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1.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(2): e00931, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782680

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate healthcare costs and mortality associated with serious fluoroquinolone-related adverse reactions in Finland from 2008 to 2019. Serious adverse reaction types were identified from the Finnish Pharmaceutical Insurance Pool's pharmaceutical injury claims and the Finnish Medicines Agency's Adverse Reaction Register. A decision tree model was built to predict costs and mortality associated with serious adverse drug reactions (ADR). Severe clostridioides difficile infections, severe cutaneous adverse reactions, tendon ruptures, aortic ruptures, and liver injuries were included as serious adverse drug reactions in the model. Direct healthcare costs of a serious ADR were based on the number of reimbursed fluoroquinolone prescriptions from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland's database. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address parameter uncertainty. A total of 1 831 537 fluoroquinolone prescriptions were filled between 2008 and 2019 in Finland, with prescription numbers declining 40% in recent years. Serious ADRs associated with fluoroquinolones lead to estimated direct healthcare costs of 501 938 402 €, including 11 405 ADRs and 3,884 deaths between 2008 and 2019. The average mortality risk associated with the use of fluoroquinolones was 0.21%. Severe clostridioides difficile infections were the most frequent, fatal, and costly serious ADRs associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. Although fluoroquinolones continue to be generally well-tolerated antimicrobials, serious adverse reactions cause long-term impairment to patients and high healthcare costs. Therefore, the risks and benefits should be weighed carefully in antibiotic prescription policies, as well as with individual patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Decision Trees , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/economics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Finland , Fluoroquinolones/economics , Humans , Retrospective Studies
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935299, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497922

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals have an ethical, medico-legal, and professional responsibility to report all suspected adverse events following immunization to relevant national reporting agencies as part of the process of post-marketing drug safety monitoring. In the US, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Data from VAERS and other national and global reporting systems show very low rates of adverse events related to currently approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Populations studies have supported the findings from adverse event reporting systems. The presentation, monitoring, and reporting of adverse events related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may have future applications in vaccine monitoring for several other potential pandemic zoonotic infections. This editorial aims to summarize the current understanding of adverse events from current COVID-19 vaccines from global adverse event reporting systems, rather than individual case reports or anecdotal reporting in the media.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , International Agencies
4.
Drug Saf ; 43(7): 657-660, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482335

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hydroxychloroquine was recently promoted in patients infected with COVID-19 infection. A recent experimental study has suggested an increased toxicity of hydroxychloroquine in association with metformin in mice. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the reality of this putative drug-drug interaction between hydroxychloroquine and metformin using pharmacovigilance data. METHODS: Using VigiBase®, the WHO pharmacovigilance database, we performed a disproportionality analysis (case/non-case study). Cases were reports of fatal outcomes with the drugs of interest and non-cases were all other reports for these drugs registered between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019. Data with hydroxychloroquine (or metformin) alone were compared with the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin. Results are reported as ROR (reporting odds ratio) with their 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Of the 10,771 Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSR) involving hydroxychloroquine, 52 were recorded as 'fatal outcomes'. In comparison with hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 57.7 (23.9-139.3). In comparison with metformin alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 6.0 (2.6-13.8). CONCLUSION: Our study identified a signal for the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin that appears to be more at risk of fatal outcomes (particularly by completed suicides) than one of the two drugs when given alone.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hydroxychloroquine , Metformin , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/mortality , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Metformin/pharmacokinetics , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 62-70, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on the safety of drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: Objective of this study is to describe the pattern of stimulated spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports received from healthcare professionals for SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in Ghana and lessons learnt particularly for low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: This is a study of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) received from healthcare professionals between 1st April 2020 to 31st July 2020 in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in Ghana. The ICSRs were retrieved from the SafetyWatch System and descriptive statistics used to describe the ADRs by System Organ Classification and Preferred Term. RESULTS: Information was received from 40 COVID-19 Treatment Centres across the country with 9 centres submitting a total of 53 ICSRs containing 101 ADRs; approximately two ADRs per ICSR. Females accounted for 29(54.7%) of the ICSRs and males 24(45.3%). Newly reported ADRs of interest were one report each of tremor for doxycycline; scrotal pain, dyspnoea, gait disturbances and dysgeusia for chloroquine; and dry throat, hyperhidrosis, restlessness and micturition frequency increased for hydroxychloroquine. A strong spontaneous system with the availability of focal persons at the Treatment Centres played a key role in reporting ADRs during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This is the first experience with spontaneous reporting during COVID-19 pandemic in Ghana. The profile of most of the ADRs reported appears consistent with what is expected from the summary of product characteristics. A study with a larger sample size with well-defined denominator in future studies is paramount in determining the relative risk of these medications in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
6.
Drug Saf ; 44(9): 987-998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349372

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The safety profile of remdesivir, conditionally approved for COVID-19, was limited at its 2020 introduction. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for medicines are collected in VigiBase, the WHO Global Database of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide a descriptive analysis of COVID-19 ICSR data focusing on remdesivir, including a disproportionality analysis (DA) of ADRs. METHODS: A dedicated algorithm enabled retrieval of all COVID-19 treatment-specific ICSRs. A severity algorithm based on co-reported medicines and symptoms enabled selection of tocilizumab with its well established safety profile as comparator for remdesivir. Descriptive statistics were used for general ICSR demographics for all COVID-19-specific medicines, remdesivir and tocilizumab individually and furthermore to present treatment patterns of medicines co-reported with remdesivir. A COVID-19 indication-focused DA was deployed to minimize confounding from underlying polysymptomatic disease. RESULTS: 14,574 COVID-19-related ICSRs were entered into VigiBase during 2020. Remdesivir was the most common medicine reported. Of 4944 remdesivir ICSRs, where tocilizumab was not co-reported, 93% described remdesivir as the sole suspect medicine. Sixty percent of ICSRs concerned males, median age was 63 years and the majority originated from the Americas (72%). In 1089 (21%) of remdesivir ICSRs, data indicated severe/critical disease. Co-reported medicines peaked during the first 3 days of remdesivir treatment. The DA for the established tocilizumab and the new remdesivir were mainly in line with the safety profiles for both medicines but suggested new safety concerns. The most reported ADRs for remdesivir represented liver dysfunction, kidney injury, death and bradycardia. CONCLUSION: Global COVID-19-related ADR reporting proved useful in providing information on ADRs as well as on treatment patterns in this patient group. Indication-focused disproportionality analysis, together with the use of a comparator with a known safety profile, proved effective in identifying known safety information and suggested new safety concerns for remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , World Health Organization , Young Adult
7.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(12): 1559-1564, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334105

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir has been used for treating patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) although there is conflicting evidence regarding its usefulness. Data regarding its safety largely come from the clinical trials conducted to support its emergency use authorization (EUA). This study aimed to identify the adverse events of remdesivir with disproportionately high reporting using real-world data.Research design and methods: The adverse event reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) by health-care professionals for drugs that have received EUA or approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the US were studied. Adisproportionality analysis was performed to determine adverse events more frequently reported with remdesivir compared with other COVID-19 drugs in the database.Results: Elevated liver enzymes, acute kidney injury, raised blood creatinine levels, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, and death had disproportionately higher reporting with remdesivir as asuspect drug compared with other drugs. There is no significant difference in the reporting of these events based on patient sex or age.Conclusions: Our study confirms the drug label information regarding liver enzyme elevation. The renal and cardiac safety signals identified necessitate reevaluation for potential drug-labeling changes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver Function Tests , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Approval/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Female , Humans , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(9): 1125-1136, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory cytokines in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affect the lungs leading to pneumonitis with a poor prognosis. Tocilizumab, a type of humanized monoclonal antibody antagonizing interleukin-6 receptors, is currently utilized to treat COVID-19. The present study reviews tocilizumab adverse drug events (ADEs) reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) pharmacovigilance database. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All suspected ADEs associated with tocilizumab between April to August 2020 were analyzed based on COVID-19 patients' demographic and clinical variables, and severity of involvement of organ system. RESULTS: A total of 1005 ADEs were reported among 513 recipients. The majority of the ADEs (46.26%) were reported from 18-64 years, were males and reported spontaneously. Around 80%, 20%, and 64% were serious, fatal, and administered intravenously, respectively. 'Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications' remain as highest (35%) among categorized ADEs. Neutropenia, hypofibrinogenemia were common hematological ADEs. The above 64 years was found to have significantly lower odds than of below 45 years. In comparison, those in the European Region have substantially higher odds compared to the Region of Americas. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia, superinfections, reactivation of latent infections, hepatitis, and cardiac abnormalities were common ADEs observed that necessitate proper monitoring and reporting.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Distribution , World Health Organization , Young Adult
10.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 653-673, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252657

ABSTRACT

In 2021, we entered a new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. As mass vaccinations are underway and more vaccines are approved, it is important to recognize cutaneous adverse events. We review the dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 vaccines as reported in clinical trial data and summarize additional observational reports of skin reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Early-onset local injection reactions were the most common cutaneous side effects observed in clinical trials; delayed injection reactions were the most common cutaneous side effect reported outside of clinical trials. Understanding the landscape of cutaneous manifestations to COVID-19 vaccines is key to providing appropriate vaccine guidance.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Registries , Administration, Cutaneous , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Humans
12.
Clin Ther ; 43(2): 360-368.e5, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has been widely reported to present stress to medical systems globally and to disrupt the lives of patients and health care practitioners (HCPs). Given that spontaneous reporting heavily relies on both HCPs and patients, an understandable question is whether the stress of the pandemic has diminished spontaneous reporting. Herein, the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug events was assessed. METHODS: Spontaneous-report counts from 119 weeks (January 1, 2018, to April 12, 2020) were identified using Pfizer's safety database and were analyzed. Autoregressive integrated moving-average models were fitted to aggregated and disaggregated time series (TSs). Model residuals were charted on individual-value and moving-range charts and exponentially weighted moving-average charts for the identification of statistically unexpected changes associated with the pandemic. FINDINGS: Overall, the reporting of serious adverse events showed no unexpected decline. Total global reporting declined, driven by HCP reporting (of both serious and nonserious events), starting after week 8 of 2020 and exceeding model expectations by week 15 of 2020, suggesting the pandemic as an assignable cause. However, reporting remained within longer-term historical ranges. The TS from Japan was the only national TS that showed a significant decline, and an unusual periodicity related to national holidays. A few countries, notably Taiwan, showed unexpected statistical increases in reporting associated with the pandemic, commencing as early as week 3 of 2020. In the literature, the reporting of adverse drug events was stable. Ancillary findings included prevalent year-end/beginning reporting minima, with more reports from HCPs than from consumers. IMPLICATIONS: Using data from a large-scale and diverse safety database from a pharmaceutical company, a significant global decline in total reporting was detected, driven by HCPs, not consumers, and reports of nonserious events, consistent with the pandemic as an assignable cause, but the reporting remained within long-term ranges, suggesting relative durability. Importantly, the analyses found no unexpected decline in overall reporting of serious events. Future avenues of research include the use of data from large-scale, publicly available spontaneous reporting systems for assessing the generalizability of the present findings and whether they correlate with impaired signal detection, as well as a follow-up analysis of whether the effects on spontaneous reporting abate after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Databases, Factual , Global Health , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Japan , Pandemics , Research Design/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
13.
Therapie ; 75(4): 371-379, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an unprecedented challenge for physicians and scientists. Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. Yet, the cardiac safety of these drugs in COVID-19 deserves scrutiny as they are known to foster cardiac adverse ADRs, notably QTc interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram and its arrhythmogenic consequences. METHODS: Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with "off-label" use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. Each Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance first assessed causality of drugs. We performed a specific analysis of these cardiac adverse drug reactions amidst an array of risk factors, reassessed the electrocardiograms and estimated their incidence in coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%). Their estimated incidence is 0.77% to 1.54% of all patients, notwithstanding strong underreporting. Lopinavir-ritonavir came third with 17 reports (14%) and chloroquine fourth with 3 reports (2.5%). There were 8 sudden, unexplained or aborted deaths (7%), 8 ventricular arrhythmias (7%), 90 reports of prolonged QTc (75%) most of them "serious" (64%), 48 of which proved ≥ 500ms, 20 reports of severe conduction disorders (17%) and 5 reports of other cardiac causes (4%). Six reports derived from automedication. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: "Off-label" use of treatments in COVID-19 increases the risk of cardiac ADRs, some of them avoidable. Even if these drugs are perceived as familiar, they are used in patients with added risk factors caused by infection. Precautions should be taken to mitigate the risk, even if they will be proven efficacious.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Off-Label Use , Pharmacovigilance , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
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