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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 70, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776673

ABSTRACT

Child health services remain one of the most cost-effective strategies in reducing child mortality which is still disturbingly high in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Efforts by governments and other stakeholders in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have inadvertently disrupted the provision of other essential health services including those focusing on children. This comes at the backdrop of the World Health Organization´s guidelines for countries to sustain priority services while fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. Underpinned by the Socio-Ecological Model (SEM), we propose population-based interventions which could help in sustaining child health services in the midst of COVID-19 in SSA. At the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels, educating mothers during routine community outreach services, during child welfare clinics, and in church/mosques could be useful. Education and sensitization of male partners could also be an important intervention. At the institutional and community levels, we recommend the allocation of more funds to other essential health services including child health services. The training and deployment of more general nurses, community health nurses/officers, and public health officers is imperative. The provision and adherence to COVID-19 preventive protocols at health facilities are also recommended at these levels. At the public policy level, insurance and tax relief packages for frontline professionals providing child health services and micro-credit facilities at reduced interest rates for women could be implemented towards sustaining the utilisation of child health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765945

ABSTRACT

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies virus , Rabies , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Laboratories , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
4.
Hypertension ; 79(5): 898-905, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest age-adjusted burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). SSA also experiences many viral infections due to unique environmental and societal factors. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine evidence around how hypertension, CVD, and emerging viral infections interact in SSA. METHODS: In September 2021, we conducted a search in MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus, limited to English language studies published since 1990, and found a total of 1169 articles. Forty-seven original studies were included, with 32 on COVID-19 and 15 on other emerging viruses. RESULTS: Seven articles, including those with the largest sample size and most robust study design, found an association between preexisting hypertension or CVD and COVID-19 severity or death. Ten smaller studies found no association, and 17 did not calculate statistics to compare groups. Two studies assessed the impact of COVID-19 on incident CVD, with one finding an increase in stroke admissions. For other emerging viruses, 3 studies did not find an association between preexisting hypertension or CVD on West Nile and Lassa fever mortality. Twelve studies examined other emerging viral infections and incident CVD, with 4 finding no association and 8 not calculating statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence from COVID-19 suggests viruses, hypertension, and CVD interact on multiple levels in SSA, but research gaps remain especially for other emerging viral infections. SSA can and must play a leading role in the study and control of emerging viral infections, with expansion of research and public health infrastructure to address these interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Risk Factors
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 130, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan African (SSA) share the greatest burden of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Comprehensive knowledge about HIV is seen as pivotal in combating the epidemic. Therefore, this study aimed to assess comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS and associated factors among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To examine comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS and associated factors among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We used the most recent SSA countries Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data. To assess comprehensive knowledge, a composite score of six separate questions (can get HIV by witchcraft or supernatural means, can reduce risk of getting HIV by using condoms during sex, reduce the risk of getting HIV by having one sex partner only, can get HIV from mosquito bites, can get HIV by sharing food with a person who has HIV/AIDS, and a healthy-looking person can have HIV) was used. Those who answered all six questions correctly were considered to have comprehensive knowledge. To assess the factors associated with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, we used a multilevel binary logistic regression model since the data had hierarchical nature. RESULTS: In this study, the comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS was 38.56% (95% CI: 38.32, 38.75). Both individual and community-level factors were associated with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Among individual-level factors, older age, having primary and above educational level, being from wealthy households, contraceptive use, listening to the radio, and reading newspaper were associated with higher odds of comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Being from urban areas and the Eastern African region were the community-level factors that were associated with higher odds of comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The study found that comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS is low. Individual and community-level factors were associated with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Therefore, giving special attention to those young women, women who had no formal education, those from poor socioeconomic status, and those who are from remote areas could decrease the epidemics of HIV/AIDS by increasing the comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Besides, it is better to strengthen media campaigns regarding HIV/AIDS to increase comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Demography , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Multilevel Analysis
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708180

ABSTRACT

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), economic downturns can lead to increased child mortality by affecting dietary, environmental, and care-seeking factors. This study estimates the potential loss of life in children under five years old attributable to economic downturns in 2020. We used a multi-level, mixed effects model to estimate the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) specific to each of 129 LMICs. Public data were retrieved from the World Bank World Development Indicators database and the United Nations World Populations Prospects estimates for the years 1990-2020. Country-specific regression coefficients on the relationship between child mortality and GDP were used to estimate the impact on U5MR of reductions in GDP per capita of 5%, 10%, and 15%. A 5% reduction in GDP per capita in 2020 was estimated to cause an additional 282,996 deaths in children under 5 in 2020. At 10% and 15%, recessions led to higher losses of under-5 lives, increasing to 585,802 and 911,026 additional deaths, respectively. Nearly half of all the potential under-5 lives lost in LMICs were estimated to occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Because most of these deaths will likely be due to nutrition and environmental factors amenable to intervention, countries should ensure continued investments in food supplementation, growth monitoring, and comprehensive primary health care to mitigate potential burdens.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Developing Countries , Gross Domestic Product/trends , Africa South of the Sahara , Child, Preschool , Dietary Supplements , Environment , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Regression Analysis , Uncertainty
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(3): e216436, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635814

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about COVID-19 outcomes among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where preexisting comorbidities are prevalent. Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in 6 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a retrospective record review of data from 25 hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda from March 1 to December 31, 2020, and included 469 hospitalized patients aged 0 to 19 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposures: Age, sex, preexisting comorbidities, and region of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: An ordinal primary outcome scale was used comprising 5 categories: (1) hospitalization without oxygen supplementation, (2) hospitalization with oxygen supplementation, (3) ICU admission, (4) invasive mechanical ventilation, and (5) death. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay. Results: Among 469 hospitalized children and adolescents, the median age was 5.9 years (IQR, 1.6-11.1 years); 245 patients (52.4%) were male, and 115 (24.5%) had comorbidities. A total of 39 patients (8.3%) were from central Africa, 172 (36.7%) from eastern Africa, 208 (44.3%) from southern Africa, and 50 (10.7%) from western Africa. Eighteen patients had suspected (n = 6) or confirmed (n = 12) multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Thirty-nine patients (8.3%) died, including 22 of 69 patients (31.9%) who required intensive care unit admission and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with suspected or confirmed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Among 468 patients, 418 (89.3%) were discharged, and 16 (3.4%) remained hospitalized. The likelihood of outcomes with higher vs lower severity among children younger than 1 year expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 4.89 (95% CI, 1.44-16.61) times higher than that of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The presence of hypertension (aOR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.89-18.50), chronic lung disease (aOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.65-5.37), or a hematological disorder (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.04-9.24) was associated with severe outcomes. Age younger than 1 year (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [asHR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87), the presence of 1 comorbidity (asHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72), and the presence of 2 or more comorbidities (asHR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.18-0.38) were associated with reduced rates of hospital discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of morbidity and mortality were observed among infants and patients with noncommunicable disease comorbidities, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccination and therapeutic interventions are needed for young populations in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Child, Hospitalized , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010047, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the 20th century, epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) ravaged communities in a number of African countries. The latest surge in disease transmission was recorded in the late 1990s, with more than 35,000 cases reported annually in 1997 and 1998. In 2013, after more than a decade of sustained control efforts and steady progress, the World Health Assembly resolved to target the elimination of HAT as a public health problem by 2020. We report here on recent progress towards this goal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With 992 and 663 cases reported in 2019 and 2020 respectively, the first global target was amply achieved (i.e. fewer than 2,000 HAT cases/year). Areas at moderate or higher risk of HAT, where more than 1 case/10,000 people/year are reported, shrunk to 120,000 km2 for the five-year period 2016-2020. This reduction of 83% from the 2000-2004 baseline (i.e. 709,000 km2) is slightly below the target (i.e. 90% reduction). As a result, the second global target for HAT elimination as a public health problem cannot be considered fully achieved yet. The number of health facilities able to diagnose and treat HAT expanded (+9.6% compared to a 2019 survey), thus reinforcing the capacity for passive detection and improving epidemiological knowledge of the disease. Active surveillance for gambiense HAT was sustained. In particular, 2.8 million people were actively screened in 2019 and 1.6 million in 2020, the decrease in 2020 being mainly caused by COVID-19-related restrictions. Togo and Côte d'Ivoire were the first countries to be validated for achieving elimination of HAT as a public health problem at the national level; applications from three additional countries are under review by the World Health Organization (WHO). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The steady progress towards the elimination of HAT is a testament to the power of multi-stakeholder commitment and coordination. At the end of 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed a new road map for 2021-2030 that set new bold targets for neglected tropical diseases. While rhodesiense HAT remains among the diseases targeted for elimination as a public health problem, gambiense HAT is targeted for elimination of transmission. The goal for gambiense HAT is expected to be particularly arduous, as it might be hindered by cryptic reservoirs and a number of other challenges (e.g. further integration of HAT surveillance and control into national health systems, availability of skilled health care workers, development of more effective and adapted tools, and funding for and coordination of elimination efforts).


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma brucei brucei/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/pathogenicity , Trypanosomiasis, African/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Animals , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Insect Control , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosomiasis, African/epidemiology , Tsetse Flies/parasitology , World Health Organization
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614292

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Zimbabwe was one of the first countries to run a national COVID-19 vaccination programme in Africa. Lessons learnt could inform the roll-out of similar programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. To describe the trends of uptake of the COVID-19 vaccines in the first three months (February - May 2021) of the Zimbabwe vaccination programme and the lessons learnt. Methods: a secondary descriptive analysis of routinely available COVID-19 vaccination data extracted from the daily situation reports published by the Ministry of Health and Child Care. Results: in the first three months of the programme, 1 020 078 doses were administered, with 675 678 being first doses and 344 400 were second doses. Using population estimates, at three months, 5.2% of the population had received at least one dose and 2.6% had received the full two doses. Uptake was initially slow, followed by a gradual, and subsequently an exponential increase. Conclusion: by the end of May 2021, Zimbabwe had rolled out one of the largest COVID-19 vaccination programme in sub-Saharan Africa. The uptake followed a pattern and trend that is consistent with vaccine hesitancy reported in the literature, driven by a combination of confidence, complacency and convenience factors. The gradual increase in uptake followed a series of national and local community engagement programmes. The roll-out of similar programmes must recognise likely patterns of uptake across the population and ensure plans are in place to address vaccine hesitancy. The available data did not allow granular analysis to understand the demographics of people who participated in the programme, which is important for surveillance, targeted action, preventing inequalities and ensuring adequate and proportionate protection of residents prioritising the most vulnerable. Further analysis of the process, outcomes and impact of the programme will be helpful in informing the roll-out of similar programmes across Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Africa South of the Sahara , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Zimbabwe
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S16-S21, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575135

ABSTRACT

In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 565625, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574690

ABSTRACT

Sub-Saharan Africa has generally experienced few cases and deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition to other potential explanations for the few cases and deaths of COVID-19 such as the population socio-demographics, early lockdown measures and the possibility of under reporting, we hypothesize in this mini review that individuals with a recent history of malaria infection may be protected against infection or severe form of COVID-19. Given that both the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) merozoites bind to the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that the immunological memory against P. falciparum merozoites primes SARS-CoV-2 infected cells for early phagocytosis, hence protecting individuals with a recent P. falciparum infection against COVID-19 infection or severity. This mini review therefore discusses the potential biological link between P. falciparum infection and COVID-19 infection or severity and further highlights the importance of CD147 immunoglobulin as an entry point for both SARS-CoV-2 and P. falciparum into host cells.


Subject(s)
Basigin/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Malaria, Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Merozoites/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538374

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in 2019 SARS-CoV-2 has proven to have a higher level of morbidity and mortality compared to the other prevailing coronaviruses. Although initially most African countries were spared from the devastating effect of SARS-CoV-2, at present almost every country has been affected. Although no association has been established between being HIV-1-infected and being more vulnerable to contracting COVID-19, HIV-1-infected individuals have a greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 and of COVID-19 related mortality. The rapid development of the various types of COVID-19 vaccines has gone a long way in mitigating the devastating effects of the virus and has controlled its spread. However, global vaccine deployment has been uneven particularly in Africa. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Beta and Delta, which seem to show some subtle resistance to the existing vaccines, suggests COVID-19 will still be a high-risk infection for years. In this review we report on the current impact of COVID-19 on HIV-1-infected individuals from an immunological perspective and attempt to make a case for prioritising COVID-19 vaccination for those living with HIV-1 in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries like Malawi as one way of minimising the impact of COVID-19 in these countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/mortality , Mass Vaccination/methods , Africa South of the Sahara , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Seropositivity , Health Priorities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533036

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since sex-based biological and gender factors influence COVID-19 mortality, we wanted to investigate the difference in mortality rates between women and men in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHOD: We included 69 580 cases of COVID-19, stratified by sex (men: n=43 071; women: n=26 509) and age (0-39 years: n=41 682; 40-59 years: n=20 757; 60+ years: n=7141), from 20 member nations of the WHO African region until 1 September 2020. We computed the SSA-specific and country-specific case fatality rates (CFRs) and sex-specific CFR differences across various age groups, using a Bayesian approach. RESULTS: A total of 1656 deaths (2.4% of total cases reported) were reported, with men accounting for 70.5% of total deaths. In SSA, women had a lower CFR than men (mean [Formula: see text] = -0.9%; 95% credible intervals (CIs) -1.1% to -0.6%). The mean CFR estimates increased with age, with the sex-specific CFR differences being significant among those aged 40 years or more (40-59 age group: mean [Formula: see text] = -0.7%; 95% CI -1.1% to -0.2%; 60+ years age group: mean [Formula: see text] = -3.9%; 95% CI -5.3% to -2.4%). At the country level, 7 of the 20 SSA countries reported significantly lower CFRs among women than men overall. Moreover, corresponding to the age-specific datasets, significantly lower CFRs in women than men were observed in the 60+ years age group in seven countries and 40-59 years age group in one country. CONCLUSIONS: Sex and age are important predictors of COVID-19 mortality globally. Countries should prioritise the collection and use of sex-disaggregated data so as to design public health interventions and ensure that policies promote a gender-sensitive public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(4): 1742-1751, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528707

ABSTRACT

With the escalation of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) across the globe, shortages in the already scarce medical workforce are imminent. Historically, more developed economies have looked abroad to augment their health systems. This paper aims to offer plausible solutions on how to avert future medical brain drain from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the aftermath of COVID-19. We opine that emigration of medical workers from low-resource settings to more industrialized regions should be viewed by the destination countries as both a moral and an ethical issue. Countries in SSA must generally provide good leadership, diversify their economies, and ensure adequate security. Specifically, there are needs to improve health care workers' remuneration, provide more opportunities for specialization, and reduce waiting time for employment. It is our opinion that such multisectoral and multi-modal approaches will effectively halt and even reverse the on-going brain drain in the region, converting it to brain gain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigration and Immigration , Africa South of the Sahara , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 21(6): 649-656, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526064

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine have been proposed as potential treatments for COVID-19. These drugs have warning labels for use in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Analysis of whole genome sequence data of 458 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa showed significant G6PD variation across the continent. We identified nine variants, of which four are potentially deleterious to G6PD function, and one (rs1050828) that is known to cause G6PD deficiency. We supplemented data for the rs1050828 variant with genotype array data from over 11,000 Africans. Although this variant is common in Africans overall, large allele frequency differences exist between sub-populations. African sub-populations in the same country can show significant differences in allele frequency (e.g. 16.0% in Tsonga vs 0.8% in Xhosa, both in South Africa, p = 2.4 × 10-3). The high prevalence of variants in the G6PD gene found in this analysis suggests that it may be a significant interaction factor in clinical trials of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 in Africans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/genetics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Genetic Variation/genetics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/drug therapy , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Risk Factors
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1913-1919, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522140

ABSTRACT

Globally, there are prevailing knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children and adolescents; and these gaps are especially wide in African countries. The availability of robust age-disaggregated data is a critical first step in improving knowledge on disease burden and manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among children. Furthermore, it is essential to improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2 interactions with comorbidities and coinfections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, malaria, sickle cell disease, and malnutrition, which are highly prevalent among children in sub-Saharan Africa. The African Forum for Research and Education in Health (AFREhealth) COVID-19 Research Collaboration on Children and Adolescents is conducting studies across Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa to address existing knowledge gaps. This consortium is expected to generate key evidence to inform clinical practice and public health policy-making for COVID-19 while concurrently addressing other major diseases affecting children in African countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513183

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted many facets of everyday daily life, resulting in far-reaching consequences on social interaction, regional and global economies, and healthcare delivery systems. Numerous reports have commented on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical education in various world regions. However, we know little about the influence of the pandemic on medical education in Africa. Here, we discuss the potential impact of COVID-19 on teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education in sub-Saharan Africa, illustrating some of the unexpected benefits and challenges the pandemic presents for medical education in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Africa South of the Sahara , Humans , Learning , Teaching
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