide stay-at-home order to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* The order reduced accessibility to and patient attendance at outpatient medical visits,† including preventive services such as cervical cancer screening. In-person clinic visits increased when California reopened essential businesses on June 12, 2020.§ Electronic medical records of approximately 1.5 million women served by Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, were examined to assess cervical cancer screening rates before, during, and after the stay-at-home order. KPSC policy is to screen women aged 21-29 years every 3 years with cervical cytology alone (Papanicolaou [Pap] test); those aged 30-65 years were screened every 5 years with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cytology (cotesting) through July 15, 2020, and after July 15, 2020, with HPV testing alone, consistent with the latest recommendations from U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.¶ Compared with the 2019 baseline, cervical cancer screening rates decreased substantially during the stay-at-home order. Among women aged 21-29 years, cervical cytology screening rates per 100 person-months declined 78%. Among women aged 30-65 years, HPV test screening rates per 100 person-months decreased 82%. After the stay-at-home order was lifted, screening rates returned to near baseline, which might have been aided by aspects of KPSC's integrated, organized screening program (e.g., reminder systems and tracking persons lost to follow-up). As the pandemic continues, groups at higher risk for developing cervical cancers and precancers should be evaluated first. Ensuring that women receive preventive services, including cancer screening and appropriate follow-up in a safe and timely manner, remains important.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112722

ABSTRACT

This study describes self-reported physical activity (PA), motivation to exercise, physical and mental health and feelings towards PA during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. Adults over the age of 18 years (n = 238; 80.2% female) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 3, the Short Form-36 and open-ended questions about PA through an anonymous online survey. Regular exercise was undertaken by 85% of respondents prior to lockdown, but only 49.8% were able to maintain their usual level of PA. Although respondents were considered sufficiently physically active from the IPAQ, 51.5% reported not being able to maintain their usual level of PA primarily due to the closure of their gym facilities. Sixty percent of respondents reported that PA had a positive effect on their overall wellbeing. When asked to specify which aspects of wellbeing were affected, the effect on mental health was reported the most while the effect on body image or fitness was reported the least. Strategies to increase or maintain engagement in physical activity during lockdowns should be encouraged to promote positive mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Self Report , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency has imposed distanced education and has interrupted most rehabilitation services. Adolescents with disabilities have been isolated, and the burden on their families has been exacerbated. A cross-sectional survey was administered to adolescents with disability and to parents of disabled children to describe their experience during lockdown and their concerns or expectations about rehabilitation. A sample of 53 adolescents and 239 parents completed the survey. Adolescents were ages 13-18 years old (45.3% female). Most parents were between 35 and 55 years old (84.9% female). While 53.6% of the parents reported no positive effects of the lockdown, 92.5% of the adolescents expressed favorable consequences. The increased time spent with family members was judged positively by 27.2% of parents and by 64.2% of adolescents. Concern for their child's disability was expressed by 47.3% of parents, while 73.6% of adolescents expressed concerns regarding the ban on meeting friends. In both groups, anxiety symptoms were correlated with the fear of contracting COVID-19 and with financial problems. Parents would have liked even more remote support from school and healthcare professionals, which was available for most participants. Thus, socioeconomic support, assistive technology and telerehabilitation strategies might help families with disabilities during a lockdown.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112716

ABSTRACT

Globally, the capacity of healthcare systems across continents has been strained and put to the test with the emergence of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The timely need to ensure the availability of healthcare facilities to isolate and manage the surge in COVID-19 cases without overwhelming existing hospital capacity has posed challenges in many countries. In this paper, we discuss the conceptualisation, preparations and operationalisation of a community healthcare facility that was set up within a short time frame to attend to the convalescent needs of a large number of COVID-19 patients in the early phase of handling the pandemic. In the first month of operations, we monitored a total of 2129 clinical encounters, with the majority of patients between 17-35 years of age and between day 2 to day 6 of illness upon admission. Overall, there was a good outcome for the patients, with only 2.3% requiring transfer back to restructured hospitals. There was also no mortality. We hope that the sharing of our experiences of the challenges and learning lessons gleaned may be useful to guide individuals in planning for the future preparedness of healthcare systems in managing pandemics.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Community Health Centers , Delivery of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Singapore , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112712

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on the mental status and dietary intake of residents in Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted from 11 May to 6 June 2020 corresponding to almost two weeks during and after Ramadan (23 April-23 May 2020). The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among the participants was 25.4%, 27.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. Participants aged ≥50 years with high income (≥8000 SAR) were at a lower risk of developing depression, whereas participants of the same age group with income 5000-7000 SAR were at high risk of developing anxiety. Students and master-educated participants suffer from median elevated depression and are required to take more multivitamins and vitamin D than others. Anxiety and depression were more common among married participants with low income. There is a wide range of Saudi residents who are at a higher risk of mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and mental healthcare providers are advised to provide continuous monitoring of the psychological consequences during this pandemic and provide mental support.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diet , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Eating , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112710

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine whether, and to what extent, fear of contracting Covid-19 and compliance with the mandatory rules of isolation affected Polish adults' nutritional behaviors. The online study was carried out during the first wave of the pandemic on a sample of 926 adults. Through cluster analysis, three groups of respondents were isolated: 1. People who fear a Covid-19 infection and follow the isolation rules (FFR), 2. People moderately afraid of the disease and following the rules loosely (MFFR), 3. People who are not afraid of the infection and do not follow the rules of isolation. (NFFR). The clusters were profiled with consideration of different aspects of eating behaviors as well as socio-demographic and economic features. The results of the study show a close relationship between the level of fear of contracting Covid-19 and the degree to which isolation rules are followed. These two factors were found to have a significant impact on eating behaviors, such as food purchases, eating patterns, and levels of consumption. It was stated that the FFR group changed their eating behaviors the most in terms of food purchasing, eating habits (excluding diversity and quality of diet), and food product consumption. The greatest stability in the majority of the analyzed areas of nutritional behaviors was observed in the MFFR cluster. The NFFR group shown the greatest decrease both in regularity and quality of their meals. This group also exhibited a significant increase in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The results of the study can be useful in the decision making process when introducing restrictions or managing information. They also point to the need for extensive nutritional education focused on explaining the relationship between nutrition and health during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Consumer Behavior , Fear , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , Young Adult
7.
F1000Res ; 9: 1286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110755

ABSTRACT

Background: Case fatality rate of COVID-19 patients in Surabaya is higher than global cases. Thus, it is important to identify risk factors to reduce the mortality rate. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients, and develop a prediction score based on these findings. Methods: We analyzed 111 patients, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 based on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The following patient characteristics were obtained from records: age, gender, type of symptoms, onset of symptoms, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), absolute lymphocyte count, chest x-ray abnormalities, lung involvement, type of lesion, radiographic assessment of the quantity of lung edema (RALE) score, and mortality. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0. Results Multivariate analysis showed that age >50 years ( p=0.043), NLR score >5.8 ( p=0.016) and RALE score >2 ( p=0.002) can predict the mortality of COVID-19 patients in the hospital. ROC curve analysis of the score ability to predict mortality showed an area under the curve of 0.794. The cut-off point is 4.5, with a sensitivity of 96.7% and specificity of 49.4% to predict the mortality of COVID-19 patient in the hospital. Conclusions Age, NLR score and RALE score were associated with mortality of COVID-19 patients in the hospital and could be used as a predictor for discharge probability of COVID-19 patients in low health care resource setting. The prediction score may be useful for frontline physicians to effectively manage patients with a higher score to prevent mortality.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality , Lymphocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): JC23, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110696

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Haimovich AD, Ravindra NG, Stoytchev S, et al. Development and validation of the quick COVID-19 Severity Index: a prognostic tool for early clinical decompensation. Ann Emerg Med. 2020;76:442-53. 33012378.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Prognosis
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): JC16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110694

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, et al. Efficacy of tocilizumab in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:2333-44. 33085857.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(2): 294-300, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Italian government took security measures to try to limit infections. Restrictive measures included social distancing, home confinement and the closure of all public structures like gyms and swimming pools. The impact of these limitations on health and lifestyle was inevitably negative. The purpose of this study was to establish the level of physical activity (PA), expressed as energy expenditure (MET-minute/week) in a Southern Italian population before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: An adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) was published on the official website of the National Institute of Gastroenterology IRCCS S. de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy and on several social media in May 2020. RESULTS: Three hundred ten replies (72% women) from Apulia (60%), Calabria (28%), Campania (11%) and Sicily (1%) were included in the study. The COVID-19 lockdown had a negative effect on the vigorous PA intensity level and on walking, but not on the moderate PA intensity level. Additionally, daily time spent sitting down increased by more than 12% during the COVID-19 lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Isolation changed PA behaviors. The decreased energy expenditure (MET-minute/week) during the lockdown had a negative impact in both genders, especially on the young adults and adults' groups.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sitting Position , Surveys and Questionnaires , Walking
11.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101609

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Income , Internet , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Quality of Life/psychology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 35(2): 98-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101897

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze health care personnel's attitudes toward traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) and life satisfaction due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April 2 and 9, 2020. The Questionnaire form was sent to health care personnel online. A total of 560 individuals who answered the questionnaires were included in the study. The data were collected by using the Personal Information Form, Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ), and Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Average age of the participants was 30.88 ± 7.68 years, 82.5% were male, and 65.5% were working as nurses. It was found that 45.5% of the participants used TCM methods for COVID-19 during the last month; 48.7% of the health care personnel stated that they used TCM methods to strengthen their immune system. The HCAMQ total average score was 27.96 ± 5.49; the holistic health subdimension total average score was 9.59 ± 3.04; the complementary and alternative medicine subdimension total average score was 18.37 ± 3.58; and the LSS total average score was 20.78 ± 6.32. A positive weak statistically significant association was found between the HCAMQ and complementary and alternative medicine subdimension and the LSS (P < .05). Participants had moderately positive attitudes toward TCM and life satisfaction. As the participants' positive attitudes toward TCM increased, their life satisfaction was also found to increase.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Complementary Therapies/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , /psychology , Complementary Therapies/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e047216, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG among health careworkers (HCWs) in our university hospital and verify the risk of acquiring the infection according to work area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Monocentric, Italian, third-level university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All the employees of the hospital on a voluntary base, for a total of 4055 participants among 4572 HCWs (88.7%). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology according to working area. Association of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology to selected variables (age, gender, country of origin, body mass index, smoking, symptoms and contact with confirmed cases). RESULTS: From 27 April 2020 to 12 June 2020, 4055 HCWs were tested and 309 (7.6%) had a serological positive test. No relevant difference was found between men and women (8.3% vs 7.3%, p=0.3), whereas a higher prevalence was observed among foreign-born workers (27/186, 14.5%, p<0.001), employees younger than 30 (64/668, 9.6%, p=0.02) or older than 60 years (38/383, 9.9%, p=0.02) and among healthcare assistants (40/320, 12.5%, p=0.06). Working as frontline HCWs was not associated with an increased frequency of positive serology (p=0.42). A positive association was found with presence and number of symptoms (p<0.001). The symptoms most frequently associated with a positive serology were taste and smell alterations (OR 4.62, 95% CI: 2.99 to 7.15) and fever (OR 4.37, 95% CI: 3.11 to 6.13). No symptoms were reported in 84/309 (27.2%) HCWs with positive IgG levels. Declared exposure to a suspected/confirmed case was more frequently associated (p<0.001) with positive serology when the contact was a family member (19/94, 20.2%) than a patient or colleague (78/888, 8.8%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred undetected in a large fraction of HCWs and it was not associated with working in COVID-19 frontline areas. Beyond the hospital setting, exposure within the community represents an additional source of infection for HCWs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043837, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection especially in resource-restricted healthcare settings, and return to homes unfit for self-isolation, making them apprehensive about COVID-19 duty and transmission risk to their families. We aimed at implementing a novel multidimensional HCP-centric evidence-based, dynamic policy with the objectives to reduce risk of HCP infection, ensure welfare and safety of the HCP and to improve willingness to accept and return to duty. SETTING: Our tertiary care university hospital, with 12 600 HCP, was divided into high-risk, medium-risk and low-risk zones. In the high-risk and medium-risk zones, we organised training, logistic support, postduty HCP welfare and collected feedback, and sent them home after they tested negative for COVID-19. We supervised use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and kept communication paperless. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited willing low-risk HCP, aged <50 years, with no comorbidities to work in COVID-19 zones. Social distancing, hand hygiene and universal masking were advocated in the low-risk zone. RESULTS: Between 31 March and 20 July 2020, we clinically screened 5553 outpatients, of whom 3012 (54.2%) were COVID-19 suspects managed in the medium-risk zone. Among them, 346 (11.4%) tested COVID-19 positive (57.2% male) and were managed in the high-risk zone with 19 (5.4%) deaths. One (0.08%) of the 1224 HCP in high-risk zone, 6 (0.62%) of 960 HCP in medium-risk zone and 23 (0.18%) of the 12 600 HCP in the low-risk zone tested positive at the end of shift. All the 30 COVID-19-positive HCP have since recovered. This HCP-centric policy resulted in low transmission rates (<1%), ensured satisfaction with training (92%), PPE (90.8%), medical and psychosocial support (79%) and improved acceptance of COVID-19 duty with 54.7% volunteering for re-deployment. CONCLUSION: A multidimensional HCP-centric policy was effective in ensuring safety, satisfaction and welfare of HCP in a resource-poor setting and resulted in a willing workforce to fight the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Medical Staff, Hospital , Occupational Diseases , Adult , /prevention & control , /transmission , Developing Countries , Female , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Models, Organizational , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043721, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and its latest version NEWS2 are recommended for monitoring deterioration in patients admitted to hospital, little is known about their performance in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to compare the performance of the NEWS and NEWS2 in patients with COVID-19 versus those without during the first phase of the pandemic. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two acute hospitals (Scarborough and York) are combined into a single dataset and analysed collectively. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (≥18 years) non-elective admissions discharged between 11 March 2020 and 13 June 2020 with an index or on-admission NEWS2 electronically recorded within ±24 hours of admission to predict mortality at four time points (in-hospital, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 admissions. RESULTS: Out of 6480 non-elective admissions, 620 (9.6%) had a diagnosis of COVID-19. They were older (73.3 vs 67.7 years), more often male (54.7% vs 50.1%), had higher index NEWS (4 vs 2.5) and NEWS2 (4.6 vs 2.8) scores and higher in-hospital mortality (32.1% vs 5.8%). The c-statistics for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 admissions was significantly lower using NEWS (0.64 vs 0.74) or NEWS2 (0.64 vs 0.74), however, these differences reduced at 72hours (NEWS: 0.75 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.71 vs 0.81), 48 hours (NEWS: 0.78 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.76 vs 0.82) and 24hours (NEWS: 0.84 vs 0.84; NEWS2: 0.86 vs 0.84). Increasing NEWS2 values reflected increased mortality, but for any given value the absolute risk was on average 24% higher (eg, NEWS2=5: 36% vs 9%). CONCLUSIONS: The index or on-admission NEWS and NEWS2 offers lower discrimination for COVID-19 admissions versus non-COVID-19 admissions. The index NEWS2 was not proven to be better than the index NEWS. For each value of the index NEWS/NEWS2, COVID-19 admissions had a substantially higher risk of mortality than non-COVID-19 admissions which reflects the increased baseline mortality risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , /therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021007, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study explored socioeconomic disparities in Korea using health insurance type as a proxy during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Korea's nationwide healthcare database, which contained all individuals who received a diagnostic test for COVID-19 (n=232,390) as of May 15, 2020. We classified our cohort by health insurance type into beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance (NHI) or Medicaid programs. Our study outcomes were infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19-related outcomes, a composite of all-cause death, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation use. We estimated age-, sex-, and Charlson comorbidity index score-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 218,070 NHI and 14,320 Medicaid beneficiaries who received COVID-19 tests, 7,777 and 738 tested positive, respectively. The Medicaid beneficiaries were older (mean age, 57.5 vs. 47.8 years), more likely to be males (47.2 vs. 40.2%), and had a higher comorbidity burden (mean CCI, 2.0 vs. 1.7) than NHI beneficiaries. Compared to NHI beneficiaries, Medicaid beneficiaries had a 22% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.38), but had no significantly elevated risk of COVID-19-related outcomes (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.57); the individual events of the composite outcome yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: As socioeconomic factors, with health insurance as a proxy, could serve as determinants during the current pandemic, pre-emptive support is needed for high-risk groups to slow its spread.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Insurance Claim Review , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (p = 0.014) and viral symptom (p = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , /isolation & purification , /metabolism
19.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094233

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women are diverse, and little is known of the impact of the disease on placental physiology. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in the human placenta, and its binding receptor ACE2 is present in a variety of placental cells, including endothelium. Here, we analyze the impact of COVID-19 in placental endothelium, studying by immunofluorescence the expression of von Willebrand factor (vWf), claudin-5, and vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin in the decidua and chorionic villi of placentas from women with mild and severe COVID-19 in comparison to healthy controls. Our results indicate that: (1) vWf expression increases in the endothelium of decidua and chorionic villi of placentas derived from women with COVID-19, being higher in severe cases; (2) Claudin-5 and VE-cadherin expression decrease in the decidua and chorionic villus of placentas from women with severe COVID-19 but not in those with mild disease. Placental histological analysis reveals thrombosis, infarcts, and vascular wall remodeling, confirming the deleterious effect of COVID-19 on placental vessels. Together, these results suggest that placentas from women with COVID-19 have a condition of leaky endothelium and thrombosis, which is sensitive to disease severity.


Subject(s)
/complications , Placenta/blood supply , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Antigens, CD/analysis , /virology , Cadherins/analysis , Claudin-5/analysis , Endothelium/blood supply , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Young Adult , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
20.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132721996278, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many of the potential barriers to providing telehealth services already disproportionately impact vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the incorporation of synchronous ophthalmology telemedicine visits in a tertiary university-based ophthalmology clinic for low-income and uninsured patients in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: The records of 18 patients who were due for an in-person visit in the medically underserved patient clinic at our institute were reviewed. Patients considered high risk of ocular morbidity progression were approved to proceed with an in-person visit. Patients with non-urgent visit indications were attempted to be contacted by telephone to be offered a telemedicine telephone visit as an alternative to a postponed in-person office visit. RESULTS: Clinical triage by an attending ophthalmologist determined that 17 patients (94.4%, n = 18) had visit indications appropriate for evaluation by telemedicine. Six patients (35.3%, n = 17) were successfully contacted and offered a telemedicine visit as an alternative to a postponed in-person office visit. All 6 patients accepted, scheduled, and completed a telemedicine visit. Eleven patients (64.7%, n = 17) were not able to be successfully contacted to offer and schedule either a telemedicine visit or a postponed in-person office visit. Patients who were not able to be successfully contacted were on average younger in age and more likely to be female, Hispanic/Latino, from Latin America, with a preferred language of Spanish. CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous ophthalmology telemedicine visits can be successfully incorporated in a tertiary university-based setting for low-income and uninsured patients. The primary barrier to providing telemedicine visits in this population was the ability to successfully contact patients to offer and schedule these visits.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Medically Underserved Area , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
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