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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 974, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Globally, both men and women have a 50% risk of being infected at least once in their life. HPV prevalence is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), at an average of 24%. HPV causes different types of cancers, including cervical cancer (CC), which is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in SSA. HPV-vaccination has been proven to be effective in reducing HPV induced cancers. SSA countries are delayed in reaching the WHO's target of fully vaccinating 90% of girls within the age of 15 by 2030. Our systematic review aims to identify barriers and facilitators of HPV-vaccination in SSA to inform national implementation strategies in the region. METHODS: This is a mixed method systematic review based on the PRISMA statement and The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual. Search strategies were adapted to each selected database: PubMed/MEDLINE, Livivo, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and African Journals Online for papers published in English, Italian, German, French and Spanish between 1 December 2011 and 31 December 2021. Zotero and Rayyan were the software used for data management. The appraisal was conducted by three independent reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 20 articles were selected for appraisal from an initial 536 articles. Barriers included: limited health system capacities, socio-economic status, stigma, fear and costs of vaccines, negative experience with vaccinations, COVID-19 pandemic, lack of correct information, health education (HE) and consent. Additionally, we found that boys are scarcely considered for HPV-vaccination by parents and stakeholders. Facilitators included: information and knowledge, policy implementation, positive experience with vaccinations, HE, stakeholders' engagement, women's empowerment, community engagement, seasonality, and target-oriented vaccination campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: This review synthesizes barriers and facilitators of HPV-vaccinations in SSA. Addressing these can contribute to the implementation of more effective HPV immunization programs targeted at eliminating CC in line with the WHO 90/70/90 strategy. REGISTRATION AND FUNDING: Protocol ID: CRD42022338609 registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Partial funds: German Centre for Infection research (DZIF) project NAMASTE: 8,008,803,819.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Female , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0276411, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) significantly affects adolescents globally, with the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) reporting a high burden of the disease. HIV testing, treatment, and retention to care are low among adolescents. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review to assess anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence; barriers and facilitators to ART adherence and ART outcomes among adolescents living with HIV and on ART in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted searches in four scientific databases for studies conducted between 2010 and March 2022 to identify relevant primary studies. Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and assessed for quality, and data was extracted. Meta-analysis of rates and odd ratios was used to plot the quantitative studies and meta-synthesis summarized the evidence from qualitative studies. RESULTS: A total of 10 431 studies were identified and screened against the inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Sixty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (41 quantitative, 16 qualitative, and 9 mixed-methods study designs). Fifty-three thousand two hundred and seventeen (53 217) adolescents (52 319 in quantitative studies and 899 in qualitative studies) were included in the review. Thirteen support focused interventions for improved ART adherence were identified from quantitative studies. The plotted results from the meta-analysis found an ART adherence rate of 65% (95%CI 56-74), viral load suppression was 55% (95%CI 46-64), un-suppressed viral load rate of 41% (95%CI 32-50), and loss to follow up of 17% (95%CI 10-24) among adolescents. Meta-synthesis found six themes of barriers to ART (social, patient-based, economic, health system-based, therapy-based, and cultural barriers) in both the qualitative and quantitative studies, and three themes of facilitators to ART were also identified (social support, counselling, and ART education and secrecy or confidentiality) from qualitative studies. CONCLUSION: ART adherence remains low among adolescents in SSA despite multiple interventions implemented to improve ART adherence. The low adherence rate may hinder the attainment of the UNAIDS 2030 targets. Additionally, various barriers to ART adherence due to lack of support have been reported among this age group. However, interventions aimed at improving social support, educating, and counselling adolescents may improve and sustain ART adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021284891.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Adolescent , HIV , Medication Adherence , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
3.
J Math Biol ; 86(6): 91, 2023 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319319

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the recent SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 670 million people and killed nearly 67.0 million. In Africa, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was approximately 12.7 million as of January 11, 2023, that is about 2% of the infections around the world. Many theories and modeling techniques have been used to explain this lower-than-expected number of reported COVID-19 cases in Africa relative to the high disease burden in most developed countries. We noted that most epidemiological mathematical models are formulated in continuous-time interval, and taking Cameroon in Sub-Saharan Africa, and New York State in the USA as case studies, in this paper we developed parameterized hybrid discrete-time-continuous-time models of COVID-19 in Cameroon and New York State. We used these hybrid models to study the lower-than-expected COVID-19 infections in developing countries. We then used error analysis to show that a time scale for a data-driven mathematical model should match that of the actual data reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Cost of Illness
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285571, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nine in ten of the world's 1.74 million adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV) live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and poor viral suppression are important problems among adolescents. To guide intervention efforts in this regard, this review presented pooled estimates on the prevalence of adherence and how it is affected by disclosure of HIV status among ALHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A comprehensive search in major databases (Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, HINARI, and Google Scholar) with additional hand searches for grey literature was conducted to locate observational epidemiologic studies published in English up to November 12, 2022 with the following inclusion criteria: primary studies that reported disclosure of HIV status as an exposure variable, had positive adherence to ART as an outcome, and conducted among adolescents and children. The COVIDENCE software was used for a title/abstract screening, full-text screening, the JBI quality assessment checklist, and data extraction. Random effects model was used to pool estimates. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were also conducted by age groups and type of adherence measures used. RESULTS: This meta-analysis combines the effect estimates from 12 primary studies with 4422 participants. The prevalence of good adherence to ART was 73% (95% CI (confidence interval): 56 to 87; I2 = 98.63%, P = <0.001), and it was higher among adolescents who were aware of their HIV status, 77% (95% CI: 56 to 92; I2 = 98.34%, P = <0.001). Overall, knowledge of HIV status was associated with increased odds of adherence (odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.94; I2 = 79.8%, P = <0.001). This was further supported in a subgroup analysis by age (seven studies, pooled OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.37; I2 = 81.3%, P = <0.0001) and whether primary studies controlled for confounding factors (six studies provided adjusted estimates, pooled OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.22 to 5.57; I2 = 88.1%, P = <0.001) confirmed this further. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis and systematic review revealed that knowledge of one's HIV status was associated with adherence to ART, particularly among adolescents. The findings underscored the importance of encouraging disclosure in order to enhance adherence among adolescents.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Disclosure , Medication Adherence , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
5.
J Biosoc Sci ; 54(6): 975-990, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315827

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the association between comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and HIV testing among men in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Data were taken from the most recent (2010-2019) Demographic and Health Survey men's recode files of 29 countries in SSA. A total of 104,398 men who had complete information on all the variables of interest were included in the study. The outcome variable was HIV testing. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and HIV testing. The results of the fixed effects model were presented as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The average prevalences of HIV testing and comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in SSA were 53.5% and 50.8% respectively. Rwanda and Niger recorded the highest (93.6%) and lowest prevalences (9.8%) respectively. The prevalence of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in the 29 countries was 50.8%, with the highest in Rwanda (76.4%) and the lowest in Benin (31.1%). Men who had no comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were less likely to test for HIV compared with those who had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.57-0.60). Men who were older than 20 years, married or cohabiting, with at least secondary education, in the richest wealth quintile, exposed to mass media, used condoms and with multiple sexual partners were more likely to test for HIV. To improve HIV testing among men in SSA, this study recommends that policymakers and stakeholders step up comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge sensitization and education using effective tools such as mass media.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Male , Humans , Health Surveys , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Condoms , HIV Testing , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology
7.
J Public Health Policy ; 44(1): 122-137, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274907

ABSTRACT

In the absence of fully effective measures to prevent and treat COVID-19, the limited access to and hesitancy about vaccines, the prolongation of the on-going pandemic is likely. This underscores the need to continue to respond and maintain preparedness, preferably using a more sustainable approach. A sustainable management is particularly important in fragile, conflict-affected and vulnerable countries of sub-Saharan Africa given several peculiar challenges. This Viewpoint proposes policy options to guide transitioning from current COVID-19 emergency response interventions to longer-term and more sustainable responses in such settings. In the long term, a shift in policy from a vertical to a more effective approach should integrate response coordination, surveillance, case management, risk communication and operational support, among other elements, for better results. We call on public health policymakers, partners and donors to support full implementation of these policy options in a holistic manner to encompass all emerging public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Public Policy , Health Policy , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
8.
Lancet HIV ; 10(3): e146-e148, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274479
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 53, 2023 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing racial/ethnic disparities in health, sustained by intersecting socio-economic and structural inequities, have widened due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, little attention has been paid to the lived experiences of people in ethnic/racialised minority communities, and to the causes and effects underlying the COVID-19-related burden. This hinders tailored responses. This study explores Sub-Saharan African (SSA) communities' needs, perceptions, and experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and its control measures in Antwerp (Belgium) in 2020. METHODS: This qualitative study using an interpretative ethnographical approach adopted an iterative and participatory methodology: a community advisory board advised on all stages of the research process. Interviews and a group discussion were conducted online, through telephone, and face-to-face. We analysed the data inductively using a thematic analytical approach. RESULTS: Our respondents, who mostly used social media for information, struggled with misinformation about the new virus and prevention measures. They reported to be vulnerable to misinformation about the origin of the pandemic, risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2, and the prevention measures. Not only did the epidemic affect SSA communities, but to a larger extent, the control strategies did-especially the lockdown. Respondents perceived the interaction of social factors (i.e. being migrants, being undocumented, having experienced racism and discrimination) and economic factors (i.e. working in temporary and precarious jobs, not being able to apply for unemployment benefit, crowded housing conditions) as increasing the burden of COVID-19 control measures. In turn, these experiences influenced people's perceptions and attitudes, and may have partially impaired them to follow some public health COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Despite these challenges, communities developed bottom-up initiatives to react quickly to the epidemic, including translation of prevention messages, food distribution, and online spiritual support. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing disparities influenced the perceptions of and attitudes towards COVID-19 and its control strategies among SSA communities. To better design support and control strategies targeted to specific groups, we need to not only involve communities and address their specific needs and concerns, but also build on their strengths and resilience. This will remain important in the context of widening disparities and future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Belgium/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
10.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(6): 602-605, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239893

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an update of last year analysis of COVID in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). The number of confirmed cases and deaths has dramatically increased, partially driven by the expanded diagnostic capacity, but it is an unknown undercount of people infected: we are blind with respect to the real size of the pandemic. The aggregate numbers mask a substantial heterogeneity: South Africa accounts for almost half of the cases in the region; Ethiopia, the second top country in the ranking, follows from afar, with only 6% of reported cases. There are signs that the third wave of COVID, driven by the more transmissible Delta variant, is easing off.The concerns that the pandemic would have affected more severely the most vulnerable populations (refugees and internally displaced persons) have not been confirmed: there is no evidence of hospitals overwhelmed nor of high mortality in humanitarian settings, a pattern that has not found an explanation.As of now, only 1% of African has been vaccinated, a sign of vaccine inequity and of 'a catastrophic moral failure' of rich countries, which have secured a surplus of hundred million COVID vaccines that they cannot use.The combined effects of the pandemic and control measures have been particularly severe in SSA economies, where underemployment and job insecurity prevail. Reduced export of commodities, collapse of tourism and agriculture, decline of foreign investment, aid, and remittances have driven million Africans in extreme poverty. The international financial institutions have shifted their strategies from austerity to a strong package of grants and concessional loans to support poor countries, including those in SSA, to cope with the immediate consequences of the pandemic, under the lemma 'vaccine policy is the most important economic policy'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 429-430, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184624
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While most governments instituted several interventions to stall the spread of COVID-19, little is known regarding the continued observance of the non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 preventive measures particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigated adherence to these preventive measures during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak in some SSA countries. Methods: Between March and August 2020, the International Citizen Project on COVID-19 consortium (www.icpcovid.com) conducted online surveys in six SSA countries: Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Somalia, and Uganda. A five-point individual adherence score was constituted by scoring respondents' observance of the following measures: mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene, and avoiding to touch one's face. Community behaviors (going to public places, traveling during the pandemic) were also assessed. Data were analyzed in two time periods: Period 1 (March-May) and Period 2 (June-August). Results: Responses from 26,678 respondents were analyzed (mean age: 31.0 ± 11.1 years; 54.1% males). Mean individual adherence score decreased from 3.80 ± 1.37 during Period 1, to 3.57 ± 1.43 during Period 2; p < 0.001. At the community level, public events/places were significantly more attended with increased travels during Period 2 compared to Period 1 (p < 0.001). Using linear mixed models, predictors of increased individual adherence included: higher age (Coef = 0.005; 95% CI: 0.003-0.007), female gender (Coef = 0.071; 95% CI: 0.039-0.104), higher educational level (Coef = 0.999; 95% CI: 0.885-1.113), and working in the healthcare sector (Coef = 0.418; 95% CI: 0.380-0.456). Conclusion: Decreasing adherence to non-pharmaceutical measures over time constitutes a risk for the persistence of COVID-19 in SSA. Younger persons and those with lower education levels constitute target groups for improving adherence to such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Outbreaks
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066615, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify, describe and map the research tools used to measure COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, refusal, acceptance and access in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: In March 2022, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Health Source Nursing, Africa Wide and APA PsychInfo for peer-reviewed literature in English related to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, refusal, acceptance and access in SSA. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews to guide evidence gathering and as a template to present the evidence retrieval process. RESULTS: In the studies selected for review (n=72), several measurement tools were used to measure COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, acceptance and refusal. These measurements were willingness and intent to vaccinate from the perspectives of the general population, special population groups such as mothers, students and staff in academic institutions and healthcare workers and uptake as a proxy for measuring assumed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Measurements of access to COVID-19 vaccination were cost and affordability, convenience, distance and time to travel or time waiting for a vaccine and (dis)comfort. Although all studies measured COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, acceptance and refusal, relatively few studies (n=16, 22.2%) included explicit measurements of access to COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the gaps identified in the scoping review, we propose that future research on determinants of COVID-19 vaccination in SSA should further prioritise the inclusion of access-related variables. We recommend the development and use of standardised research tools that can operationalise, measure and disentangle the complex determinants of vaccine uptake in future studies throughout SSA and other low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110091

ABSTRACT

All around the world, inequalities persist in the complex web of social, economic, and ecological factors that mediate food security outcomes at different human and institutional scales. There have been rapid and continuous improvements in agricultural productivity and better food security in many regions of the world during the past 50 years due to an expansion in crop area, irrigation, and supportive policy and institutional initiatives. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa, the situation is inverted. Statistics show that food insecurity has risen since 2015 in Sub-Saharan African countries, and the situation has worsened owing to the Ukraine conflict and the ongoing implications of the COVID-19 threat. This review looks into multidimensional challenges to achieving the SDG2 goal of "End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture" in Sub-Saharan Africa and the prosper policy recommendations for action. Findings indicate that weak economic growth, gender inequality, high inflation, low crop productivity, low investment in irrigated agriculture and research, climate change, high population growth, poor policy frameworks, weak infrastructural development, and corruption are the major hurdles in the sustaining food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Promoting investments in agricultural infrastructure and extension services together with implementing policies targeted at enhancing the households' purchasing power, especially those in rural regions, appear to be essential drivers for improving both food availability and food access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Supply , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Agriculture/methods , Food Security
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1969, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Handwashing is fundamentally an inexpensive means of reducing the spread of communicable diseases. In developing countries, many people die due to infectious diseases that could be prevented by proper hand hygiene. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to people who are living in resource-limited countries including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Effective hand hygiene requires sufficient water from reliable sources, preferably accessible on premises, and access to handwashing facility (water and or soap) that enable hygiene behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of limited handwashing facility and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used, which have been conducted in 29 sub-Saharan African countries since January 1, 2010. A two-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to collect the data. This study comprised a total of 237,983 weighted samples. The mixed effect logistic regression model with a cluster-level random intercept was fitted. Meta-analysis and sub-group analysis were performed to establish the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of limited handwashing facility was found to be 66.16% (95% CI; 59.67%-72.65%). Based on the final model, household head with age group between 35 and 60 [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI; 0.86-0.91], households with mobile type of hand washing facility [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI; 1.70-1.77], unimproved sanitation facility [AOR = 1.58, 95% CI; 1.55-1.62], water access more than 30 min round trip [AOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.13-1.19], urban residential area [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI; 2.04-2.13], low media exposure [AOR = 1.47, 95% CI; 1.31-1.66], low educational level [AOR = 1.30, 95% CI; 1.14-1.48], low income level [AOR = 2.41, 95% CI; 2.33-2.49] as well as lower middle-income level [AOR = 2.10, 95% CI; 2.14-2.17] and households who had more than three children [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI; 1.20-1.31] were associated with having limited handwashing facility. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The pooled coverage of limited handwashing facility was high in sub-Saharan Africa. Raising awareness of the community and promoting access to handwashing materials particularly in poorer and rural areas will reduce its coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Family Characteristics , Water
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079755

ABSTRACT

AIM: Mortality rates of coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) disease continue to increase worldwide and in Africa. In this study, we aimed to summarize the available results on the association between sociodemographic, clinical, biological, and comorbidity factors and the risk of mortality due to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We followed the PRISMA checklist (S1 Checklist). We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and European PMC between January 1, 2020, and September 23, 2021. We included observational studies with Subjects had to be laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients; had to report risk factors or predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients, Studies had to be published in English, include multivariate analysis, and be conducted in the sub-Saharan region. Exclusion criteria included case reports, review articles, commentaries, errata, protocols, abstracts, reports, letters to the editor, and repeat studies. The methodological quality of the studies included in this meta-analysis was assessed using the methodological items for nonrandomized studies (MINORS). Pooled hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately to identify mortality risk. In addition, publication bias and subgroup analysis were assessed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twelve studies with a total of 43598 patients met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes of interest were mortality. The results of the analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of mortality in COVID-19 patients was 4.8%. Older people showed an increased risk of mortality from SARS-Cov-2. The pooled hazard ratio (pHR) and odds ratio (pOR) were 9.01 (95% CI; 6.30-11.71) and 1.04 (95% CI; 1.02-1.06), respectively. A significant association was found between COVID-19 mortality and men (pOR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.04-2). In addition, the risk of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection was strongly influenced by chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, severe or critical infection on admission, cough, and dyspnea. The major limitations of the present study are that the data in the meta-analysis came mainly from studies that were published, which may lead to publication bias, and that the causal relationship between risk factors and poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 cannot be confirmed because of the inherent limitations of the observational study. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male sex, CKD, hypertension, severe or critical condition on admission, cough, and dyspnea are clinical risk factors for fatal outcomes associated with coronavirus. These findings could be used for research, control, and prevention of the disease and could help providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Cough , Dyspnea , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e3, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024679

ABSTRACT

After four decades of the HIV epidemic, women from sub-Saharan Africa remain at a differentially high risk of acquisition. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) statistics show that the majority of HIV infections occur in this population and region. Evidence from previous humanitarian crises demonstrated adverse maternal consequences as a result of neglect for the provision of essential maternal, sexual and reproductive health services. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had a similar effect, including an additional risk of HIV acquisition amongst women in sub-Saharan Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated the risk of sub-Saharan Africa women to HIV infection because of a multitude of factors including child marriages, teenage pregnancies, dropping out of school, increase in incidence of sexual and gender-based violence and reduced access to preventive and treatment services for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. These include provision of care for rape and sexual and gender-based violence victims and provision of pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis for HIV and other STIs. Failure to urgently restore and maintain robust HIV prevention and treatment during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a risk of reversing the gains made over the years in reducing the incidence and morbidity from HIV amongst the population of sub-Saharan Africa women. There is need for an urgent and robust discourse to formulate effective interventions for protecting women and girls living in sub-Saharan Africa from an aggravated risk of HIV infection during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and other future humanitarian crises.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 957913, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022742

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 is a transmissible illness triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its onset in late 2019 in Wuhan city of China, it continues to spread universally, leading to an ongoing pandemic that shattered all efforts to restrain it. On the other hand, in Africa, the COVID-19 infection may be influenced by malaria coinfection. Hence, in this review article, we aimed to give a comprehensive account of the similarities between COVID-19 and malaria in terms of symptoms, clinical, immunological, and molecular perspectives. Methodology: In this article, we reviewed over 50 research papers to highlight the multilayered similarities between COVID-19 and malaria infections that might influence the ontology of COVID-19. Results: Despite the poor health and fragile medical system of many sub-Saharan African countries, they persisted with a statistically significantly low number of COVID-19 cases. This was attributed to many factors such as the young population age, the warm weather, the lack of proper diagnosis, previous infection with malaria, the use of antimalarial drugs, etc. Additionally, population genetics appears to play a significant role in shaping the COVID-19 dynamics. This is evident as recent genomic screening analyses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and malaria-associated-variants identified 6 candidate genes that might play a role in malaria and COVID-19 incidence and severity. Moreover, the clinical and pathological resemblances between the two diseases have made considerable confusion in the diagnosis and thereafter curb the disease in Africa. Therefore, possible similarities between the diseases in regards to the clinical, pathological, immunological, and genetical ascription were discussed. Conclusion: Understanding the dynamics of COVID-19 infection in Sub-Saharan Africa and how it is shaped by another endemic disease like malaria can provide insights into how to tailor a successful diagnostic, intervention, and control plans that lower both disease morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , SARS-CoV-2 , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics
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