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1.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
2.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 72(5): 1-38, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324513

ABSTRACT

Problem/Condition: In 2020, approximately 71,000 persons died of violence-related injuries in the United States. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) on violent deaths that occurred in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 2020. Results are reported by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, method of injury, type of location where the injury occurred, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. Period Covered: 2020. Description of System: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner and medical examiner records, and law enforcement reports. This report includes data collected for violent deaths that occurred in 2020. Data were collected from 48 states (all states with exception of Florida and Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Forty-six states had statewide data, two additional states had data from counties representing a subset of their population (35 California counties, representing 71% of its population, and four Texas counties, representing 39% of its population), and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had jurisdiction-wide data. NVDRS collates information for each violent death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, homicide followed by suicide, or multiple suicides) into a single incident. Results: For 2020, NVDRS collected information on 64,388 fatal incidents involving 66,017 deaths that occurred in 48 states (46 states collecting statewide data, 35 California counties, and four Texas counties), and the District of Columbia. In addition, information was collected for 729 fatal incidents involving 790 deaths in Puerto Rico. Data for Puerto Rico were analyzed separately. Of the 66,017 deaths, the majority (58.4%) were suicides, followed by homicides (31.3%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.2%), legal intervention deaths (1.3%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force acting in the line of duty, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (<1.0%). The term "legal intervention" is a classification incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.Demographic patterns and circumstances varied by manner of death. The suicide rate was higher for males than for females. Across all age groups, the suicide rate was highest among adults aged ≥85 years. In addition, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons had the highest suicide rates among all racial and ethnic groups. Among both males and females, the most common method of injury for suicide was a firearm. Among all suicide victims, when circumstances were known, suicide was most often preceded by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical health problem or by a recent or impending crisis during the previous or upcoming 2 weeks. The homicide rate was higher for males than for females. Among all homicide victims, the homicide rate was highest among persons aged 20-24 years compared with other age groups. Non-Hispanic Black (Black) males experienced the highest homicide rate of any racial or ethnic group. Among all homicide victims, the most common method of injury was a firearm. When the relationship between a homicide victim and a suspect was known, the suspect was most frequently an acquaintance or friend for male victims and a current or former intimate partner for female victims. Homicide most often was precipitated by an argument or conflict, occurred in conjunction with another crime, or, for female victims, was related to intimate partner violence. Nearly all victims of legal intervention deaths were male, and the legal intervention death rate was highest among men aged 35-44 years. The legal intervention death rate was highest among AI/AN males, followed by Black males. A firearm was used in the majority of legal intervention deaths. When a specific type of crime was known to have precipitated a legal intervention death, the type of crime was most frequently assault or homicide. When circumstances were known, the three most frequent circumstances reported for legal intervention deaths were as follows: the victim's death was precipitated by another crime, the victim used a weapon in the incident, and the victim had a substance use problem (other than alcohol use).Other causes of death included unintentional firearm deaths and deaths of undetermined intent. Unintentional firearm deaths were most frequently experienced by males, non-Hispanic White (White) persons, and persons aged 15-24 years. These deaths most frequently occurred while the shooter was playing with a firearm and were precipitated by a person unintentionally pulling the trigger. The rate of deaths of undetermined intent was highest among males, particularly among AI/AN and Black males, and among adults aged 30-54 years. Poisoning was the most common method of injury in deaths of undetermined intent, and opioids were detected in nearly 80% of decedents tested for those substances. Interpretation: This report provides a detailed summary of data from NVDRS on violent deaths that occurred in 2020. The suicide rate was highest among AI/AN and White males, whereas the homicide rate was highest among Black male victims. Intimate partner violence precipitated a large proportion of homicides for females. Mental health problems, intimate partner problems, interpersonal conflicts, and acute life stressors were primary circumstances for multiple types of violent death. Public Health Action: Violence is preventable, and states and communities can use data to guide public health action. NVDRS data are used to monitor the occurrence of violence-related fatal injuries and assist public health authorities in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs, policies, and practices to reduce and prevent violent deaths. For example, the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System (VDRS), Kentucky VDRS, and Oregon VDRS have used their VDRS data to guide suicide prevention efforts and generate reports highlighting where additional focus is needed. In Colorado, VDRS data were used to examine the increased risk for suicide among first and last responders in the state. Kentucky VDRS used local data to highlight how psychological and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic might increase risk for suicide, particularly among vulnerable populations. Oregon VDRS used their data to develop a publicly available data dashboard displaying firearm mortality trends and rates in support of the state's firearm safety campaign. Similarly, states participating in NVDRS have used their VDRS data to examine homicide in their state. Illinois VDRS, for example, found that state budget cuts were associated with notable increases in homicides among youths in Chicago. With an increase of participating states and jurisdictions, this report marks progress toward providing nationally representative data.


Subject(s)
Death , Homicide , Suicide , Violence , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , Gun Violence , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Age Distribution , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged
3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasms/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , United States
4.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 514-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK: The article reviews the main problems of the epidemiology of infectious diseases in Poland in 2020. It summarizes relevant findings from the national infectious disease surveillance system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data contained in this article come from the reports collected by the State Sanitary Inspection on cases of notifiable infectious diseases notified by clinicians and/or laboratories. These are supplemented by mortality data published by the Statistics Poland. RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION: The epidemiology of infectious diseases was highly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 1,306,983 cases notified in 2020 and 41,451 deaths attributed to COVID-19 (according to Statistics Poland). The reported incidence of other infections decreased by 10-98%. We noted especially high decreases in the incidence of viral gastrointestinal infections (by over 70%). The incidence of influenza and influenza-like infections decreased by 34% and tuberculosis by 36% as compared to 2019. However, important decreases were also noted for other diseases under surveillance, which could point to disruption of diagnosis services and reporting due to lockdowns and high workload on the public health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Age Distribution , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Urban Population
5.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 626-640, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276679

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in the years 2018-2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on the analysis of information sent to Department of Epidemiology NIPH NIH - NRI through ROE (pol. Rejestr Ognisk Epidemicznych) - an electronic system created for uploading, transfer and analysis of data acquired during the outbreak investigations. Additional sources for the analysis were NIPH NIH - NRI annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2014-2020. Warsaw, NIPH NIH and GIS). RESULTS: In the years 2018-2020 a total number of 2,108 foodborne outbreaks were reported in which 52,175 persons were exposed and 17,023 got sick (in 2016 n=916, in 2019 n=918, in 2020 n=274). In 2020 over 3 fold decrease in the number of outbreaks comparing to 2019 and over 4 fold decrease in the number of cases in those outbreaks was observed. Among outbreaks which took place in 3 most frequent settings (private household, food facility and hospital) the steepest decrease was in 12th week of 2020 (ISO 2020-W12). The most frequent etiological agent of outbreaks in the years 2018-2020 was Salmonella sp. (38.3% of outbreaks in 2018, 32.7% in 2019 and 47.8% in 2020) and specifically serotype Enteritidis (38.3%, 27% and 39.4% accordingly). The most frequent setting of outbreaks was private household (59.7% outbreaks in 2018, 66% in 2019 and 62% in 2020), followed by hospital (17.4%, 18.3% i 19.7% accordingly). Up until 2019 an increasing trend in the number of small outbreaks (up to 4 cases) caused by Salmonella sp. was observed (in 2018 - 605 and in 2019 - 612 were reported). CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in the number of outbreaks in selected settings from 12th ISO week of 2020 might have been due to introduction of restrictions during COVID-19 pandemic and enhancement of personal hygiene practices. An increase in identified and registered small outbreaks caused by Salmonella sp. comparing to the median of the number of those outbreaks from 2014-2016 could partly be a result of routine surveillance enhancement after introducing System for Registry of Epidemiological Interviews (pol. SRWE).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foodborne Diseases , Humans , Infant , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Urban Population
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 39(3): e00067922, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275431

ABSTRACT

Vaccination campaigns played a crucial role in reducing the incidence of COVID-19. However, a scant number of studies evaluated the impact of vaccination on case fatality rates (CFRs), including in Brazil. Our study aimed to compare CFRs according to vaccination status among subjects living in Arapongas (Paraná State, Brazil), considering the age composition of the population. Several strategies adopted by the Arapongas City Hall to minimize the spread of the virus were also elaborated upon. We accessed the 2021 database of the Arapongas Municipal Health Department, in which a total of 16,437 confirmed cases and 425 deaths were reported. The CFR was calculated as the ratio between COVID-19 deaths and the number of confirmed cases. Differences in age composition between unvaccinated and fully vaccinated individuals were observed in our study. Considering that CFR is a crude indicator and is highly sensitive to the age composition of the population, we adopted the average age distribution of confirmed cases among the three vaccination statuses (unvaccinated, partially, and fully) as a standard age distribution. The age-standardized CFR for unvaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 4.55% and 2.42%, respectively. Fully vaccinated individuals showed lower age-specific CFRs in all age groups above 60 years than unvaccinated populations. Our findings strengthen the role of vaccination as a critical measure for preventing deaths among infected people and is particularly important to the ongoing reassessment of public health interventions and policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Brazil , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Age Distribution
7.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 604-615, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274466

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of yersiniosis in Poland in 2018-2020 and compare it to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To assess the epidemiological situation of yersiniosis in Poland, data from individual case reports prepared by Sanitary Epidemiological Stations as part of routine epidemiological surveillance were used. Incidence, number of cases and data on hospitalizations by voivodship included in the bulletins "Infectious Diseases and Poisons in Poland" for 2015-2020 were also used. RESULTS: In 2018-2020, a total number of 542 cases of yersiniosis were registered, including 456 intestinal and 86 extraintestinal forms. The incidence in 2018 was 0.53/100,000 in 2019 0.59/100,000 and in 2020 0.29/100,000. The number of cases in 2020 compared to 2019 decreased by 52%, and compared to 2018 by 45.8%. The percentage of hospitalizations in each year was at a similar level of 65.5% in 2018, 62.4% in 2019, and 60% in 2020. The highest incidence was noted in the 0-4 age group at 44.7% of cases in 2018, 42.9% in 2019 and 55.6% in 2020, respectively (all cases of the intestinal form). The predominant species was Y. enterocolitica in both intestinal and extraintestinal forms. The most common serotype was serotype O:3, which was identified in 34 isolates in 2018, 43 isolates in 2019 and 9 isolates in 2020. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Since 2009, Poland has had a decreasing trend in the incidence of yersiniosis. In 2020, both Poland and Europe saw a sharp decline in the number of cases compared to previous years. This is a result of the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, during which many measures were introduced to limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which may also have affected the number of other infections. Although the numbers of cases and incidence of yersiniosis among children under the age of 5 are the highest compared to other age groups, the highest number of hospitalizations was reported in the 10-19 age group, which most likely reflects the decreasing number of laboratory tests ordered on an outpatient basis with age and the significant underreporting of cases in this and older age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Yersinia Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Yersinia Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Urban Population
8.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 574-590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272155

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2020 compared with previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The epidemiological situation was assessed on the basis of data provided to the Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of the NIPH NIH-NRI by sanitary-epidemiological stations through the EpiBaza System and the Registry of Epidemic Outbreaks System (ROE), as well as on the basis of data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases and Poisoning in Poland in 2020" (NIPH NIH-NRI, GIS, Warsaw, 2021) and from information received from laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and data from the Demographic Research Department of the Statistics Poland. RESULTS: In Poland in 2020, in the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance registered a total of 5,470 cases of salmonellosis, 5,302 cases of intestinal salmonellosis, and the remaining 168 cases of extra-intestinal salmonellosis. The incidence per 100,000 population was 14.3 for total salmonellosis, 13.8 for intestinal salmonellosis and 0.44 for extra-intestinal salmonellosis. Sanitary-epidemiological stations registered 5,349 confirmed cases and 121 probable cases of salmonellosis. Due to intestinal salmonellosis, 63.9% of all patients were hospitalized, while for extra-intestinal salmonellosis 153 patients or 91.1% of cases, were hospitalized. The increase in the number of salmonellosis cases in 2020 started in June, while the peak of the incidence was in August. Among the voivodeships, the highest incidence of salmonellosis was registered in the Podkarpackie voivodeship 33.3/100,000 population, the lowest in Zachodniopomorskie 6.1/100,000 population. Cases in the 0-4 age group accounted for 45.2% of all salmonellosis cases in 2020. Among extra-intestinal salmonellosis, 63.1% were people aged 60+. Sanitary-epidemiological stations registered 131 food poisoning outbreaks caused by Salmonella bacilli in the ROE system, 108 of these outbreaks were caused by the Enteritidis serotype. In 2020, the most common serotypes were S. Enteritidis 70% of all recorded salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium 1.9%, and S. Infantis 0.54%. There were 9 deaths due to Salmonella infection. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated restrictions introduced in the country, as well as increased hygiene through more frequent washing and disinfection of hands, could have contributed to a reduction of almost 69% in the number of salmonellosis cases registered in 2020, in Poland, compared to 2019. This is a 82% decrease in relation to 2018. There was also a decrease in the number of food poisoning outbreaks caused by Salmonella bacilli, while at the same time their percentage in the total number of outbreaks increased. On the one hand, the implemented restrictions could have had an impact on the decrease in the number of cases and outbreaks, on the other hand, worse access to medical care and diagnostics, most likely deepened the underestimation of these cases in the country observed for years, and distorted the real picture of the situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Salmonella Food Poisoning , Salmonella Infections , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Incidence , Rural Population , Urban Population
9.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4)2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of giardiasis in Poland in year 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the epidemiological situation of giardiasis in Poland in 2020 was performed on the basis of aggregated data from the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland" for the years 2006-2020, data on individual cases collected for the purposes of epidemiological surveillance in the EpiBaza system, and data from food-borne outbreak investigations recorded in the Registry of Epidemic Outbreaks (ROE). RESULTS: The number of new cases of giardiasis reported in Poland in 2020 amounted to 358 cases (incidence rate 0.9 per 100,000 population) and was about 2 times lower than in 2019 (784 cases) and 2.5 times lower than in 2018 (928 cases). In 2020, there was a further decrease in the number of registered cases, but it was much more pronounced than in the preceding years. As in previous years, no deaths from giardiasis were recorded. The downward trend in hospitalizations continued and in 2020 they accounted for approximately 12.6% of all cases, in 2019 the percentage was 15.2% and in 2018 - 19.4%. Most cases met the definition of a confirmed case, with 1 patient meeting the criteria of a probable case. In 2020, 6 outbreaks of giardiasis were reported, which is a decrease compared to 2019 (12 outbreaks) and thus means a reversal of the upward trend occurring at least since 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Data for 2020 should be interpreted taking into account the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, which could have resulted in changes in long-term trends, but in particular contributed to a strong decrease in the number of cases not only of giardiasis, but also of other infectious diseases. In 2020, almost all EU/EEA countries reported a decrease in the incidence of giardiasis similar to that in Poland. However, as in 2019, in 2020 Poland differed from other EU/EEA countries in terms of incidence by age and sex.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Giardiasis , Humans , Infant , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Incidence , Urban Population , Rural Population
10.
Drug Discov Ther ; 17(1): 60-65, 2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265830

ABSTRACT

The present retrospective study aimed to examine the real-world data regarding time-dependent changes in the age distribution of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as the severity and infectivity in a regional core hospital in Japan. Patients with COVID-19 who visited the fever outpatient branch in Takagi Hospital during phase I (May 1 to December 31, 2021), and during phase II (January 1 to April 30, 2022) were evaluated. The age distribution of outpatients and the characteristics of inpatients aged > 75 years were compared between phases I and II. The age distribution of outpatients shifted from the older generation in phase I to the younger generation in phase II (p < 0.01). Disease severity might be reduced in a time-dependent manner with a decrease in the hospitalization rate (phase I: 145/368 (39.4%); phase II: 104/1496 (7.0%); p < 0.01) and mortality rate (phase I: 10/368 (2.7%); phase II: 7/1496 (0.5%); p < 0.01). The number of patients increased in phase II (374.0/month) compared to that in phase I (36.8/month). Regarding the older inpatients, the disease severity of COVID-19 and hospitalization days were reduced in phase II compared to those in phase I (p < 0.01, each). In conclusion, the present study suggests a change in the age distribution of patients with COVID-19, a decrease in toxicity, and an increase in infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Age Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Japan , Hospitals , Patient Acuity
11.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 561-567, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252503

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mumps is an acute, generalized viral disease whose source of infection is the infected person. In 2003, vaccination against mumps became compulsory in Poland, performed according to a twodose scheme. The combined MMR vaccine (against measles, mumps and rubella) was introduced as part of the Protective Vaccination Program (PVP), which influenced the number of cases in Poland. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the epidemiological indicators of mumps in Poland in 2020 compared to previous years. METHODS: The analysis of the epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2020 was based on the interpretation of data from the bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". RESULTS: In 2020, 582 cases of mumps were registered in Poland. The total incidence was 1.5 per 100,000 inhabitants and was lower compared to 2019. The highest incidence was 2.0 per 100,000 inhabitants were registered in the Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship and the lowest - 0.7 in the Dolnoslaskie Voivodeship. The highest incidence (24.6/100,000) was recorded in children aged 5-9 years. The incidence of men (1.8/100,000) was higher than that of women (1.2/100,000). In 2020, 6 patients were hospitalized in Poland due to mumps, which was less than in 2019 (22 patients). The level of vaccination against mumps in children aged 3 was lower by 0.7 percentage points compared to 2019 and amounted to 91.9% across Poland. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, there was a decrease in the number of mumps cases compared to the previous year. The lower incidence may have been the result of a reduction in mumps virus transmission due to a change in population health behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the epidemiological threat, the functioning of nurseries, kindergartens and schools was also temporarily suspended, which resulted in a reduction in the incidence of mumps in younger age groups, which are the main group of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mumps , Child , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , Mumps/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mass Vaccination , Rural Population , Urban Population , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Incidence
12.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 568-573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. The characteristic feature of this virus is very high visibility of 90-95%. The most common connection is direct contact with the disease or via droplets. The United States was the first country to introduce a universal, population-based childhood varicella vaccination program in 1995. In its 25 years of implementation, this program has significantly reduced the burden of chickenpox. There was a more than 97% reduction in varicella incidence and a 90% reduction in varicella-related hospitalizations and deaths, the highest (99%) in those under the age of 20 (born after starting the vaccination programme). Chickenpox is very common in Poland. In recent years, starting from 2002, there has been an upward trend in the incidence of chickenpox, except for 2020. In 2020, a decrease in the number of cases was recorded. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2020 and to compare it with the situation in previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2020 was based on the results of the analysis of aggregate data published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020." and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". In addition, recommendations from the Protective Vaccination Program for 2020 were used. RESULTS: In 2020, 71,567 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland, i.e. 39.6% less than in the previous year. The incidence of chickenpox in 2020 was 186.6 per 100,000 and was lower than in 2019. The lowest incidence was recorded in the Swietokrzyskie Voivodship - 118.5/100,000, while the highest in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship - 263.5/100,000. Most cases concerned children aged 0-4 years (36,661). The incidence of chickenpox in men was higher than in women, and in rural areas higher than in urban dwellers. Hospitalization due to chickenpox in 2020 covered 1,368 people, which accounted for 0.51% of the total number of registered cases. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, there was a decrease in the number of cases of chickenpox compared to the previous year. The lower incidence may have been the result of reduced transmission of the varicella virus due to changes in the health behavior of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic (isolation measures and the introduction of a lock down throughout Poland limiting the activity of the population).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Child , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mass Vaccination , Disease Outbreaks , Registries , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Rural Population , Urban Population , Incidence
13.
Pediatrics ; 151(3)2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth in the United States. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised concerns that suicide rates will increase. The National Fatality Review-Case Reporting System documents circumstances of child deaths reviewed by multidisciplinary teams. In April 2021, a question asking whether COVID-19 directly or indirectly impacted the child's death was added to the National Fatality Review-Case Reporting System. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to suicide deaths among youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This exploratory study of youth aged 10 to 17 years occurring during 2020 to 2021 compared demographic and incident characteristics, life stressors, social/mental health histories, and pandemic-related disruptions to school, health, and mental health for COVID-19-impacted suicides and non-COVID-19-impacted suicides using descriptive statistics. χ2 statistics assessed statistical significance in differences across the 2 groups. RESULTS: A total of 552 suicides were included for study. Higher proportions of COVID-19-impacted suicides (n = 144) were by hanging (51% vs 40%) and occurred in suburban areas (57% vs 45%) compared with non-COVID-19-impacted suicides (n = 408). COVID-19-impacted youth also experienced significantly more isolation (60% vs 14%), school problems (42% vs 19%), depression (43% vs 24%), and/or anxiety disorder (23% vs 12%) diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of youth experienced significant effects of the pandemic and associated measures implemented to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. They were proportionally more likely to experience isolation, school and mental health care disruptions, behavior changes, and severe emotional distress; all signs of increased risk for suicide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Child , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , Age Distribution , Emotions
14.
Health Care Manag Sci ; 26(2): 301-312, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209415

ABSTRACT

Low rates of vaccination, emergence of novel variants of SARS-CoV-2, and increasing transmission relating to seasonal changes and relaxation of mitigation measures leave many US communities at risk for surges of COVID-19 that might strain hospital capacity, as in previous waves. The trajectories of COVID-19 hospitalizations differ across communities depending on their age distributions, vaccination coverage, cumulative incidence, and adoption of risk mitigating behaviors. Yet, existing predictive models of COVID-19 hospitalizations are almost exclusively focused on national- and state-level predictions. This leaves local policymakers in urgent need of tools that can provide early warnings about the possibility that COVID-19 hospitalizations may rise to levels that exceed local capacity. In this work, we develop a framework to generate simple classification rules to predict whether COVID-19 hospitalization will exceed the local hospitalization capacity within a 4- or 8-week period if no additional mitigating strategies are implemented during this time. This framework uses a simulation model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 hospitalizations in the US to train classification decision trees that are robust to changes in the data-generating process and future uncertainties. These generated classification rules use real-time data related to hospital occupancy and new hospitalizations associated with COVID-19, and when available, genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. We show that these classification rules present reasonable accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (all ≥ 80%) in predicting local surges in hospitalizations under numerous simulated scenarios, which capture substantial uncertainties over the future trajectories of COVID-19. Our proposed classification rules are simple, visual, and straightforward to use in practice by local decision makers without the need to perform numerical computations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Age Distribution
15.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Firearms cause the most suicides (60%) and homicides (36%) in the US. The high lethality and availability of firearms make them a particularly dangerous method of attempted violence. The aim of this study was to study US trends in firearm suicide and homicide mortality and years of potential life lost before age 75 (YPLL-75) between 1981 and 2020. METHODS: Data in this cross-sectional study were collected between 1981 and 2020 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s WISQARS database for fatal injury and violence. Data from the US population were considered for all age groups and were divided by racial groups and sex for analysis. RESULTS: Those most heavily impacted by firearm homicide were Black, with homicide age-adjusted death rates almost seven times higher than White people. A spike in firearm homicide deaths occurred between 2019 and 2020, with Black people having the largest increase (39%). White people had the highest rates of firearm suicide, and suicide death rates increased between 2019 and 2020. Increases in homicide and suicide YPLL-75 between 2011 and 2020 had most heavily impacted minority populations. Men had a firearm suicide rate that was seven times higher than women, and a firearm homicide rate that was five times higher than women. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Black and White men were most impacted by firearm deaths, and that firearm homicide and suicide rates increased between 2019 and 2020 for all racial groups except Asian/Pacific Islander. Our results suggest that prevention efforts should focus on specific demographic factors and articulate the urgency to mitigate firearm-related deaths in the US.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Suicide , Wounds, Gunshot , Male , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Distribution , Sex Distribution , Homicide , Racial Groups
16.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 391-401, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205911

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of syphilis cases in Poland in 2020 in comparison to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the epidemiological situation was based on case-based data from reports of newly detected syphilis cases received from doctors and laboratories in 2020. Additionally aggregated data from MZ-56 reports on infectious diseases, infections and poisoning from 2014 to 2018 sent from Sanitary Inspections to NIPH NIH -NRI was used. Also, data about treatment patients in dermatology/venerology clinics in 2020 reported on MZ-14 forms and published in statistics bulletin on Ministry of Health on e-health system website (actually: https://e-zdrowie.gov.pl; https://cez.gov.pl) and NIPH NIH - NRI website were used. RESULTS: In 2020 in Poland 686 newly diagnosed syphilis cases were reported (diagnosis rate was 1.79 per 100,000), including 18 cases among non-Polish citizens. The frequency of newly detected syphilis cases decreased by 54.6% compared to the previous year and similar decreased 52.5% compared to the median in 2014-2018 years. The syphilis cases were most often detected in the age group between 20 and 39 years (68.9%) and among men (86.2%). On the other hand, places where syphilis cases are treated, reported 1,529 cases - less by 4% than in 2019 year, including 979 cases on early stage of syphilis. CONCLUSION: In 2020, the number of reported a newly detected syphilis cases decreased more than by half compared to the previous year, what is probably related to the COVID-19 pandemic and action taken to reduce it. A huge difference in some regions in Poland for diagnosis rates and not visible a significant decrease in the number of treated person, indicate on problem with reporting a newly diagnosed infections, as a main explanation about increasing observed in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syphilis , Male , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Incidence , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , Age Distribution , Disease Outbreaks , Urban Population , Rural Population
17.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 371-384, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205909

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Meningitis and/or encephalitis are one of the main infectious diseases of the nervous system. These diseases are most commonly caused by bacterial and viral etiological factors. In this publication, meningitis and/or encephalitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and those with a viral origin - in Poland, most often caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus - are presented in detail. In addition to epidemiological surveillance, immunoprophylaxis in the form of mandatory and recommended vaccinations is used in Poland to prevent these infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to to assess the epidemiological situation of meningitis and encephalitis in Poland, in 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To analyse the epidemiological situation of neuroinfections in Poland were used data sent to NIPH NIH - NRI by Voivodeship Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and "Protective vaccination in Poland in 2020" and individual epidemiological interviews registered in the EpiBaza system. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 831 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were registered in Poland. This is a decrease in incidence of up to 62.9% compared to 2019. For infections of bacterial etiology, including cases of neuroborreliosis (incidence of 2.40 per 100,000), the number of cases decreased by 60.4% (from 931 to 369). In the viral infection group, there was a 64.9% decrease (from 1,318 to 462 cases). Of all registered cases, 56% were infections with a viral etiology. Compared to 2019, the number of cases with an S. pneumoniae etiology decreased by 61.3% and for N. meningitidis by 41.1%. It is interesting to note that, in the case of H. influenzae, we can speak of a 20% increase in cases compared to the previous year. In addition, we can see a decrease in the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis - from 265 in 2019 to 158 in 2020 (a decrease of 40.4%). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a downward trend in incidence was shown for both bacterial and viral meningitis and/or encephalitis. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the introduction of restrictions on personto-person contact and various forms of activity, resulting in a reduction in pathogen transmission, were key to the significant reduction in the number of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases in 2020, but a reduction in the availability of medical facilities or the completeness of case reports due to the burden of anti-epidemic measures on the Sanitary Inspectorate cannot be excluded either. Only in the case of cases caused by H. influenzae was a slight increase observed compared to the previous year (12 versus 10 cases). Meningoencephalitis and/or encephalitis, due to its wide etiological range, poses a major challenge to the health care system, particularly in terms of correct clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis , Meningitis , Neisseria meningitidis , Humans , Infant , Poland/epidemiology , Age Distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Meningitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Registries
18.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Poland in 2020, including pertussis cases, was significantly influenced by the limitation of interpersonal contacts introduced to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. There was a reduction by more than half in the number of recorded pertussis cases, from 1,629 in 2019 to 753 in 2020. Pertussis is most dangerous for young children, however, it can get sick at any age, and the disease does not leave permanent immunity. Severe pertussis can also develop in the elderly, which may increase the risk of mortality. Adults usually have pertussis is mildly symptomatic and constitute an important reservoir of B. pertussis. The most effective strategy for the prevention of pertussis is still immunization of children in accordance with the Protective Vaccination Program, and in the case of adults, vaccination with the pertussis component in acellular form, repeated regularly every 10 years. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2020 compared to the situation in previous years, with particular emphasis on the assessment of the vaccination status of children against pertussis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland was performed on the basis of the results of the analysis of unit reports of pertussis registered in the NIPH NIH - NRI in the EpiBaza system and data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and the bulletin "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". RESULTS: In 2020, 753 cases of pertussis were registered. The incidence was 1.96 per 100,000 population and was lower compared to the incidence in 2019 (4.24). The highest incidence of pertussis occurred in the age group 0-4 years (9.9), and high in children and adolescents aged 5-9 years (5.1) and 10-14 years (6.0 per 100,000 population). About half of the cases concerned people over 15 years of age. In general, a higher incidence of women was observed than that of men, as well as a greater number of cases in cities than in rural areas. In 2020, among people suffering from pertussis, 206 people (i.e. 27%) required hospitalization. In 2020, one fatal case of the disease was reported to the epidemiological surveillance system. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: In Poland, in 2020, there was a decrease in the number of pertussis cases by more than a half compared to the previous year. Despite the decline in disease rates, pertussis remains a public health problem as immunization-induced immunity is not sustained throughout life. Increasing the number of people susceptible to pertussis may lead to compensatory epidemics in the future, therefore the highest possible level of vaccination of the population, >92-94%, should be maintained to prevent new cases of pertussis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Child , Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Urban Population , Rural Population , Age Distribution , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
19.
J Affect Disord ; 325: 453-458, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may unfavourably affect the mental health of individuals in various ways. Accordingly, the concern has been raised that national suicide rates will increase in the wake of the outbreak of the pandemic. METHODS: In the current study, we tested this conjecture in three age groups (<25; 25-64; ≥65) of the Hungarian total population and the male and female populations. In addition, we assessed whether the pandemic had different effects on counts of suicides committed by violent or non-violent methods. Finally, by comparing the monthly suicide rates in 2020 and the corresponding monthly rates in 2019, we also investigated the "pulling together" hypothesis that postulates that a temporary decrease in suicides may occur after large-scale catastrophic events. RESULTS: With regard to the total population only the suicide counts of individuals aged 25-64 rose significantly (p < 0.05) during the COVID months of 2020. Similar patterns, but at lower levels of significance (0.05 < p < 0.1), were found in those members of the total population aged 65 or older and among males aged between 25 and 64. Furthermore, we found that the number of violent suicides increased significantly (p < 0.05) during the COVID months. Finally, our results have not confirmed the existence of a "pulling together" phenomenon in association with the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary. LIMITATIONS: We used non-individual level data and were therefore unable to control suicide risk factors at the level of individuals. DISCUSSION: The number of suicides rose significantly in some subgroups of the Hungarian population during the COVID months of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hungary/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology
20.
Elife ; 92020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155738

ABSTRACT

As of 1 May 2020, there had been 6808 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 98 had died from the disease. The epidemic had been in decline since mid-March, with 308 cases confirmed nationally since 14 April. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19, such as the intensity and timing of public health interventions, will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. We describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April. We estimate that the effective reproduction number was likely below one in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that clinical demand would remain below capacity thresholds over the forecast period (from mid-to-late April).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Forecasting , Geography, Medical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
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