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1.
Haematologica ; 107(9): 2018-2036, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022628

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes our approach to the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), its secondary forms, and choice of second-line treatment options. We very briefly summarize first-line treatment and then utilize a case-based approach. We first explore persistent, chronic ITP in a younger female. We consider many possibilities beyond primary ITP e.g., hypogammaglobulinemia, chronic infection, and anemia, and how to approach their diagnosis and management. The journey continues throughout pregnancy and the post-partum period and eventually includes fourth-line treatment after a late relapse. We then consider an older male, emphasizing differences in diagnostic considerations and management. The focus is on initiation and continuation of second-line treatment, the pros and cons of each option, and briefly the impact of treatment choices related to the endemic presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. During the review of potential second-line treatment options, we also briefly touch upon novel treatments. Finally, there is a short section on refractory disease drawn from our previous extensive review published in February 2020.1 The clinical nature of the discussions, replete with figures and tables and with the interspersion of pearls regarding efficacy and toxicity at different ages and genders, will serve the reader in the management of "typical" adult patients who develop persistent and chronic ITP.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Splenectomy , Thrombocytopenia/complications
2.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 63(1): 22-35, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971834

ABSTRACT

Interruptions or alterations in the B cell development pathway can lead to primary B cell immunodeficiency with resultant absence or diminished immunoglobulin production. While the most common cause of congenital agammaglobulinemia is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), accounting for approximately 85% of cases, other genetic forms of agammaglobulinemia have been identified. Early recognition and diagnosis of these conditions are pivotal for improved outcomes and prevention of sequelae and complications. The diagnosis of XLA is often delayed, and can be missed if patient has a mild phenotype. The lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype in this condition makes management and predicting outcomes quite difficult. In contrast, while less common, autosomal recessive forms of agammaglobulinemia present at younger ages and with typically more severe clinical features resulting in an earlier diagnosis. Some diagnostic innovations, such as KREC level measurements and serum BCMA measurements, may aid in facilitating an earlier identification of agammaglobulinemia leading to prompt treatment. Earlier diagnosis may improve the overall health of patients with XLA.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/diagnosis , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans , Mutation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics
3.
Neurol Sci ; 43(10): 5783-5794, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination is highly recommended to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Little is known about the role of patients' clinical and demographic characteristics in determining antibody response. METHODS: We evaluated safety and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on 143 included MS patients. Then, we analyzed antibody titer in a subgroup, assessing clinical and demographic variables associated with protection and antibody titer. RESULTS: After completing the vaccination cycle, the rate of local adverse events was similar after the first and second dose. A higher proportion of systemic AEs was reported after the second dose (65.7% vs 24.5% after the first dose). Antibody response was evaluated in 97 patients. Higher EDSS (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, p = 0.006) and treatment with antiCD20 (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.003-0.098, p 0.001) were associated with a lower chance of having an efficacious response. Higher weight was associated with higher Ab titer (ß = 15.2, 95% CI 2.8-27.6, p = 0.017), while treatment with antiCD20 with lower titers (ß = - 1092.3, 95% CI - 1477.4 to - 702.2, p < 0.001). In patients treated with antiCD20, hypogammaglobulinemia (ß - 543, 95% CI - 1047.6 to - 39.1, p = 0.036) and treatment duration (ß - 182, 95% CI - 341.4 to - 24.3, p = 0.027) were associated with lower Ab titer. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that COVID-19 vaccination in MS patient is safe and effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 and should be recommended to all patients. Moreover, we suggest a possible role of hypogammaglobulinemia in reducing Ab response in patients treated with antiCD20 therapies.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , SARS Virus , Agammaglobulinemia/etiology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS Virus/physiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Vaccine ; 40(36): 5299-5301, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967210

ABSTRACT

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inborn error of immunity characterized by insufficient production of immunoglobulins and lack of measurable antibody response to vaccines. The rise of novel infections limits the protective effect of immunoglobulin replacement in immunodeficient patients though. While XLA patients are not expected to mount an antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination, it has been demonstrated that XLA patients can mount a T-cell response to COVID-19 vaccines, similar to the influenza vaccine. We present three patients with XLA who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. One patient demonstrated positive antibody response. Many XLA patients do not receive routine vaccinations due to ongoing immunoglobulin replacement therapy and lack of native antibody production, but in addition to T-cell response to vaccination, select XLA patients may mount a positive antibody response. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination should be encouraged for all XLA patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans , Immunoglobulins , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 57(6): 874-880, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937424

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) has been demonstrated for primary immune deficiency diseases and hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or multiple myeloma with hypogammaglobulinemia. Clinical development of anti-B cell therapies including a monoclonal antibody, bispecific antibody, or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy which could result in severe hypogammaglobulinemia accelerates the argument of prophylactic use of IgRT. Clinical guidelines for CLL describe immunoglobulin administration in patients with a low IgG who have experienced a severe/repeated bacterial infection. The utility in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unknown. Although an early randomized trial demonstrated that IgRT decreased infection risk and transplant-related mortality after HSCT, subsequent clinical trials could not validate the benefit. Consequently, a meta-analysis did not show the benefit of IgRT in HSCT. Most of the available data derives from matched-related HSCT using myeloablative regimen, and the impact in haploidentical and cord blood transplantation, or reduced-intensity HSCT remains unknown. One crucial issue is that no studies exist for patients with only hypogammaglobulinemia after HSCT. Other challenges are heterogeneous patient characteristics, or immunoglobulin formulation, dosage, schedule, route and duration of IgRT. Without evidence in HSCT, it would be reasonable to follow the guidelines for other diseases with hypogammaglobulinemia.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Agammaglobulinemia/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins
6.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(6): 300-304, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence rates, prognoses, and disease-related factors associated with poor outcomes in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) who had coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with AAV were questioned for a history of COVID-19 in the outpatient setting. Cumulative clinical findings and treatment history were obtained from the patients' medical records. The clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of inpatients with COVID-19 were recorded. The data of patients who developed symptomatic COVID-19 and/or died of the disease were used for comparison. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients (47.2% female; mean age, 56 ± 12.5 years) were included. The diagnosis was granulomatosis with polyangiitis in 56 patients (62.9%) and microscopic polyangiitis in 33 (37.1%). Sixty-one (68.2%) and 21 patients (23.6%) had renal and peripheral nerve involvement, respectively. Ten patients had a history of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Fifteen patients (16.9%) had COVID-19, including 9 (60%) with severe pneumonia. Twelve patients (85.7%) were hospitalized, 6 (42.9%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 5 (35.7%) died. All deceased patients had hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG levels <700 mg/dL) during hospital admission. Symptomatic COVID-19 was associated with higher disease activity, glucocorticoid and rituximab treatments, and glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min. A history of peripheral nerve involvement, higher organ damage scores, and hypogammaglobulinemia was associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis was poor in our patients with AAV who had COVID-19, especially those with severe multisystem involvement. Hypogammaglobulinemia was associated with mortality. Serum IgG level monitoring in patients with AAV would be beneficial during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(6): 1130-1136, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826681

ABSTRACT

Immunodeficient individuals often rely on donor-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy (IGRT) to prevent infections. The passive immunity obtained by IGRT is limited and reflects the state of immunity in the plasma donor population at the time of donation. The objective of the current study was to describe how the potential of passive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in commercial off-the-shelf Ig products used for IGRT has evolved during the pandemic. Samples were collected from all consecutive Ig batches (n = 60) from three Ig producers used at the Immunodeficiency Unit at Karolinska University Hospital from the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic until January 2022. SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations and neutralizing capacity were assessed in all samples. In vivo relevance was assessed by sampling patients with XLA (n = 4), lacking endogenous immunoglobulin synthesis and on continuous Ig substitution, for plasma SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentration. SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations in commercial Ig products increased over time but remained inconsistently present. Moreover, Ig batches with high neutralizing capacity towards the Wuhan-strain of SARS-CoV-2 had 32-fold lower activity against the Omicron variant. Despite increasing SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations in commercial Ig products, four XLA patients on IGRT had relatively low plasma concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with no potential to neutralize the Omicron variant in vitro. In line with this observation, three out the four XLA patients had symptomatic COVID-19 during the Omicron wave. In conclusion, 2 years into the pandemic the amounts of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 vary considerably among commercial Ig batches obtained from three commercial producers. Importantly, in batches with high concentrations of antibodies directed against the original virus strain, protective passive immunity to the Omicron variant appears to be insufficient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Agammaglobulinemia , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans
8.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(2): 219-227, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818866

ABSTRACT

LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a mutation in the LRBA gene. Affected individuals present with a variety of clinical symptoms including hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. Except for hypogammaglobulinemia, the remaining features resemble autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy with the ALPS phenotype, eventually diagnosed with LRBA deficiency. He presented with lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, along with autoimmune cytopenia. Due to recurrent infections and worsening gastrointestinal symptoms, whole-exome sequencing was conducted and revealed a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in the LRBA gene (c.534del; p.9Asp179IIef*16). The patient recently suffered from clinical deterioration due to SARS-COV-2 which appears to have triggered an acute worsening of his existing Cytomegalovirus colitis leading to an eventual demise. A literature search for reported LRBA deficient patients with ALPS-like phenotype revealed 11 patients. The most common clinical presentations in LRBA patients with ALPS-like phenotype included autoimmunity (100%), splenomegaly (91%), lymphadenopathy (36.4%), and respiratory tract infections (63.6%). LRBA deficiency is unique in the fact that it encompasses immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferation. In children with multiple symptoms related to these domains, a genetic diagnosis is necessary to ensure tailored and precise medical therapy.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome , COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Lymphadenopathy , Protein Deficiency , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome/diagnosis , Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Male , Phenotype , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenomegaly
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 62: 103798, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of immunoglobulins (Ig) level on the rate of infections in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ocrelizumab. METHODS: We enrolled 109 consecutive pwMS treated with ocrelizumab with a mean follow-up of 2.69±0.56 (1.36-4.27) years. We have retrospectively searched our electronic database and the following information was collected: age, sex, MS characteristics, number of ocrelizumab cycles, infections, duration of the infection, hospitalization due to infection, treatment of the infection, and COVID-19 characteristics. Ig levels were measured within 14 days before each ocrelizumab infusion. RESULTS: Number of pwMS with values of IgM and IgG below lower level of normal at baseline was 3 (2.8%) and 2 (2.8%), respectively; and before 6th cycle of ocrelizumab 5 (13.5%) and 5 (13.5%), respectively. Levels of IgM were steadily decreasing over time, while levels of IgG started to show statistically significant drop only after 5th cycle of ocrelizumab. 58.7% pwMS experienced infection during treatment, with a median number of infections per pwMS being 1, range 0-4. Female sex increased the risk of any infection (HR 2.561, 95%CI 1.382-4.774, p=0.003). Higher age and smaller drop in IgM before 3rd ocrelizumab cycle increased the risk for infection requiring hospitalization (HR 1.086, 95%CI 1.018-1.159, p=0.013 and HR 9.216, 95%CI 1.124-75.558, p=0.039, respectively). Longer disease duration increased the risk for COVID-19 (HR 1.075, 95%CI 1.002-1.154, p=0.045). CONCLUSION: The present findings broaden limited real-world data on infection and COVID-19 risk in pwMS treated with ocrelizumab.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842643, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775676

ABSTRACT

Background: Severity and mortality of COVID-19 largely depends on the ability of the immune system to clear the virus. Among various comorbidities potentially impacting on this process, the weight and the consequences of an antibody deficiency have not yet been clarified. Methods: We used serum protein electrophoresis to screen for hypogammaglobulinemia in a cohort of consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, hospitalized in non-intensive care setting between December 2020 and January 2021. The disease severity, measured by a validated score and by the need for semi intensive (sICU) or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the 30-day mortality was compared between patients presenting hypogammaglobulinemia (HYPO) and without hypogammaglobulinemia (no-HYPO). Demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 specific treatment during the hospital stay, disease duration, complications and laboratory parameters were also evaluated in both groups. Results: We enrolled 374 patients, of which 39 represented the HYPO cohort (10.4%). In 10/39 the condition was previously neglected, while in the other 29/39 hematologic malignancies were common (61.5%); 2/39 were on regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). Patients belonging to the HYPO group more frequently developed a severe COVID-19 and more often required sICU/ICU admission than no-HYPO patients. IgRT were administered in 8/39 during hospitalization; none of them died or needed sICU/ICU. Among HYPO cohort, we observed a significantly higher prevalence of neoplastic affections, of active oncologic treatment and bronchiectasis, together with higher prevalence of viral and bacterial superinfections, mechanical ventilation, convalescent plasma and SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies administration during hospital stay, and longer disease duration. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed the impact of hypogammaglobulinemia on the COVID-19 severity and the probability of sICU/ICU admission. The analysis of the mortality rate in the whole cohort showed no significant difference between HYPO and no-HYPO. Conclusions: Hypogammaglobulinemia, regardless of its cause, in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a non-intensive care setting was associated to a more severe disease course and more frequent admission to s-ICU/ICU, particularly in absence of IgRT. Our findings emphasize the add-value of routine serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in patients admitted with COVID-19 to support clinicians in patient care and to consider IgRT initiation during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Proteins , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Immunol ; 234: 108897, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606333

ABSTRACT

Rituximab (RTX), an important therapeutic option for patients with rheumatic diseases, has been shown to reduce immune responses to various vaccines. We asked whether following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, response rates in RTX treated patients are reduced and whether specific patient characteristics influence the responses. We recruited patients on chronic RTX therapy undergoing anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccination and measured the post-vaccination anti-spike IgG antibody levels. The median time from pre-vaccination RTX infusion to vaccination and from vaccination to the post-vaccination RTX infusion was 20.5 weeks and 7.2 weeks respectively. Only 36.5% of patients developed measurable titers of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody after vaccination. Hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG and/or IgM) but not timing of vaccination, B cell numbers, or concomitant immune suppressive medications, correlated with sero-negativity (p = 0.004). Our results underscore the fact that even after B cell reconstitution, RTX induced chronic hypogammaglobulinemia significantly impairs the ability of the immune system to respond to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Vaccination/methods
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): e472-e474, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447657

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 17-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia who had mild disease when initially infected with SARS-CoV-2 but after recovering from acute infection developed fevers and a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate that persisted for several weeks without any ongoing respiratory symptoms. Multiple nasopharyngeal swabs were found to be negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the febrile period, but typical changes of COVID-19 on high resolution CT chest scan led to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR in a sample from a bronchoalveolar lavage. His fevers completely resolved after a 5-day course of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fever , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 525-534, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447630

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical outcomes from COVID-19 in monogenic causes of predominant antibody deficiency have pivotal implications for our understanding of the antiviral contribution of humoral immunity. This review summarizes the lessons learned from COVID-19 infection in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) due to genetic defects in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). RECENT FINDINGS: Key molecular pathways underlying the development of severe COVID-19 are emerging, highlighting the possible contribution of BTK to hyperinflammation. SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses and complement activation appear insufficient to achieve viral clearance in some B-cell deficient individuals. Whilst appearing efficacious in this group, use of convalescent plasma has been recently associated with the evolution of viral escape variants. Early data suggests individuals with XLA can mount a viral-specific T-cell vaccine response, however, the clinical significance of this is still emerging. SUMMARY: In contrast to reports made early in the pandemic, we show XLA patients remain susceptible to severe disease. Persistent infection was common and is likely to carry a significant symptom burden and risk of novel variant evolution. COVID-19 infection in this vulnerable, antibody deficient group due to genetic, therapeutic or disease causes may require prompt and specific intervention for both patient and societal benefit.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 731643, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412494

ABSTRACT

In the era of COVID-19, understanding how our immune system responds to viral infections is more pertinent than ever. Immunodeficiencies with very low or absent B cells offer a valuable model to study the role of humoral immunity against these types of infection. This review looks at the available evidence on viral infections in patients with B cell alymphocytosis, in particular those with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), Good's syndrome, post monoclonal-antibody therapy and certain patients with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID). Viral infections are not as infrequent as previously thought in these conditions and individuals with very low circulating B cells seem to be predisposed to an adverse outcome. Particularly in the case of SARS-CoV2 infection, mounting evidence suggests that peripheral B cell alymphocytosis is linked to a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , Thymoma/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thymoma/therapy
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 34(3): 115-118, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398070

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has listed primary immunodeficiency disorders as being predisposed to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, patients affected with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) have shown contrary results. In this study, we present 2 boys in late adolescence from south India with XLA who were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as well as a review of cases reported in the literature. Case Presentation: Two patients with XLA had been diagnosed late and were started on regular immunoglobulin prophylaxis only during adolescence. Both of them had developed bronchiectasis, an irreversible suppurative lung disease. However, both patients made an uneventful recovery without the need for artificial ventilation or convalescent plasma. Conclusion: Successful outcomes of patients with XLA and COVID-19, except for delayed recovery, from our experience and from global reports are intriguing and the role of B cell depletion is being studied as well. Further research and clinical experience are necessary to fully elucidate the reasons for these observations.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 338-340, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380665

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with humoral immunodeficiency are at higher risk of developing chronic infection and having a negative outcome. Few data are available on therapeutic options for this population. This case report discusses the treatment of disease relapse with remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies in an adult patient with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans , Recurrence
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