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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237711, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074863

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persistent racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity (SMM) in the US remain a public health concern. Structural racism leaves women of color in a disadvantaged situation especially during COVID-19, leading to disproportionate pandemic afflictions among racial and ethnic minority women. Objective: To examine racial and ethnic disparities in SMM rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether the disparities varied with level of Black residential segregation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A statewide population-based retrospective cohort study used birth certificates linked to all-payer childbirth claims data in South Carolina. Participants included women who gave birth between January 2018 and June 2021. Data were analyzed from December 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Exposures were (1) period when women gave birth, either before the pandemic (January 2018 to February 2020) or during the pandemic (March 2020 to June 2021) and (2) Black-White residential segregation (isolation index), categorizing US Census tracts in a county as low (<40%), medium (40%-59%), and high (≥60%). Main Outcomes and Measures: SMM was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multilevel logistic regressions with an interrupted approach were used, adjusting for maternal-level and facility-level factors, accounting for residential county-level random effects. Results: Of 166 791 women, 95 098 (57.0%) lived in low-segregated counties (mean [SD] age, 28.1 [5.7] years; 5126 [5.4%] Hispanic; 20 523 [21.6%] non-Hispanic Black; 62 690 [65.9%] White), and 23 521 (14.1%) women (mean [SD] age, 28.1 [5.8] years; 782 [3.3%] Hispanic; 12 880 [54.8%] non-Hispanic Black; 7988 [34.0%] White) lived in high-segregated areas. Prepandemic SMM rates were decreasing, followed by monthly increasing trends after March 2020. On average, living in high-segregated communities was associated with higher odds of SMM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.34). Black women regardless of residential segregation had higher odds of SMM than White women (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.11-1.96 for low-segregation; 2.12; 95% CI, 1.38-3.26 for high-segregation). Hispanic women living in low-segregated communities had lower odds of SMM (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) but those living in high-segregated communities had nearly twice the odds of SMM (aOR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.07-4.17) as their White counterparts. Conclusions and Relevance: Living in high-segregated Black communities in South Carolina was associated with racial and ethnic SMM disparities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Black vs White disparities persisted with no signs of widening gaps, whereas Hispanic vs White disparities were exacerbated. Policy reforms on reducing residential segregation or combating the corresponding structural racism are warranted to help improve maternal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Whites , African Americans , Retrospective Studies , Minority Groups
3.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(4): 287-299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067002

ABSTRACT

Managing the health and safety risks surrounding COVID-19 in congregate settings, such as on college campuses, and minimizing viral transmission should be on the dashboard of Higher Education Leadership. Understanding that the risk will not be zero, like other academic institutions, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have given great thought to making their campuses, which are considered high-risk settings, safe enough to warrant returning to campus. We queried HBCU leadership via an online survey sent to all 102 HBCUs about their safety plan for the fall 2020 resumption of on-campus activities. While data show that there are 102 HBCUs, we were informed that two HBCUs were permanently closed during our data gathering period. Thus, the sample size was 100. Specific areas queried included risks management plans, mitigation steps, policy changes, and human capacity resources. We also asked these leaders to identify vulnerabilities and other factors they considered in planning a safe reopening. Findings indicated that as these academic institutions grappled with balancing between risks and benefits of reopening, they also had to recognize the numerous scenarios and multifaceted approaches required. Recommendations are presented for supporting HBCUs in the future to surmount obstacles and implement culturally responsive solutions that best serve their campuses and surrounding communities in which these academic institutions are anchored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , Universities
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 601-612, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056164

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately impacted racial and ethnic minority groups; however, the impact of healthcare utilization on outcome disparities remains unexplored. Our study examines racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization, medication usage, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data for adult patients within an integrated healthcare system in New York City between February 28-August 28, 2020, who had a lab-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Primary outcome was likelihood of inpatient admission. Secondary outcomes were differences in medication administration, ICU admission, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 4717 adult patients evaluated in the emergency department (ED), 3219 (68.2%) were admitted to an inpatient setting. Black patients were the largest group (29.1%), followed by Hispanic/Latinx (29.0%), White (22.9%), Asian (3.86%), and patients who reported "other" race-ethnicity (19.0%). After adjusting for demographic, clinical factors, time, and hospital site, Hispanic/Latinx patients had a significantly lower adjusted rate of admission compared to White patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.76). Black (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.84) and Asian patients (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.89) were less likely to be admitted to the ICU. We observed higher rates of ICU admission (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.43-6.15, and OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.26-2.65) and in-hospital mortality (OR 4.38; 95% CI 2.66-7.24; and OR 2.96; 95% CI 2.12-4.14) at two community-based academic affiliate sites relative to the primary academic site. CONCLUSION: Non-White patients accounted for a disproportionate share of COVID-19 patients seeking care in the ED but were less likely to be admitted. Hospitals serving the highest proportion of minority patients experienced the worst outcomes, even within an integrated health system with shared resources. Limited capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic likely exacerbated pre-existing health disparities across racial and ethnic minority groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Ethnicity , Hospitalization , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
5.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(S1): S46-S53, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051210

ABSTRACT

Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States are at elevated risk for HIV relative to their heterosexual and/or non-BMSM counterparts, yet on average demonstrate suboptimal HIV care linkage and rates of HIV primary care retention. From October 2019 to December 2020, 69 adult (i.e., aged 18-65) BMSM enrolled in Building Brothers Up (2BU), a 6-session peer case management intervention delivered across 3 months and designed to improve retention in HIV primary care through to full viral suppression. Peer case management sessions included detailed assessment of participants' needs and barriers to treatment, which led to the development of a participant-centered treatment plan. All participants self-identified as Black, about three-quarters self-identified as gay (72.5%), and 46.4% reported an annual income of $5000 or less. A total of 69 participants enrolled in 2BU; however, multiply imputed chained equation logistic regressions were carried out on the final analytical data set (n = 40; 99 imputations) due to a large amount of COVID-19-related missing data. Although analyses of retention and achievement of viral suppression did not reach full significance, the probability of a Type-II hypothesis testing error was high, and viral load results (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-2.60; p = 0.08) suggested that increased attendance to peer case management sessions may be associated with improved odds of achieving full viral suppression among BMSM. The significant impact of national race-related civil unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic on the target population during implementation of 2BU is underscored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , African Americans , Case Management , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Siblings , United States/epidemiology
6.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(S1): S21-S27, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051208

ABSTRACT

Previous research has identified significant unmet need for behavioral health care services for Black men who have sex with men (Black MSM); this challenge has been linked to poorer overall health and well-being. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funded a Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Initiative, Implementation of Evidence-Informed Behavioral Health Models to Improve HIV Health Outcomes for Black Men who have Sex with Men, with a goal to integrate behavioral health and clinical care services using four different evidence-informed models of care, ultimately improving HIV health outcomes. NORC at the University of Chicago conducted a multisite evaluation to assess the success of this Initiative, including a qualitative process evaluation that examined adaptations, services, integration activities, recruitment methods, and fidelity. The process evaluation described methods and processes used by demonstration sites to achieve their goals. This included challenges or barriers to implementation and the associated adaptations, notably due to the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency. Our study found key themes that indicated successful implementation were flexible service delivery, human connection, and client representation. We recommend future replicators apply these lessons learned in diverse health care and community settings that serve Black MSM. Additional information about the interventions can be found on TargetHIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , African Americans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 306: 115098, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036520

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic minorities have experienced higher COVID-19 infection rates than whites, but it is unclear how individual-level housing, occupational, behavioral, and socioeconomic conditions contribute to these disparities in a nationally representative sample. In this study, we assess the extent to which social determinants of health contribute to racial/ethnic differences in COVID-19 infection. Data are from the Understanding America Study's Understanding Coronavirus in America survey (UAS COVID-19 waves 7-29). UAS COVID-19 is one of the only nationally representative longitudinal data sources that collects information on household, work, and social behavioral context during the pandemic. We analyze onset of COVID-19 cases, defined as a positive test or a diagnosis of COVID-19 from a healthcare provider since the previous survey wave, over a year of follow-up (June 2020-July 2021). We consider educational attainment, economic resources, work arrangements, household size, and social distancing as key social factors that may be structured by racism. Cox hazard models indicate that Hispanic people have 48% higher risk of experiencing a COVID-19 infection than whites after adjustment for age, sex, local infection rate, and comorbidities, but we do not observe a higher risk of COVID-19 among Black respondents. Controlling for engagement in any large or small social gathering increases the hazard ratio for Hispanics by 9%, suggesting that had Hispanics had the same social engagement patterns as whites, they may have had even higher risk of COVID-19. Other social determinants-lower educational attainment, working away from home, and number of coresidents-all independently predict higher risk of COVID-19, but do not explain why Hispanic Americans have higher COVID-19 infection risk than whites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Social Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274434, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021971

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the estimated prevalence of food insecurity for Black non-Hispanic households was higher than the national average due to health disparities exacerbated by forms of racial discrimination. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Black households have experienced higher rates of food insecurity when compared to other populations in the United States. The primary objectives of this review were to identify which risk factors have been investigated for an association with food insecurity, describe how food insecurity is measured across studies that have evaluated this outcome among African Americans, and determine which dimensions of food security (food accessibility, availability, and utilization) are captured by risk factors studied by authors. Food insecurity related studies were identified through a search of Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Web of Science™ (Clarivate), on May 20, 2021. Eligible studies were primary research studies, with a concurrent comparison group, published in English between 1995 and 2021. Ninety-eight relevant studies were included for data charting with 37 unique measurement tools, 115 risk factors, and 93 possible consequences of food insecurity identified. Few studies examined factors linked to racial discrimination, behaviour, or risk factors that mapped to the food availability dimension of food security. Infrequently studied factors, such as lifetime racial discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and income insecurity need further investigation while frequently studied factors such as age, education, race/ethnicity, and gender need to be summarized using a systematic review approach so that risk factor impact can be better assessed. Risk factors linked to racial discrimination and food insecurity need to be better understood in order to minimize health disparities among African American adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(4): E80-E84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During and after COVID-19, African Americans experienced a disparate amount of social isolation and loneliness and subsequent increases in morbidity and mortality. Faith community nurses are equipped to assist community providers, health practitioners, and local officials in addressing gaps in older African Americans' financial, social, physical, and spiritual needs during social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , African Americans , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Physical Distancing
11.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(4)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of admission glucose in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with and without diabetes mellitus in a largely African American cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 708 adults (89% non-Hispanic Black) admitted with COVID-19 to an urban hospital between 1 March and 15 May 2020. Patients with diabetes were compared with those without and were stratified based on admission glucose of 140 and 180 mg/dL. Adjusted ORs were calculated for outcomes of mortality, intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute kidney injury (AKI), and length of stay based on admission glucose levels. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL (vs <140 g/dL) had 2.4-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6) and 2.1-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.0 to 4.3). Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >180 mg/dL (vs <180 g/dL) had a 1.9-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.2 to 3.1). Patients without diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL had a 2.3-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.3 to 4.3), 2.7-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), 1.9-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) and 2.2-fold odds of AKI (95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Patients without diabetes with glucose >180 mg/dL had 4.4-fold increased odds of mortality (95% CI 1.9 to 10.4), 2.7-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 5.8) and 3-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 6.6). CONCLUSION: Our results show hyperglycemia portends worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with and without diabetes. While our study was limited by its retrospective design, our findings suggest that patients presenting with hyperglycemia require closer observation and more aggressive therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sugars
12.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 33(3): 157-163, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001479

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Two national crises, the COVID-19 pandemic and systemic racism, have drawn nationwide attention to the disparities that exist in our society today. The American healthcare system, including physician assistant (PA) education, is not exempt from the impact of harmful bias and discrimination. The purpose of this study was to explore narratives recounting the experiences of Black/African Americans who have successfully completed their PA education in an attempt to understand how PA educators can better support students of color. METHODS: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews, guided by a critical race theory framework, were conducted with 6 Black/African American PAs who had graduated within the last 5 years. Trustworthiness was ensured through member checking, triangulation, peer debriefing during the coding and analysis process, and autoethnographic reflection. RESULTS: Themes of mentorship and cultural capital, including aspirations, family, social support, and resistance to an oppressive system, highlight the strengths present in Black/African American students. Additional themes surrounding stress related to race, including a pressure to prove, isolation and anxiety, and imposter phenomenon, all pointed toward the need for honest and safe dialogue among individuals with racial differences. DISCUSSION: This research article presents key findings and opportunities for PA educators to emphasize cultural capital to enable Black/African American PA students to thrive. Communicating across racial differences and intentional engagement are imperative for PA educators to successfully support Black/African American students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physician Assistants , African Americans , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physician Assistants/education , Self Concept , Students , United States
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2205813119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001007

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic triggered global declines in life expectancy. The United States was hit particularly hard among high-income countries. Early data from the United States showed that these losses varied greatly by race/ethnicity in 2020, with Hispanic and Black Americans suffering much larger losses in life expectancy compared with White people. We add to this research by examining trends in lifespan inequality, average years of life lost, and the contribution of specific causes of death and ages to race/ethnic life-expectancy disparities in the United States from 2010 to 2020. We find that life expectancy in 2020 fell more for Hispanic and Black males (4.5 and 3.6 y, respectively) compared with White males (1.5 y). These drops nearly eliminated the previous life-expectancy advantage for the Hispanic compared with the White population, while dramatically increasing the already large gap in life expectancy between Black and White people. While the drops in life expectancy for the Hispanic population were largely attributable to official COVID-19 deaths, Black Americans saw increases in cardiovascular diseases and "deaths of despair" over this period. In 2020, lifespan inequality increased slightly for Hispanic and White populations but decreased for Black people, reflecting the younger age pattern of COVID-19 deaths for Hispanic people. Overall, the mortality burden of the COVID-19 pandemic hit race/ethnic minorities particularly hard in the United States, underscoring the importance of the social determinants of health during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Expectancy , Pandemics , African Americans , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Life Expectancy/ethnology , Male , Race Factors , United States/epidemiology , Whites
14.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E52, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994411

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Applying an intersectional framework, we examined sex and racial inequality in COVID-19-related employment loss (ie, job furlough, layoff, and reduced pay) and food insecurity (ie, quality and quantity of food eaten, food worry, and receipt of free meals or groceries) among residents in Saint Louis County, Missouri. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from adults aged 18 or older (N = 2,146), surveyed by using landlines or cellular phones between August 12, 2020, and October 27, 2020. We calculated survey-weighted prevalence of employment loss and food insecurity for each group (Black female, Black male, White female, White male). Odds ratios for each group were estimated by using survey-weighted binary and multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: Black female residents had higher odds of being laid off, as compared with White male residents (OR = 2.61, 95% CI, 1.24-5.46). Both Black female residents (OR = 4.13, 95% CI, 2.29-7.45) and Black male residents (OR = 2.41, 95% CI, 1.15-5.07) were more likely to receive free groceries, compared with White male residents. Black female (OR = 4.25, 95% CI, 2.28-7.94) and White female residents (OR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.04-3.60) had higher odds of sometimes worrying about food compared with White male residents. Black women also had higher odds of always or nearly always worrying about food, compared with White men (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, 1.52-5.87). CONCLUSION: Black women faced the highest odds of employment loss and food insecurity, highlighting the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 among people with intersectional disadvantages of being both Black and female. Interventions to reduce employment loss and food insecurity can help reduce the disproportionately negative social effects among Black women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whites , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Male
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987153

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. The effects of COVID-19 on the long-term mental health of minorities remains unclear. To evaluate differences in odds of screening positive for depression and anxiety among various racial and ethnic groups during the latter phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 691,473 participants nested within the prospective smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K). from February 23, 2021 to June 9, 2021. In the U.S. (n=57,187), compared to White participants, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for screening positive for depression were 1·16 (95% CI: 1·02 to 1·31) for Black, 1·23 (1·11 to 1·36) for Hispanic, and 1·15 (1·02 to 1·30) for Asian participants, and 1·34 (1·13 to 1·59) for participants reporting more than one race/other even after accounting for personal factors such as prior history of a mental health disorder, COVID-19 infection status, and surrounding lockdown stringency. Rates of screening positive for anxiety were comparable. In the U.K. (n=643,286), racial/ethnic minorities had similarly elevated rates of positive screening for depression and anxiety. These disparities were not fully explained by changes in leisure time activities. Racial/ethnic minorities bore a disproportionate mental health burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. These differences will need to be considered as health care systems transition from prioritizing infection control to mitigating long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 933190, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987475

ABSTRACT

Background: Disparate COVID-19 outcomes have been observed between Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and White patients. The underlying causes for these disparities are not fully understood. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing electronic medical record data from five hospitals within a single academic health system based in New York City. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify demographic, clinical, and lab values associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 3,086 adult patients with self-reported race/ethnicity information presenting to the emergency department and hospitalized with COVID-19 up to April 13, 2020, were included in this study. While older age (multivariable odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07) and baseline hypoxia (multivariable OR 2.71, 95% CI 2.17-3.36) were associated with increased mortality overall and across all races/ethnicities, non-Hispanic Black (median age 67, interquartile range (IQR) 58-76) and Hispanic (median age 63, IQR 50-74) patients were younger and had different comorbidity profiles as compared to non-Hispanic White patients (median age 73, IQR 62-84; p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Among inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19 mortality, there was a significant interaction between the non-Hispanic Black population and interleukin-1-beta (interaction p-value 0.04). Conclusions: This analysis of a multiethnic cohort highlights the need for inclusion and consideration of diverse populations in ongoing COVID-19 trials targeting inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Whites
19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(8): 1181-1183, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975415
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1202-1207, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974338

ABSTRACT

We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of March 29, 2022, uptake of the first dose was higher among Hispanic and Asian people than among White and Black people. In contrast, uptake rates of the booster were higher among Asian and White people than among Black and Hispanic people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whites , African Americans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnicity , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , United States
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