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Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 63(1): 22-35, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971834


Interruptions or alterations in the B cell development pathway can lead to primary B cell immunodeficiency with resultant absence or diminished immunoglobulin production. While the most common cause of congenital agammaglobulinemia is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), accounting for approximately 85% of cases, other genetic forms of agammaglobulinemia have been identified. Early recognition and diagnosis of these conditions are pivotal for improved outcomes and prevention of sequelae and complications. The diagnosis of XLA is often delayed, and can be missed if patient has a mild phenotype. The lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype in this condition makes management and predicting outcomes quite difficult. In contrast, while less common, autosomal recessive forms of agammaglobulinemia present at younger ages and with typically more severe clinical features resulting in an earlier diagnosis. Some diagnostic innovations, such as KREC level measurements and serum BCMA measurements, may aid in facilitating an earlier identification of agammaglobulinemia leading to prompt treatment. Earlier diagnosis may improve the overall health of patients with XLA.

Agammaglobulinemia , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/diagnosis , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans , Mutation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics