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1.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 61-71, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with inoculation dose. This has triggered interest in intubation barrier devices to block droplet exposure; however, aerosol protection with these devices is not known. This study hypothesized that barrier devices reduce aerosol outside of the barrier. METHODS: Aerosol containment in closed, semiclosed, semiopen, and open barrier devices was investigated: (1) "glove box" sealed with gloves and caudal drape, (2) "drape tent" with a drape placed over a frame, (3) "slit box" with armholes and caudal end covered by vinyl slit diaphragms, (4) original "aerosol box," (5) collapsible "interlocking box," (6) "simple drape" over the patient, and (7) "no barrier." Containment was investigated by (1) vapor instillation at manikin's right arm with video-assisted visual evaluation and (2) submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosol particles ejected through the manikin's mouth with ventilation and coughs. Samples were taken from standardized locations inside and around the barriers using a particle counter and a mass spectrometer. Aerosol evacuation from the devices was measured using standard hospital suction, a surgical smoke evacuator, and a Shop-Vac. RESULTS: Vapor experiments demonstrated leakage via arm holes and edges. Only closed and semiclosed devices and the aerosol box reduced aerosol particle counts (median [25th, 75th percentile]) at the operator's mouth compared to no barrier (combined median 29 [-11, 56], n = 5 vs. 157 [151, 166], n = 5). The other barrier devices provided less reduction in particle counts (133 [128, 137], n = 5). Aerosol evacuation to baseline required 15 min with standard suction and the Shop-Vac and 5 min with a smoke evacuator. CONCLUSIONS: Barrier devices may reduce exposure to droplets and aerosol. With meticulous tucking, the glove box and drape tent can retain aerosol during airway management. Devices that are not fully enclosed may direct aerosol toward the laryngoscopist. Aerosol evacuation reduces aerosol content inside fully enclosed devices. Barrier devices must be used in conjunction with body-worn personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Aerosols/adverse effects , Cough/prevention & control , Cough/virology , Health Personnel , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 156948, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977811

ABSTRACT

Recent studies proves that indoor air chemistry differs in many aspects from atmospheric one. People send up to 90 % of their life indoors being exposed to pollutants present in gas, particle and solid phase. Particle phase indoor is composed of particles emitted from various sources, among which there is an indoor source - secondary chemical reactions leading to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Lately, researchers' attentions turned towards the ultrafine particles, for there are still a lot of gaps in knowledge concerning this field of study, while there is evidence of negative influence of ultrafine particles on human health. Presented review sums up current knowledge about secondary particle formation in indoor environment and development of analytical techniques applied to study those processes. The biggest concern today is studying ROS, for their lifetime in indoor air is very short due to reactions at the very beginning of terpene oxidation process. Another interesting aspect that is recently discovered is monoterpene autooxidation process that leads to HOMs formation that in turn can influence SOA formation yield. A complex studies covering gas phase and particle phase characterization, but also toxicological studies are crucial to fully understand indoor air chemistry leading to ultrafine particle formation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Ozone , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter
4.
Environ Res ; 211: 113055, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972077

ABSTRACT

To better understand the change characteristics and reduction in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) driven by the most stringent clean air policies and pandemic-related lockdown measures in China, a comprehensive field campaign was performed to measure the carbonaceous components in PM2.5 on an hourly basis via harmonized analytical methods in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding region (including 2 + 26 cities) from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The results indicated that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC reached as low as 6.6 ± 5.7 and 1.8 ± 1.9 µg/m3, respectively, lower than those obtained in previous studies, which could be attributed to the effectiveness of the Clean Air Action Plan and the impact of the COVID-19-related lockdown measures implemented in China. Marked seasonal and diurnal variations in OC and EC were observed in the 2 + 26 cities. Significant correlations (p < 0.001) between OC and EC were found. The annual average secondary OC levels level ranged from 1.8-5.4 µg/m3, accounting for 37.7-73.0% of the OC concentration in the 2 + 26 cities estimated with the minimum R squared method. Based on Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) algorithms, the light extinction contribution of carbonaceous PM to the total amount reached 21.1% and 26.0% on average, suggesting that carbonaceous PM played a less important role in visibility impairment than did the other chemical components in PM2.5. This study is expected to provide an important real-time dataset and in-depth analysis of the significant reduction in OC and EC in PM2.5 driven by both the Clean Air Action Plan and COVID-19-related lockdown policies over the past few years, which could represent an insightful comparative case study for other developing countries/regions facing similar carbonaceous PM pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 108(5): 819-823, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919758

ABSTRACT

Fine particulate matter (named PM2.5) has become a prominent and dangerous form of air pollution. The chemical composition of PM2.5 mainly includes inorganic elements, water soluble ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and organic compounds. The detection method for inorganic elements mainly includes X ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As for water soluble ions, ion chromatography is the most common detection method. EC and OC are usually detected by carbon analyzer. The organic compounds are determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this paper, the merits and drawbacks of each analytical methods for the determination of PM2.5 chemical composition are summarized. This review also includes our discussion on the improvement of the analytical accuracy for the determination of PM2.5 chemical composition owing to the development of reference materials.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Carbon/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Ions/analysis , Organic Chemicals/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons , Water/chemistry
6.
Indoor Air ; 32(6): e13064, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909399

ABSTRACT

The exhalation of aerosols during musical performances or rehearsals posed a risk of airborne virus transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous research studied aerosol plumes by only focusing on one risk factor, either the source strength or convective transport capability. Furthermore, the source strength was characterized by the aerosol concentration and ignored the airflow rate needed for risk analysis in actual musical performances. This study characterizes aerosol plumes that account for both the source strength and convective transport capability by conducting experiments with 18 human subjects. The source strength was characterized by the source aerosol emission rate, defined as the source aerosol concentration multiplied by the source airflow rate (brass 383 particle/s, singing 408 particle/s, and woodwind 480 particle/s). The convective transport capability was characterized by the plume influence distance, defined as the sum of the horizontal jet length and horizontal instrument length (brass 0.6 m, singing 0.6 m and woodwind 0.8 m). Results indicate that woodwind instruments produced the highest risk with approximately 20% higher source aerosol emission rates and 30% higher plume influence distances compared with the average of the same risk indicators for singing and brass instruments. Interestingly, the clarinet performance produced moderate source aerosol concentrations at the instrument's bell, but had the highest source aerosol emission rates due to high source airflow rates. Flute performance generated plumes with the lowest source aerosol emission rates but the highest plume influence distances due to the highest source airflow rate. Notably, these comprehensive results show that the source airflow is a critical component of the risk of airborne disease transmission. The effectiveness of masking and bell covering in reducing aerosol transmission is due to the mitigation of both source aerosol concentrations and plume influence distances. This study also found a musician who generated approximately five times more source aerosol concentrations than those of the other musicians who played the same instrument. Despite voice and brass instruments producing measurably lower average risk, it is possible to have an individual musician produce aerosol plumes with high source strength, resulting in enhanced transmission risk; however, our sample size was too small to make generalizable conclusions regarding the broad musician population.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Singing , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Music , Pandemics , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets/virology
7.
Environ Res ; 211: 112984, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906997

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy reduced anthropogenic emissions and impacted the atmospheric chemical characteristics in Chinese urban cities. However, rare studies were conducted at the high mountain site. In this work, in-situ measurements of light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were conducted at Waliguan (WLG) over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China from January 3 to March 30, 2020. The data was employed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric chemistry in the background-free troposphere. During the sampling period, the light absorption near-infrared (>470 nm) was mainly contributed by BC (>72%), however, BC and brown carbon (BrC) contributed equally to light absorption in the short wavelength (∼350 nm). The average BC concentrations in the pre-, during and post-lockdown were 0.28 ±â€¯0.25, 0.18 ±â€¯0.16, and 0.28 ±â€¯0.20 µg m-3, respectively, which decreased by approximately 35% during the lockdown period. Meanwhile, CO2 also showed slight decreases during the lockdown period. The declined BC was profoundly attributed to the reduced emissions (∼86%), especially for the combustion of fossil fuels. Moreover, the declined light absorption of BC, primary and secondary BrC decreased the solar energy absorbance by 35, 15, and 14%, respectively. The concentration weighted trajectories (CWT) analysis suggested that the decreased BC and CO2 at WLG were exclusively associated with the emission reduction in the eastern region of WLG. Our results highlighted that the reduced anthropogenic emissions attributed to the lockdown in the urban cities did impact the atmospheric chemistry in the free troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Soot/analysis
8.
Chemosphere ; 305: 135489, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906853

ABSTRACT

The formation of secondary aerosol species, including nitrate and sulfate, induces severe haze in the North China Plain. However, despite substantial reductions in anthropogenic pollutants due to severe restriction of residential and industrial activities in 2020 to stop the spread of COVID-19, haze still formed in Zhengzhou. We compared ionic compositions of PM2.5 during the period of the restriction with that immediately before the restriction and in the comparison period in 2019 to investigate the processes that caused the haze. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 83.9 µg m-3 in the restriction period, 241.8 µg m-3 before the restriction, and 94.0 µg m-3 in 2019. Nitrate was the largest contributor to the PM2.5 in all periods, with an average mass fraction of 24%-30%. The average molar concentration of total nitrogen compounds (NOx + nitrate) was 0.89 µmol m-3 in the restriction period, which was much lower than that in the non-restriction periods (1.85-2.74 µmol m-3). In contrast, the concentration of sulfur compounds (SO2 + sulfate) was 0.34-0.39 µmol m-3 in all periods. The conversion rate of NOx to nitrate (NOR) was 0.35 in the restriction period, significantly higher than that before the restriction (0.26) and in 2019 (0.25). NOR was higher with relative humidity in 40-80% in the restriction period than in the other two periods, whereas the conversion rate of SO2 to sulfate did not, indicating nitrate formation was more efficient during the restriction. When O3 occupied more than half of the oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2), NOR increased rapidly with the ratio of O3 to Ox and was much higher in the daytime than nighttime. Therefore, haze in the restriction period was caused by increased NOx-to-nitrate conversion driven by photochemical reactions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrogen Oxides/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons , Sulfates/analysis
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2831-2839, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876197

ABSTRACT

The Chinese government triggered the immediate implementation of a lockdown policy in China following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to drastic decreases in air pollutant emissions. However, concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants increased during the COVID-19 lockdown over the Jing-Jin-Ji region compared with those averaged over 2015-2019, and two PM2.5 pollution events occurred during the lockdown. Using the ERA5 reanalysis data, we found that the Jing-Jin-Ji region during the COVID-19 lockdown was characterized by higher relative humidity, lower planetary boundary layer height, and anomalous updraft. These conditions were favorable for condensation and the secondary formation of aerosols and prevented turbulent diffusion of pollutants. Furthermore, we conducted sensitivity tests using the WRF-Chem model and found that ρ(PM2.5) increased by 20-55 µg·m-3(60%-170%) over the middle region of Jing-Jin-Ji during the COVID-19 lockdown due to changes in meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the enhanced aerosol chemistry and unfavorable diffusion conditions were identified as the key factors driving increases in PM2.5 concentrations during the lockdown. Planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity may become the important factors in forecasting PM2.5 pollution events over the Jing-Jin-Ji region under the background of emission reduction.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135013, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864545

ABSTRACT

A single particle aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in a heavily polluted area of China during a coronavirus lockdown to explore the impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions on the chemical composition, size distributions, mixing state, and secondary formation of urban aerosols. Ten particle groups were identified using an adaptive resonance network algorithm. Increased atmospheric oxidation during the lockdown period (LP) resulted in a 42.2%-54% increase in the major NaK-SN particle fraction relative to the normal period (NP). In contrast, EC-aged particles decreased from 31.5% (NP) to 23.7% (LP), possibly due to lower emissions from motor vehicles and coal combustion. The peak particle size diameter increased from 440 nm during the NP to 500 nm during LP due to secondary particle formation. High proportions of mixed 62NO3- indicate extensive particle aging. Correlations between secondary organic (43C2H3O+, oxalate) and secondary inorganic species (62NO3-, 97HSO4- and 18NH4+) versus oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) and relative humidity (RH) indicate that increased atmospheric oxidation promoted the generation of secondary species, while the effects of RH were more complex. Differences between the NP and LP show that reductions in primary emissions had a remarkable impact on the aerosol particles. This study provides new insights into the effects of pollution emissions on atmospheric reactions and the specific aerosol types in urban regions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis
11.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119468, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851031

ABSTRACT

The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to evaluate the air quality in the coastal city of Kannur, India, during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. From the Pre1 (March 1-24, 2020) period to the Lock (March 25-April 19, 2020) and Tri (April 20-May 9, 2020) periods, the Kerala state government gradually imposed a strict lockdown policy. Both the simulations and observations showed a decline in the PM2.5 concentrations and an enhancement in the O3 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods compared with that in the Pre1 period. Integrated process rate (IPR) analysis was employed to isolate the contributions of the individual atmospheric processes. The results revealed that the vertical transport from the upper layers dominated the surface O3 formation, comprising 89.4%, 83.1%, and 88.9% of the O3 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. Photochemistry contributed negatively to the O3 concentrations at the surface layer. Compared with the Pre1 period, the O3 enhancement during the Lock period was primarily attributable to the lower negative contribution of photochemistry and the lower O3 removal rate by horizontal transport. During the Tri period, a slower consumption of O3 by gas-phase chemistry and a stronger vertical import from the upper layers to the surface accounted for the increase in O3. Emission and aerosol processes constituted the major positive contributions to the net surface PM2.5, accounting for a total of 48.7%, 38.4%, and 42.5% of PM2.5 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. The decreases in the PM2.5 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods were primarily explained by the weaker PM2.5 production from emission and aerosol processes. The increased vertical transport rate of PM2.5 from the surface layer to the upper layers was also a reason for the decrease in the PM2.5 during the Lock periods.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , India , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818124

ABSTRACT

Certified disposable respirators afford important protection from hazardous aerosols but lose performance as they are worn. This study examines the effect of wear time on filtration efficiency. Disposable respirators were worn by CSIRO staff over a period of 4 weeks in early 2020. Participants wore the respirator masks for given times up to eight hours whilst working in laboratory/office environments. At that time COVID-19 precautions required staff to wear surgical (or other) masks and increase use of hand sanitizer from dispenser stations. Results obtained from a test group of ten individuals without health preconditions show an increasing number of masks failing with wear time, while the remainder continue to perform nearly unaffected for up to 8 h. Some masks were found to retain filtration performance better than others, possibly due to the type of challenge they were subjected to by the wearer. However, the rate and extent of decay are expected to differ between environments since there are many contributing factors and properties of the aerosol challenge cannot be controlled in a live trial. Penetration and variability increased during wear; the longer the wear time, the more deleterious to particle removal, particularly after approximately 2 h of wear. This behavior is captured in a descriptive statistical model based on results from a trial with this test group. The effectiveness of the masks in preventing the penetration of KCl particles was determined before and after wearing, with the analysis focusing on the most penetrating particles in a size range of 0.3-0.5 µm diameter where respirator masks are most vulnerable. The basic elements of the study, including the approach to filter testing and sample sanitization, are broadly applicable. Conclusions also have applicability to typical commercially available single-use respirator masks manufactured from melt blown polypropylene as they are reliant on the same physical principles for particle capture and electrostatic enhancement was comparable for the particle size range used for detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Filtration , Humans , Masks , Particle Size , Static Electricity
13.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 319-326, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816974

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is much more common than previously thought. Based on our knowledge about SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, the aerosol transmission routes for all respiratory infections must be reassessed. Thus far, the COVID-19 outbreak has caused catastrophic public health and economic crises, posing a serious threat to the lives and health of people around the world and directing public attention toward the airborne transmission of pathogens. The novel coronavirus transmission in the form of nanoaerosols in a wider range hinders prevention and early warning efforts. As a classical bioaerosol sampler, the Andersen six-stage sampler is widely used in the collection and research of aerosol particles. In this study, the physical and biological collection efficiency of the six-stage sampler was explored by qPCR and colony counting method. Results showed that the physical collection efficiency reached more than 50% when the particle size was larger than 0.75 µm. However, the overall biological collection efficiency was only 0.25%. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the microbial state after sampling, and the results showed that the proportion of the collected live bacteria was less than 15% of the total. This result is of great significance not only for the application of the Andersen six-stage sampler in collecting nanosized bioaerosols, but also provides reference for the selection of subsequent detection technologies for effective collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Aerosols/analysis , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Pollut ; 306: 119347, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804058

ABSTRACT

Intra-urban pollution monitoring requires fine particulate (PM2.5) concentration mapping at ultrahigh-resolution (dozens to hundreds of meters). However, current PM2.5 concentration estimation, which is mainly based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological data, usually had a low spatial resolution (kilometers) and severe spatial missing problem, cannot be applied to intra-urban pollution monitoring. To solve these problems, top-of-atmosphere reflectance (TOAR), which contains both the information about land and atmosphere and has high resolution and large spatial coverage, may be efficiently used for PM2.5 estimation. This study aims to systematically evaluate the feasibility of retrieving ultrahigh-resolution PM2.5 concentration at a large scale (national level) from TOAR. Firstly, we make a detailed discussion about several important but unsolved theoretic problems on TOAR-based PM2.5 retrieval, including the band selection, scale effect, cloud impact, and mapping quality evaluation. Secondly, four types and eight retrieval models are compared in terms of quantitative accuracy, mapping quality, model generalization, and model efficiency, with the pros and cons of each type summarized. Deep neural network (DNN) model shows the highest retrieval accuracy, and linear models were the best in efficiency and generalization. As a compromise, ensemble learning shows the best overall performance. Thirdly, using the highly accurate DNN model (cross-validated R2 equals 0.93) and through combining Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 images, a 90 m and ∼4-day resolution PM2.5 product was generated. The retrieved maps were used for analyzing the fine-scale interannual pollution change inner the city and the pollution variations during novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results of this study proves that ultrahigh resolution can bring new findings of intra-urban pollution change, which cannot be observed at previous coarse resolution. Lastly, some suggestions for future ultrahigh-resolution PM2.5 mapping research were given.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Atmosphere , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , Particulate Matter/analysis
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1839, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778601

ABSTRACT

India as a hotspot for air pollution has heavy black carbon (BC) and dust (DU) loadings. BC has been identified to significantly impact the Indian climate. However, whether BC-climate interactions regulate Indian DU during the premonsoon season is unclear. Here, using long-term Reanalysis data, we show that Indian DU is positively correlated to northern Indian BC while negatively correlated to southern Indian BC. We further identify the mechanism of BC-dust-climate interactions revealed during COVID-19. BC reduction in northern India due to lockdown decreases solar heating in the atmosphere and increases surface albedo of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), inducing a descending atmospheric motion. Colder air from the TP together with warmer southern Indian air heated by biomass burning BC results in easterly wind anomalies, which reduces dust transport from the Middle East and Sahara and local dust emissions. The premonsoon aerosol-climate interactions delay the outbreak of the subsequent Indian summer monsoon.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Dust , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Seasons
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(26): 3243-3246, 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747172

ABSTRACT

The hygroscopicity of respiratory aerosol determines their particle size distribution and regulates solute concentrations to which entrained microorganisms are exposed. Here, we report the hygroscopicity of simulated lung fluid (SLF) particles. While the response of aqueous particles follow simple mixing rules based on composition, we observe phase hysteresis with increasing and decreasing relative humidity (RH) and clear uptake of water prior to deliquescence. These results indicate that RH history may control the state of respiratory aerosol in the environment and influence the viability of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Wettability , Body Fluids/chemistry , Humans , Humidity , Lung/chemistry , Particle Size , Water/chemistry
17.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742736

ABSTRACT

To understand how SARS-CoV-2 spreads indoors, in this study bovine coronavirus was aerosolized as simulant into a plexiglass chamber with coupons of metal, wood and plastic surfaces. After aerosolization, chamber and coupon surfaces were swiped to quantify the virus concentrations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Bio-layer interferometry showed stronger virus association on plastic and metal surfaces, however, higher dissociation from wood in 80% relative humidity. Virus aerosols were collected with the 100 L/min wetted wall cyclone and the 50 L/min MD8 air sampler and quantitated by qPCR. To monitor the effect of the ventilation on the virus movement, PRD1 bacteriophages as virus simulants were disseminated in a ¾ scale air-conditioned hospital test room with twelve PM2.5 samplers at 15 L/min. Higher virus concentrations were detected above the patient's head and near the foot of the bed with the air inlet on the ceiling above, exhaust bottom left on the wall. Based on room layout, air measurements and bioaerosol collections computational flow models were created to visualize the movement of the virus in the room airflow. The addition of air curtain at the door minimized virus concentration while having the inlet and exhaust on the ceiling decreased overall aerosol concentration. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a plexiglass chamber to gain more insight into the fundamental behavior of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 and understand its fate and transport in the ambient environment of the hospital room.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Animals , Cattle , Climate , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(3): 229, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712276

ABSTRACT

Recently, black carbon (BC) has been identified as a potential transmitter for COVID-19 besides being responsible for climate change and serious health hazards. To mitigate the dreaded consequences of COVID-19 pandemic, the Government of India declared a nationwide lockdown on March 24, 2020. Accordingly, observations on equivalent black carbon (EBC) aerosols using AE 51 Aethalometer were performed during different lockdowns in Doon Valley. During April, May, June, and July, the monthly average EBC mass concentration recorded 2.12 ± 1.14 µg m-3, 2.58 ± 1.46 µg m-3, 2.74 ± 1.49 µg m-3, and 2.12 ± 1.32 µg m-3, respectively. A comparison of diurnal variation patterns with earlier studies indicates a significant reduction in EBC mass concentration levels. Bipolar NWR analysis for April and May depicts that relatively high EBC concentration was experienced with prominent south-easterly winds. The EBC concentration level during daytime was high compared to nighttime hours. Preliminary visualization of scanning electron micrographs indicates the variable morphology of aerosols. The bulk particle EDX spectral analysis indicates C, O, Na, F, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti elements with a dominance of C and O. Windblown dust seems to be the major contributor to the ambient aerosols. Furthermore, MODIS recorded the fire anomaly (attributed to the wheat stubble burning) starting from mid of April to early-June along the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Heavy loading of polluted aerosols was visible in CALIPSO data imageries. HYSPLIT cluster trajectories indicate that the study region is strongly influenced by the air mass transporting from the Gangetic Plain, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Gulf region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 959, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699459

ABSTRACT

Record rainfall and severe flooding struck eastern China in the summer of 2020. The extreme summer rainfall occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, which started in China in early 2020 and spread rapidly across the globe. By disrupting human activities, substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols might have affected regional precipitation in many ways. Here, we investigate such connections and show that the abrupt emissions reductions during the pandemic strengthened the summer atmospheric convection over eastern China, resulting in a positive sea level pressure anomaly over northwestern Pacific Ocean. The latter enhanced moisture convergence to eastern China and further intensified rainfall in that region. Modeling experiments show that the reduction in aerosols had a stronger impact on precipitation than the decrease of greenhouse gases did. We conclude that through abrupt emissions reductions, the COVID-19 pandemic contributed importantly to the 2020 extreme summer rainfall in eastern China.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Rain , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , China/epidemiology , Floods , Human Activities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
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