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1.
J Community Psychol ; 50(6): 2703-2725, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971281

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has disproportionately affected African American college students, who have experienced significant work-related, academic, financial, and socio-emotional challenges due to COVID-19. The purpose of the study is to investigate how African American students cope with the severe impact of COVID-19 on their emotional well-being leveraging the benefits of self-care coping measures, COVID-19 knowledge, and communication with others to enhance perceived control and social connectedness. A structural equation modeling and a path analysis of 254 responses from a Historically Black College and University showed that emotional well-being was positively predicted by self-care coping strategies, feelings of being in control in life, and social connectedness. In addition, respondents who adopted mind-body balance coping strategies, those who are knowledgeable about COVID-19, and those in more constant communication with others attained a strong sense of being in control, and in turn the empowerment increased their emotional well-being.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Students , Adaptation, Psychological , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Emotions , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Internal-External Control , Mental Health/ethnology , Social Cohesion/ethnology , Students/psychology , Universities
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1220, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration's free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. RESULTS: Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 Testing , Self-Testing , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264947, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938422

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic early in 2020 forced universities to shut down their campuses and transition to emergency remote instruction (ERI). Students had to quickly adapt to this new mode of instruction while dealing with all other distractions caused by the pandemic. This study integrates extensive data from students' institutional records at a large Historically Black College and University (HBCU) institution with data from a students' survey about the impact of COVID-19 on learning during the Spring 2020 semester to examine the impact of the transition to ERI on students' performance and identify the main factors explaining variations in students' performance. The main findings of our analysis are: (a) students' university experience was positively correlated with performance (continuing students who spent at least one academic year at the university prior to the outbreak had better performance than freshman and new transfer students), (b) students' perceived change in performance after the transition was positively associated with actual performance (students who perceived a decline in their performance after transition to ERI had significantly worse performance than other students), and (c) students' prior online learning experiences and students' emotional experiences with the COVID-19 disease were not significantly associated with performance. These results suggest that the approaches adopted by higher education institutions to support students during times of crisis should pay special attention to certain groups of students.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance/trends , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/trends , Academic Performance/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Status , Humans , Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schools , Students , Universities
4.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 1844-1861, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905853

ABSTRACT

While psychological distress is a common sequelae of job loss, how that relationship continued during the COVID-19 pandemic is unclear, for example, given higher health risk to working due to disease exposure. This paper examines changes in psychological distress depending on job loss among a cohort of randomly selected residents living in nine predominantly African American low-income neighborhoods in Pittsburgh PA across four waves between 2013 and 2020. Between 2013 and 2016, we found an increase in psychological distress after job loss in line with the literature. In contrast, between 2018 and 2020 we found change in psychological distress did not differ by employment loss. However, residents who had financial concerns and lost their jobs had the largest increases in psychological distress, while residents who did not have serious financial concerns-potentially due to public assistance-but experienced job loss had no increase in distress, a better outcome even than those that retained their jobs. Using partial identification, we find job loss during the pandemic decreased psychological distress for those without serious financial concerns. This has important policy implications for how high-risk persons within low-income communities are identified and supported, as well as what type of public assistance may help.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , African Americans/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793587

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic disparities are among the top-selective underlying determinants associated with the disproportional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and health outcomes. This study jointly examined county-level racial/ethnic differences in compliance with stay-at-home orders and COVID-19 health outcomes during 2020, leveraging two-year geo-tracking data of mobile devices across ~4.4 million point-of-interests (POIs) in the contiguous United States. Through a set of structural equation modeling, this study quantified how racial/ethnic differences in following stay-at-home orders could mediate COVID-19 health outcomes, controlling for state effects, socioeconomics, demographics, occupation, and partisanship. Results showed that counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in their travel, both in terms of reducing their overall POIs' visiting and increasing their staying home percentage. Moreover, counties with higher White populations experienced the lowest infection rate, while counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Additionally, control variables, particularly partisanship, median household income, percentage of elders, and urbanization, significantly accounted for the county differences in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes. Mediation analyses further revealed that human mobility only statistically influenced infection rate but not case-fatality ratio, and such mediation effects varied substantially among racial/ethnic compositions. Last, robustness check of racial gradient at census block group level documented consistent associations but greater magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that US residents' responses to COVID-19 are subject to an entrenched and consequential racial/ethnic divide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775850

ABSTRACT

Increasing the number of racially and ethnically underrepresented students who pursue scientific graduate studies in programs focusing on science and aging offers an opportunity to increase the number of aging specialists while simultaneously promoting diversity in the research labor market and supporting new ideas. This case study aims to better understand how students participating in an academic preparatory program experience a writing class contextualized within (1) students' writing background and (2) students' future ambitions related to science and aging. The individually-tailored writing class was taught as a critical component of a comprehensive educational program that targets underrepresented racial and ethnic minority undergraduate students who are interested in pursuing scientific graduate studies in fields related to aging. The researchers conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with students (n = 4) enrolled in the 24-month fellowship training program, which included participation in the writing course during the summer prior to their senior year of undergraduate education. All participants were young adult college students who identified as Black or African American and female. Using thematic coding, statements about professional writing skills were divided into four primary themes: (1) prior experiences, (2) class experiences, (3) future goals and ambitions, and (4) structural considerations. These themes suggest potential implications for effective interventions aimed to advance the writing skills and academic and career readiness of racially and ethnically diverse students entering fields of science and aging.


Subject(s)
Career Choice , Education, Graduate , Students , Writing , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aging , Blacks/psychology , Blacks/statistics & numerical data , Cultural Diversity , Female , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Science/education , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 498-506, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to elective surgical procedures has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We sought to understand the patient experience by developing and distributing an anonymous online survey to those who underwent non-emergency surgery at a large academic tertiary medical center between March and October 2020. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 184 patients; the majority were white (84%), female (74.6%), and ranged from 18 to 88 years old. Patients were likely unaware of case delay as only 23.6% reported a delay, 82% of which agreed with that decision. Conversely, 44% felt that the delay negatively impacted their quality of life. Overall, 82.7% of patients indicated high satisfaction with their care. African American patients more often indicated a "neutral" vs "satisfactory" hospital experience (P < .05) and considered postponing their surgery (P < .01). Interestingly, younger patients (<60) were more likely than older (≥60) patients to note anxiety associated with having surgery during the pandemic (P < .01), feeling unprepared for discharge (P < .02), not being allowed visitors (P < .02), and learning about the spread of COVID-19 from health care providers (P < .02). DISCUSSION: These results suggest that patients are resilient and accepting of changes to health care delivery during the current pandemic; however, certain patient populations may have higher levels of anxiety which could be addressed by their care provider. These findings can help inform and guide ongoing and future health care delivery adaptations in response to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surgical Procedures, Operative/psychology , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Perioperative Period , Quality of Life , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526354

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(5): 587-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439183

ABSTRACT

We, emergency physicians of color, are not okay. We are living and working through a pandemic that has disproportionately affected our communities and a year in which we cannot escape our lived experiences of police brutality. We see you, dear White people in emergency medicine, and are glad you want to support us. However, let us guide you in supporting our cause.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Emergency Medicine , Organizational Culture , Physicians/psychology , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Violence
13.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 47(4): 290-301, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329105

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this substudy was to determine the most acceptable way to restart the Texas Strength Through Resilience in Diabetes Education (TX STRIDE) study safely using remote technologies. Following the emergence of COVID-19, all in-person TX STRIDE intervention and data collection sessions were paused. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive methods using telephone interviews were conducted during the research pause. A structured interview guide was developed to facilitate data collection and coding. Forty-seven of 59 Cohort 1 participants were interviewed (mean age = 60.7 years; 79% female; mean time diagnosed with type 2 diabetes = 11 years). RESULTS: Data categories and subcategories were generated from the interview responses and included: personal experiences with COVID-19, effects of COVID-19 on diabetes self-management, psychosocial and financial effects of COVID-19, and recommendations for program restart. Although some participants lacked technological knowledge, they expressed eagerness to learn how to use remote meeting platforms to resume intervention and at-home data-collection sessions. Six months after the in-person intervention was paused, TX STRIDE restarted remotely with data collection and class sessions held via Zoom. A majority of participants (72.9%) transitioned to the virtual platform restart. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative findings guided the appropriate implementation of technology for the study, which facilitated a successful restart. High retention of participants through the study transition provides evidence that participants are invested in learning how to manage their diabetes despite the challenges and distractions imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Culturally Competent Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Self-Management/education , Self-Management/psychology , Texas/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304464

ABSTRACT

Pundits and academics across disciplines note that the human toll brought forth by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States (U.S.) is fundamentally unequal for communities of color. Standing literature on public health posits that one of the chief predictors of racial disparity in health outcomes is a lack of institutional trust among minority communities. Furthermore, in our own county-level analysis from the U.S., we find that counties with higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents have had vastly higher cumulative deaths from COVID-19. In light of this standing literature and our own analysis, it is critical to better understand how to mitigate or prevent these unequal outcomes for any future pandemic or public health emergency. Therefore, we assess the claim that raising institutional trust, primarily scientific trust, is key to mitigating these racial inequities. Leveraging a new, pre-pandemic measure of scientific trust, we find that trust in science, unlike trust in politicians or the media, significantly raises support for COVID-19 social distancing policies across racial lines. Our findings suggest that increasing scientific trust is essential to garnering support for public health policies that lessen the severity of the current, and potentially a future, pandemic.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, populations can experience worsening mental health. Prior reports have suggested that Black Americans experienced lower rates of anxiety and depression than White Americans before the pandemic; however, during the pandemic, outcomes may be different as Black Americans have been disproportionately affected in terms of mortality, hospitalization, COVID-19 infection, and job loss. We documented the differential mental health impact of COVID-19 on Black and Non-Black Americans. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative longitudinal data from the Understanding America Study COVID-19 Tracking Survey spanning March through November of 2020 to assess differences over time in prevalence of anxiety and depression between Black and non-Black Americans. RESULTS: We found that Black Americans were significantly less likely to report symptoms for anxiety, depression, or both during the pandemic. In a given month between March through November of 2020, the odds of Black Americans reporting such symptoms was on average about half that of Non-Black Americans. We also found that in September 2020, the gap in reporting symptoms for depression began to widen gradually. Specifically, since that time, prevalence of depression remained stable among non-Black Americans while it declined gradually among Black Americans. Our main results were robust to adjusting for demographics, risk perceptions, and baseline pre-pandemic mental health status. CONCLUSIONS: Black Americans maintained significantly better mental health than Non-Black Americans despite their struggle against economic, health, and racial inequalities during the pandemic. We discuss the significance and implications of our results and identify opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 , Depression , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/ethnology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: e29-e46, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280602

ABSTRACT

Persistent disparities in the burden of breast cancer between African Americans and White Americans have been documented over many decades. Features characterizing breast cancer in the African American community include a 40% higher mortality rate, younger age distribution, greater advanced-stage distribution, increased risk of biologically aggressive disease such as the triple-negative phenotype, and increased incidence of male breast cancer. Public health experts, genetics researchers, clinical trialists, multidisciplinary oncology teams, and advocates must collaborate to comprehensively address the multifactorial etiology of and remedies for breast cancer disparities. Efforts to achieve breast health equity through improved access to affordable, high-quality care are especially imperative in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its disproportionately high economic toll on African Americans.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Pandemics , African Americans/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , /psychology
17.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 809-820, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275022

ABSTRACT

Established in 2019, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in STEM convenes a broad array of stakeholders that focus on the barriers and opportunities encountered by Black men and Black women as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. Through meetings, public workshops, and publications, the Roundtable advances discussions that raise awareness and/or highlight promising practices for increasing the representation, retention, and inclusiveness of Black men and Black women in STEM. In keeping with the charge of the Roundtable, Roundtable leadership and leaders of the COVID-19 action group conducted an informational video in January 2021 to provide an in-depth discussion around common, justified questions in the Black community pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine. The manuscript addresses selected questions and answers relating to the different types of COVID-19 vaccines and their development, administration, and effectiveness. Discussion focuses on addressing vaccine misconceptions, misinformation, mistrust, and hesitancy; challenges in prioritizing vaccinations in diverse populations and communities; dealing with racism in medicine and public health; optimizing communication and health education; and offering practical strategies and recommendations for improving vaccine acceptance by clinicians, health care workers, and the Black community. This manuscript summarizes the content in the YouTube video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdEC9c48A_k ).


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Communication/methods , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
18.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(5): 892-902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to increase diversity in the nursing workforce to better address racial health disparities. PURPOSE: To provide academic institutions with practical recommendations to foster a collaborative environment and essential resources for and in support of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) scholars. METHODS: We examine the experiences of three Black nurse scholars, at a research-intensive university in an urban area during the COVID-19 pandemic and civil unrest in the United States. FINDINGS: Findings suggest barriers exist, which negatively impact workplace climate, collaboration and mentoring for BIPOC nursing scholars. Guided by a Black feminist perspective and utilizing existing literature, we recommend strategies to enhance workplace climate, to develop culturally aware collaboration, and to center mentoring as the foundation for BIPOC nurse scholar success. DISCUSSION: This article acknowledges that a crucial step in addressing health disparities is successful support of and collaboration with BIPOC nurse scholars.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Social Justice , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feminism , Humans , Mentors , United States
19.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Anxiety/ethnology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Racism/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
20.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 798-801, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243531

ABSTRACT

The glaring racial inequities in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating loss of Black lives at the hands of police and racist vigilantes have catalyzed a global reckoning about deeply rooted systemic racism in society. Many medical training institutions in the United States have participated in this discourse by denouncing racism, expressing solidarity with people of color, and reexamining their diversity and inclusion efforts. Yet, the stagnant progress in recruiting, retaining, and supporting racial/ethnic minority trainees and faculty at medical training institutions is well documented and reflects unaddressed systemic racism along the academic pipeline. In this article, the authors draw upon their experiences as early-career physicians of color who have led and supported antiracism efforts within their institutions to highlight key barriers to achieving meaningful progress. They describe common pitfalls of diversity and inclusion initiatives and call for an antiracist approach to systems change. The authors then offer 9 recommendations that medical training institutions can implement to critically examine and address racist structures within their organizations to actualize racial equity and justice.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Preceptorship/methods , Racism/prevention & control , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cultural Diversity , Decision Making/ethics , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Preceptorship/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Inclusion , Social Justice , United States/ethnology
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