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1.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526354

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
3.
Med Care ; 60(1): 3-12, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Equitable access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing is important for reducing disparities. We sought to examine differences in the health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing by race/ethnicity and insurance. Options included traditional health care settings and mobile testing units (MTUs) targeting communities experiencing disproportionately high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study among patients in a large health system in the Southeastern US. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing, defined as: (1) outpatient (OP) care; (2) emergency department (ED); (3) urgent care (UC); and (4) MTUs. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, insurance, and the existence of an established relationship with the health care system. RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 105,386 adult patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 55% of patients sought care at OP, 24% at ED, 12% at UC, and 9% at MTU. The sample was 58% White, 24% Black, 11% Hispanic, and 8% other race/ethnicity. Black patients had a higher likelihood of getting tested through the ED compared with White patients. Hispanic patients had the highest likelihood of testing at MTUs. Patients without a primary care provider had a higher relative risk of being tested through the ED and MTUs versus OP. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities by race/ethnicity were present in health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Health care systems may consider implementing mobile care delivery models to reach vulnerable populations. Our findings support the need for systemic change to increase primary care and health care access beyond short-term pandemic solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1443-1447, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456160

ABSTRACT

To investigate how heat-health behaviors changed in summer 2020 compared with previous summers, our community-academic partnership conducted telephone surveys to collect data on cooling behaviors, safety concerns, and preferences for cooling alternatives for 101 participants living in Alabama. Participants indicating they would visit cooling centers declined from 23% in previous summers to 10% in summer 2020. The use of cooling centers and other public spaces may be less effective in reducing heat-related illness because of safety concerns amid the COVID-19 pandemic and police brutality.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Heat Stress Disorders/prevention & control , Hot Temperature , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Alabama , COVID-19/psychology , Housing , Humans
9.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438445

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify the Black/Hispanic disparity in COVID-19 mortality in the United States (US). Methods: COVID-19 deaths in all US counties nationwide were analyzed to estimate COVID-19 mortality rate ratios by county-level proportions of Black/Hispanic residents, using mixed-effects Poisson regression. Excess COVID-19 mortality counts, relative to predicted under a counterfactual scenario of no racial/ethnic disparity gradient, were estimated. Results: County-level COVID-19 mortality rates increased monotonically with county-level proportions of Black and Hispanic residents, up to 5.4-fold (≥43% Black) and 11.6-fold (≥55% Hispanic) higher compared to counties with <5% Black and <15% Hispanic residents, respectively, controlling for county-level poverty, age, and urbanization level. Had this disparity gradient not existed, the US COVID-19 death count would have been 92.1% lower (177,672 fewer deaths), making the rate comparable to other high-income countries with substantially lower COVID-19 death counts. Conclusion: During the first 8 months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the US experienced the highest number of COVID-19 deaths. This COVID-19 mortality burden is strongly associated with county-level racial/ethnic diversity, explaining most US COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(9-a Suppl): S4-S13, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reducing the extra burden COVID-19 has on people already facing disparities is among the main national priorities for the COVID-19 vaccine rollout. Early reports from states releasing vaccination data by race show that White residents are being vaccinated at significantly higher rates than Black residents. Public health efforts are being targeted to address vaccine hesitancy among Black and other minority populations. However, health care interventions intended to reduce health disparities that do not reflect the underlying values of individuals in underrepresented populations are unlikely to be successful. OBJECTIVE: To identify key factors underlying the disparities in COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Primary data were collected from an online survey of a representative sample of the populations of the 4 largest US states (New York, California, Texas, and Florida) between August 10 and September 3, 2020. Using latent class analysis, we built a model identifying key factors underlying the disparities in COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: We found that individuals who identify as Black had lower rates of vaccine hesitancy than those who identify as White. This was true overall, by latent class and within latent class. This suggests that, contrary to what is currently being reported, Black individuals are not universally more vaccine hesitant. Combining the respondents who would not consider a vaccine (17%) with those who would consider one but ultimately choose not to vaccinate (11%), our findings indicate that more than 1 in 4 (28%) persons will not be willing to vaccinate. The no-vaccine rate is highest in White individuals and lowest in Black individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that other factors, potentially institutional, are driving the vaccination rates for these groups. Our model results help point the way to more effective differentiated policies. DISCLOSURES: No funding was received for this study. The authors have nothing to disclose.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal/ethnology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256763, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact in the United States, particularly for Black populations, and has heavily burdened the healthcare system. Hospitals have created protocols to allocate limited resources, but there is concern that these protocols will exacerbate disparities. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is a tool often used in triage protocols. In these protocols, patients with higher SOFA scores are denied resources based on the assumption that they have worse clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using SOFA score as a triage tool among COVID-positive patients would exacerbate racial disparities in clinical outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort of hospitalized COVID-positive patients in the Yale-New Haven Health System. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and peak overall/24-hour SOFA score, in-hospital mortality, and ICU admission. Other predictors of interest were age, sex, primary language, and insurance status. We used one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests to assess differences in SOFA score across racial/ethnic groups and linear and logistic regression to assess differences in clinical outcomes by sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Our final sample included 2,554 patients. Black patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races. However, Black patients did not have significantly greater in-hospital mortality or ICU admission compared to patients of other races. CONCLUSION: While Black patients in this sample of hospitalized COVID-positive patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races, this did not translate to higher in-hospital mortality or ICU admission. Results demonstrate that if SOFA score had been used to allocate care, Black COVID patients would have been denied care despite having similar clinical outcomes to white patients. Therefore, using SOFA score to allocate resources has the potential to exacerbate racial inequities by disproportionately denying care to Black patients and should not be used to determine access to care. Healthcare systems must develop and use COVID-19 triage protocols that prioritize equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Connecticut , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Triage/methods , Young Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18443, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415955

ABSTRACT

Prior research has well established the association of ethno-racial and economic inequality with COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates across counties in the US. In this ecological study, a similar association was found between ethno-racial and economic inequality and COVID-19 full vaccination rates across the 102 counties in the American state of Illinois in the early months of vaccination. Among the counties with income inequality below the median, a county's poverty rate had a negative association with the proportion of population fully vaccinated. However, among the counties with income inequality above the median, a higher percentage of Black or Hispanic population was persistently associated with a lower proportion of fully vaccinated population over the two-month period from early February to early April of 2021.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Illinois/ethnology , Incidence , Male , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372007

ABSTRACT

The introduction of COVID-19 vaccines is a major public health breakthrough. However, members of US Black and Hispanic communities, already disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 virus, may be less willing to receive the vaccine. We conducted a broad, representative survey of US adults (N = 1,950) in order to better understand vaccine beliefs and explore opportunities to increase vaccine acceptance among these groups. The survey results suggested that Black and Hispanic individuals were less willing than Whites to receive the vaccine. US Blacks and Hispanics also planned to delay receiving the COVID-19 vaccine for a longer time period than Whites, potentially further increasing the risk of contracting COVID-19 within populations that are already experiencing high disease prevalence. Black respondents were less likely to want the COVID-19 vaccine at all compared with Whites and Hispanics, and mistrust of the vaccine among Black respondents was significantly higher than other racial/ethnic groups. Encouragingly, many Black and Hispanic respondents reported that COVID-19 vaccine endorsements from same-race medical professionals would increase their willingness to receive it. These respondents said they would also be motivated by receiving more information on the experiences of vaccine study participants who are of their own race and ethnicity. The results have implications for improved messaging of culturally-tailored communications to help reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among communities disproportionately impacted by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data
16.
Urology ; 156: 110-116, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences between telephone and video-televisits and identify whether visit modality is associated with satisfaction in an urban, academic general urology practice. METHODS: A cross sectional analysis of patients who completed a televisit at our urology practice (summer 2020) was performed. A Likert-based satisfaction telephone survey was offered to patients within 7 days of their televisit. Patient demographics, televisit modality (telephone vs video), and outcomes of the visit (eg follow-up visit scheduled, orders placed) were retrospectively abstracted from each chart and compared between the telephone and video cohorts. Multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate variables associated with satisfaction while controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 269 patients were analyzed. 73% (196/269) completed a telephone televisit. Compared to the video cohort, the telephone cohort was slightly older (mean 58.8 years vs. 54.2 years, P = .03). There were no significant differences in the frequency of orders placed for medication changes, labs, imaging, or for in-person follow-up visits within 30 days between cohorts. Survey results showed overall 84.7% patients were satisfied, and there was no significant difference between the telephone and video cohorts. Visit type was not associated with satisfaction on multivariable analyses, while use of an interpreter [OR:8.13 (1.00-65.94); P = .05], labs ordered [OR:2.74 (1.12-6.70); P = .03] and female patient gender [OR:2.28 (1.03-5.03); P = .04] were significantly associated with satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Overall, most patients were satisfied with their televisit. Additionally, telephone- and video-televisits were similar regarding patient opinions, patient characteristics, and visit outcome. Efforts to increase access and coverage of telehealth, particularly telephone-televisits, should continue past the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Telephone , Urology/statistics & numerical data , Videoconferencing , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communication Barriers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Institutional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Language , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 47(4): 290-301, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329105

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this substudy was to determine the most acceptable way to restart the Texas Strength Through Resilience in Diabetes Education (TX STRIDE) study safely using remote technologies. Following the emergence of COVID-19, all in-person TX STRIDE intervention and data collection sessions were paused. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive methods using telephone interviews were conducted during the research pause. A structured interview guide was developed to facilitate data collection and coding. Forty-seven of 59 Cohort 1 participants were interviewed (mean age = 60.7 years; 79% female; mean time diagnosed with type 2 diabetes = 11 years). RESULTS: Data categories and subcategories were generated from the interview responses and included: personal experiences with COVID-19, effects of COVID-19 on diabetes self-management, psychosocial and financial effects of COVID-19, and recommendations for program restart. Although some participants lacked technological knowledge, they expressed eagerness to learn how to use remote meeting platforms to resume intervention and at-home data-collection sessions. Six months after the in-person intervention was paused, TX STRIDE restarted remotely with data collection and class sessions held via Zoom. A majority of participants (72.9%) transitioned to the virtual platform restart. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative findings guided the appropriate implementation of technology for the study, which facilitated a successful restart. High retention of participants through the study transition provides evidence that participants are invested in learning how to manage their diabetes despite the challenges and distractions imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Culturally Competent Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Self-Management/education , Self-Management/psychology , Texas/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence suggests that higher levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) protect against SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) infection. Black women commonly experience 25(OH)D insufficiency and are overrepresented among COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to COVID-19 infection among participants in the Black Women's Health Study. METHODS: Since 1995, the Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 U.S. Black women through biennial mailed or online questionnaires. Over 13,000 study participants provided a blood sample in 2013-2017. 25(OH)D assays were performed in a certified national laboratory shortly after collection of the samples. In 2020, participants who had completed the online version of the 2019 biennial health questionnaire were invited to complete a supplemental online questionnaire assessing their experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including whether they had been tested for COVID-19 infection and the result of the test. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of 25(OH)D level with COVID-19 positivity, adjusting for age, number of people living in the household, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 5,081 eligible participants whose blood sample had been assayed for 25(OH)D, 1,974 reported having had a COVID-19 test in 2020. Relative to women with 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/l) or more, multivariable-adjusted ORs for COVID-19 infection in women with levels of 20-29 ng/mL (50-72.5 nmol/l) and <20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/l) were, respectively, 1.48 (95% CI 0.95-2.30) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.72) (p trend 0.02). CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that U.S. Black women with lower levels of 25(OH)D are at increased risk of infection with COVID-19. Further work is needed to confirm these findings and determine the optimal level of 25(OH)D for a beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Vitamin D/blood
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1467-1473, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320053

ABSTRACT

Importance: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, racial/ethnic minority communities disproportionately experienced poor outcomes; however, the association of the pandemic with prostate cancer (PCa) care is unknown. Objective: To assess the association between race and PCa care delivery for Black and White patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, regional, collaborative, retrospective cohort study compared prostatectomy rates between Black and White patients with untreated nonmetastatic PCa during the COVID-19 pandemic (269 patients from March 16 to May 15, 2020) and prior (378 patients from March 11 to May 10, 2019). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostatectomy rates. Results: Of the 647 men with nonmetastatic PCa, 172 (26.6%) were non-Hispanic Black men, and 475 (73.4%) were non-Hispanic White men. Black men were significantly less likely to undergo prostatectomy during the pandemic compared with White patients (1 of 76 [1.3%] vs 50 of 193 [25.9%]; P < .001), despite similar COVID-19 risk factors, biopsy Gleason grade groups, and comparable prostatectomy rates prior to the pandemic (17 of 96 [17.7%] vs 54 of 282 [19.1%]; P = .75). Black men had higher median prostate-specific antigen levels prior to biopsy (8.8 ng/mL [interquartile range, 5.3-15.2 ng/mL] vs 7.2 ng/mL [interquartile range, 5.1-11.1 ng/mL]; P = .04). A linear combination of regression coefficients with an interaction term for year demonstrated an odds ratio for likelihood of surgery of 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.35; P = .002) for Black patients and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.81-2.44; P = .23) for White patients during the pandemic compared with prior to the pandemic. Changes in surgical volume varied by site (from a 33% increase to complete shutdown), with sites that experienced the largest reduction in cancer surgery caring for a greater proportion of Black patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large multi-institutional regional collaborative cohort study, the odds of PCa surgery were lower among Black patients compared with White patients during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although localized PCa does not require immediate treatment, the lessons from this study suggest systemic inequities within health care and are likely applicable across medical specialties. Public health efforts are needed to fully recognize the unintended consequence of diversion of cancer resources to the COVID-19 pandemic to develop balanced mitigation strategies as viral rates continue to fluctuate.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prostatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , /statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , United States/ethnology
20.
Sleep Health ; 7(4): 459-467, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates race-related disparities in sleep duration and quality among diverse young adults during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN & SETTING: Online cross-sectional study of young adults in the United States in April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: About 547 American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), Asian, Black, Latinx, and White young adults ages 18-25 years. MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed measures of sleep duration and quality, coronavirus victimization distress, depression, age, sex/gender, employment status, essential worker status, student status, residential region, socioeconomic status, concerns about contracting coronavirus and CDC health risks. RESULTS: Black young adults reported the largest disparity in sleep duration and quality. For sleep duration, AIAN, Asian, White, and Latinx young adults reported approximately one additional hour of sleep compared to Black respondents. Mediation analyses suggest that disparities in sleep duration between Asian and Black young adults may be explained by the higher likelihood of Black respondents being essential workers. For sleep quality, Latinx, White, AIAN, and Asian young adults reported higher levels than Black respondents. Including coronavirus victimization distress as an intervening pathway decreased the effect for Asian and White respondents on sleep quality, suggesting that coronavirus victimization distress partially explains Black and Asian, as well as Black and White differences in sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Black young adults reported the shortest sleep duration and lowest levels of sleep quality relative to AIAN, Asian, Latinx and White peers. Interpersonal experiences of coronavirus victimization and structural inequities may partially explain disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Alaskan Natives/statistics & numerical data , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Young Adult
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