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1.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526354

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511832

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic disparities are among the top-selective underlying determinants associated with the disproportional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and health outcomes. This study jointly examined county-level racial/ethnic differences in compliance with stay-at-home orders and COVID-19 health outcomes during 2020, leveraging two-year geo-tracking data of mobile devices across ~4.4 million point-of-interests (POIs) in the contiguous United States. Through a set of structural equation modeling, this study quantified how racial/ethnic differences in following stay-at-home orders could mediate COVID-19 health outcomes, controlling for state effects, socioeconomics, demographics, occupation, and partisanship. Results showed that counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in their travel, both in terms of reducing their overall POIs' visiting and increasing their staying home percentage. Moreover, counties with higher White populations experienced the lowest infection rate, while counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Additionally, control variables, particularly partisanship, median household income, percentage of elders, and urbanization, significantly accounted for the county differences in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes. Mediation analyses further revealed that human mobility only statistically influenced infection rate but not case-fatality ratio, and such mediation effects varied substantially among racial/ethnic compositions. Last, robustness check of racial gradient at census block group level documented consistent associations but greater magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that US residents' responses to COVID-19 are subject to an entrenched and consequential racial/ethnic divide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(5): 587-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439183

ABSTRACT

We, emergency physicians of color, are not okay. We are living and working through a pandemic that has disproportionately affected our communities and a year in which we cannot escape our lived experiences of police brutality. We see you, dear White people in emergency medicine, and are glad you want to support us. However, let us guide you in supporting our cause.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Emergency Medicine , Organizational Culture , Physicians/psychology , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Violence
6.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 47(4): 290-301, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329105

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this substudy was to determine the most acceptable way to restart the Texas Strength Through Resilience in Diabetes Education (TX STRIDE) study safely using remote technologies. Following the emergence of COVID-19, all in-person TX STRIDE intervention and data collection sessions were paused. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive methods using telephone interviews were conducted during the research pause. A structured interview guide was developed to facilitate data collection and coding. Forty-seven of 59 Cohort 1 participants were interviewed (mean age = 60.7 years; 79% female; mean time diagnosed with type 2 diabetes = 11 years). RESULTS: Data categories and subcategories were generated from the interview responses and included: personal experiences with COVID-19, effects of COVID-19 on diabetes self-management, psychosocial and financial effects of COVID-19, and recommendations for program restart. Although some participants lacked technological knowledge, they expressed eagerness to learn how to use remote meeting platforms to resume intervention and at-home data-collection sessions. Six months after the in-person intervention was paused, TX STRIDE restarted remotely with data collection and class sessions held via Zoom. A majority of participants (72.9%) transitioned to the virtual platform restart. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative findings guided the appropriate implementation of technology for the study, which facilitated a successful restart. High retention of participants through the study transition provides evidence that participants are invested in learning how to manage their diabetes despite the challenges and distractions imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Culturally Competent Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Self-Management/education , Self-Management/psychology , Texas/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304464

ABSTRACT

Pundits and academics across disciplines note that the human toll brought forth by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States (U.S.) is fundamentally unequal for communities of color. Standing literature on public health posits that one of the chief predictors of racial disparity in health outcomes is a lack of institutional trust among minority communities. Furthermore, in our own county-level analysis from the U.S., we find that counties with higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents have had vastly higher cumulative deaths from COVID-19. In light of this standing literature and our own analysis, it is critical to better understand how to mitigate or prevent these unequal outcomes for any future pandemic or public health emergency. Therefore, we assess the claim that raising institutional trust, primarily scientific trust, is key to mitigating these racial inequities. Leveraging a new, pre-pandemic measure of scientific trust, we find that trust in science, unlike trust in politicians or the media, significantly raises support for COVID-19 social distancing policies across racial lines. Our findings suggest that increasing scientific trust is essential to garnering support for public health policies that lessen the severity of the current, and potentially a future, pandemic.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294987

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, populations can experience worsening mental health. Prior reports have suggested that Black Americans experienced lower rates of anxiety and depression than White Americans before the pandemic; however, during the pandemic, outcomes may be different as Black Americans have been disproportionately affected in terms of mortality, hospitalization, COVID-19 infection, and job loss. We documented the differential mental health impact of COVID-19 on Black and Non-Black Americans. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative longitudinal data from the Understanding America Study COVID-19 Tracking Survey spanning March through November of 2020 to assess differences over time in prevalence of anxiety and depression between Black and non-Black Americans. RESULTS: We found that Black Americans were significantly less likely to report symptoms for anxiety, depression, or both during the pandemic. In a given month between March through November of 2020, the odds of Black Americans reporting such symptoms was on average about half that of Non-Black Americans. We also found that in September 2020, the gap in reporting symptoms for depression began to widen gradually. Specifically, since that time, prevalence of depression remained stable among non-Black Americans while it declined gradually among Black Americans. Our main results were robust to adjusting for demographics, risk perceptions, and baseline pre-pandemic mental health status. CONCLUSIONS: Black Americans maintained significantly better mental health than Non-Black Americans despite their struggle against economic, health, and racial inequalities during the pandemic. We discuss the significance and implications of our results and identify opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 , Depression , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/ethnology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: e29-e46, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280602

ABSTRACT

Persistent disparities in the burden of breast cancer between African Americans and White Americans have been documented over many decades. Features characterizing breast cancer in the African American community include a 40% higher mortality rate, younger age distribution, greater advanced-stage distribution, increased risk of biologically aggressive disease such as the triple-negative phenotype, and increased incidence of male breast cancer. Public health experts, genetics researchers, clinical trialists, multidisciplinary oncology teams, and advocates must collaborate to comprehensively address the multifactorial etiology of and remedies for breast cancer disparities. Efforts to achieve breast health equity through improved access to affordable, high-quality care are especially imperative in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its disproportionately high economic toll on African Americans.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Pandemics , African Americans/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , /psychology
12.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 809-820, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275022

ABSTRACT

Established in 2019, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in STEM convenes a broad array of stakeholders that focus on the barriers and opportunities encountered by Black men and Black women as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. Through meetings, public workshops, and publications, the Roundtable advances discussions that raise awareness and/or highlight promising practices for increasing the representation, retention, and inclusiveness of Black men and Black women in STEM. In keeping with the charge of the Roundtable, Roundtable leadership and leaders of the COVID-19 action group conducted an informational video in January 2021 to provide an in-depth discussion around common, justified questions in the Black community pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine. The manuscript addresses selected questions and answers relating to the different types of COVID-19 vaccines and their development, administration, and effectiveness. Discussion focuses on addressing vaccine misconceptions, misinformation, mistrust, and hesitancy; challenges in prioritizing vaccinations in diverse populations and communities; dealing with racism in medicine and public health; optimizing communication and health education; and offering practical strategies and recommendations for improving vaccine acceptance by clinicians, health care workers, and the Black community. This manuscript summarizes the content in the YouTube video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdEC9c48A_k ).


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Communication/methods , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
13.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(5): 892-902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to increase diversity in the nursing workforce to better address racial health disparities. PURPOSE: To provide academic institutions with practical recommendations to foster a collaborative environment and essential resources for and in support of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) scholars. METHODS: We examine the experiences of three Black nurse scholars, at a research-intensive university in an urban area during the COVID-19 pandemic and civil unrest in the United States. FINDINGS: Findings suggest barriers exist, which negatively impact workplace climate, collaboration and mentoring for BIPOC nursing scholars. Guided by a Black feminist perspective and utilizing existing literature, we recommend strategies to enhance workplace climate, to develop culturally aware collaboration, and to center mentoring as the foundation for BIPOC nurse scholar success. DISCUSSION: This article acknowledges that a crucial step in addressing health disparities is successful support of and collaboration with BIPOC nurse scholars.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Social Justice , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feminism , Humans , Mentors , United States
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243846

ABSTRACT

Social distancing prescribed by policy makers in response to COVID-19 raises important questions as to how effectively people of color can distance. Due to inequalities from residential segregation, Hispanic and Black populations have challenges in meeting health expectations. However, segregated neighborhoods also support the formation of social bonds that relate to healthy behaviors. We evaluate the question of non-White distancing using social mobility data from Google on three sites: workplaces, grocery stores, and recreational locations. Employing hierarchical linear modeling and geographically weighted regression, we find the relation of race/ethnicity to COVID-19 distancing is varied across the United States. The HLM models show that compared to Black populations, Hispanic populations overall more effectively distance from recreation sites and grocery stores: each point increase in percent Hispanic was related to residents being 0.092 percent less likely (p< 0.05) to visit recreational sites and 0.127 percent less likely (p< 0.01) to visit grocery stores since the onset of COVID-19. However, the GWR models show there are places where the percent Black is locally related to recreation distancing while percent Hispanic is not. Further, these models show the association of percent Black to recreation and grocery distancing can be locally as strong as 1.057 percent (p< 0.05) and 0.989 percent (p< 0.05), respectively. Next, the HLM models identified that Black/White residential isolation was related to less distancing, with each point of isolation residents were 11.476 percent more likely (p< 0.01) to go to recreational sites and 7.493 percent more likely (p< 0.05) to visit grocery stores compared to before COVID-19. These models did not find a measurable advantage/disadvantage for Black populations in these places compared to White populations. COVID-19 policy should not assume disadvantage in achieving social distancing accrue equally to different racial/ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , African Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Supermarkets , United States/epidemiology , Workplace
15.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Anxiety/ethnology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Racism/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
16.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 798-801, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243531

ABSTRACT

The glaring racial inequities in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating loss of Black lives at the hands of police and racist vigilantes have catalyzed a global reckoning about deeply rooted systemic racism in society. Many medical training institutions in the United States have participated in this discourse by denouncing racism, expressing solidarity with people of color, and reexamining their diversity and inclusion efforts. Yet, the stagnant progress in recruiting, retaining, and supporting racial/ethnic minority trainees and faculty at medical training institutions is well documented and reflects unaddressed systemic racism along the academic pipeline. In this article, the authors draw upon their experiences as early-career physicians of color who have led and supported antiracism efforts within their institutions to highlight key barriers to achieving meaningful progress. They describe common pitfalls of diversity and inclusion initiatives and call for an antiracist approach to systems change. The authors then offer 9 recommendations that medical training institutions can implement to critically examine and address racist structures within their organizations to actualize racial equity and justice.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Preceptorship/methods , Racism/prevention & control , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cultural Diversity , Decision Making/ethics , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Preceptorship/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Inclusion , Social Justice , United States/ethnology
17.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 827-830, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236160

ABSTRACT

In an era of Freddie Gray and Black Lives Matter, a long history of structural racism, combined with disproportionate rates of COVID-19, the African American community has seen a lot of reasons to demand social justice, equal treatment and immediate access to solutions to health disparities. Despite the promise of COVID-19 vaccines, the community is highly distrustful of the vaccine and institutions given a history of mistreatment and many other current concerns. Trusted messengers such as Black pastors are crucial to protecting the community that faces a disproportionate amount of disease. We present a framework to build trust and acceptance including understanding history and context; listening and empathy; engaging pastors as trusted messengers; creating partnerships with shared responsibility and power; and co-creation of solutions with faith leaders and their community, governments and institutions to create sustainable, long-term change. Efforts to support vaccine acceptance must be customized to the variety of needs and realities of the African American community, not just the topic of concern to the institution. Evaluations are needed to help ensure the community is engaged and feeling heard. Pastors and other religious leaders can work with government and institutions to bring information, facilitate discussion, build trust and develop measurable improvement efforts. Although acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines may not be achieved overnight, the process of focusing on issues that are important to the community is an important step in laying the foundation for both COVID-19 vaccines and future interventions.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clergy , Community Participation/methods , Health Status Disparities , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , African Americans/education , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication/methods , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racism , Trust
18.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 819-826, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236154

ABSTRACT

Developing a COVID-19 vaccine is a critical strategy for combatting the pandemic. However, for vaccination efforts to succeed, there must be widespread willingness to vaccinate. Prior research has found that Black Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, report lower intentions to get a vaccine than do other populations. We investigate two potential contributors to this disparity: COVID-19 vaccine-related behavioral beliefs and trust in four COVID-19 information sources (mainstream media, social media, President Trump, and public health officials and agencies). Using a nationally-representative survey (n= 889), we demonstrate that differences in vaccination beliefs explain the lower vaccination intentions reported by Black participants, compared to non-Black participants. However, while trust in information sources is associated with vaccination beliefs, differences in trust do not account for the observed differences in vaccination beliefs by race. Furthermore, we find that race moderates the relationships between trust in two sources (Trump and public health officials and agencies) and vaccination beliefs. The effects of trusting these sources on COVID-19 vaccine-related beliefs are smaller among Black participants; thus trust in these sources is less consequential to their pro-vaccination beliefs. Our results suggest that trust in information sources alone does not explain the observed relationship between race and vaccination beliefs.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Behavior/ethnology , Health Communication , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Trust , African Americans/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Intention , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic , Racism/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 419-434, 2021 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219300

ABSTRACT

This research examined the effects of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived Black-White intergroup competition and negative intergroup psychological outcomes. Two datasets (collected before [2018] and after the onset of [April, 2020] COVID-19) were combined (N = 2,131) for this research. The data provided support for the hypothesis that perceptions of Black-White intergroup competition, and subsequently perceptions of discrimination, behavioral avoidance, intergroup anxiety, and interracial mistrust would be higher after the onset of COVID-19. Three additional predictors, a perceived interracial competition manipulation, political orientation, and population density at the ZIP-code level were examined to test for main effects and moderation of COVID-19 effects. All three predictors exhibited main effects on focal outcomes, and political orientation moderated COVID-19 onset effects: effects were stronger for conservatives. Lastly, perceived intergroup competition mediated the effect of COVID-19 onset on the four focal outcomes.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Racism/psychology , /psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Politics , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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