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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(Suppl_2): S127-S137, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the 1980s, life expectancy at birth (e0) in the United States has fallen steadily behind that of other high-income countries, widening the U.S. e0 disadvantage. We estimate how that disadvantage was affected by high mortality rates in 2020, the first full year of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We contrast male and female e0 in the United States and 18 peer countries for years 1980, 1995, 2010, 2019, and 2020. Using Arriaga decomposition, we show how differences in age-specific death rates have contributed to U.S. e0 disadvantages. RESULTS: In 2020, U.S. male and female e0 changed by -2.33 (-2.50, -2.15) and -1.69 (-1.85, -1.53) years, respectively, whereas corresponding changes in peer countries averaged -0.67 (-0.82, -0.51) and -0.50 (-0.65, -0.35) years, respectively. This accelerated a longstanding and widening U.S. e0 disadvantage relative to its peers, which increased from 3.49 to 5.15 years in males and from 2.78 to 3.97 years in females between 2019 and 2020. Whereas deaths before age 65 accounted for 55% and 40% of declines in U.S. male and female life expectancy, respectively, they accounted for only 24% and 11% of the respective declines in peer countries. DISCUSSION: U.S. life expectancy declines in 2020 were larger than in peer countries and involved deaths across a broader age range, particularly among young and middle-aged adults. Both the longstanding U.S. e0 disadvantage and acute losses of life in 2020 signal the need for systemic policy changes in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Humans , Life Expectancy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Peer Group , United States/epidemiology
3.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27422, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread, easy-to-use risk models that predict hospital mortality can assist in clinical decision making and triage. We aimed to develop a risk score model for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was robust across hospitals and used clinical factors that are readily available and measured standardly across hospitals.In this retrospective observational study, we developed a risk score model using data collected by trained abstractors for patients in 20 diverse hospitals across the state of Michigan (Mi-COVID19) who were discharged between March 5, 2020 and August 14, 2020. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during hospitalization or were discharged with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) were included. We employed an iterative forward selection approach to consider the inclusion of 145 potential risk factors available at hospital presentation. Model performance was externally validated with patients from 19 hospitals in the Mi-COVID19 registry not used in model development. We shared the model in an easy-to-use online application that allows the user to predict in-hospital mortality risk for a patient if they have any subset of the variables in the final model.Two thousand one hundred and ninety-three patients in the Mi-COVID19 registry met our inclusion criteria. The derivation and validation sets ultimately included 1690 and 398 patients, respectively, with mortality rates of 19.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The average age of participants in the study after exclusions was 64 years old, and the participants were 48% female, 49% Black, and 87% non-Hispanic. Our final model includes the patient's age, first recorded respiratory rate, first recorded pulse oximetry, highest creatinine level on day of presentation, and hospital's COVID-19 mortality rate. No other factors showed sufficient incremental model improvement to warrant inclusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the derivation and validation sets were .796 (95% confidence interval, .767-.826) and .829 (95% confidence interval, .782-.876) respectively.We conclude that the risk of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients can be reliably estimated using a few factors, which are standardly measured and available to physicians very early in a hospital encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26933, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is presently unknown whether imported cases of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have different characteristics when compared with local cases. To compare the clinical characteristics of local cases of COVID-19 in China compared with those imported from abroad.This was a retrospective study of confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted at the Beijing Ditan Fever Emergency Department between February 29th, 2020, and March 27th, 2020. The clinical characteristics of the patients were compared between local and imported cases.Compared with local cases, the imported cases were younger (27.3 ±â€Š11.7 vs. 43.6 ±â€Š22.2 years, P < .001), had a shorter interval from disease onset to admission (1.0 (0.0-2.0) vs 4.0 (2.0-7.0) days, P < .001), lower frequencies of case contact (17.4% vs 94.1%, P < .001), fever (39.1% vs 82.4%, P < .001), cough (33.3% vs 51.0%, P = .03), dyspnea (1.9% vs 11.8%, P = .01), fatigue (7.5% vs. 27.5%, P = 0.001), muscle ache (4.7% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.001), and comorbidities (P < .05). The imported cases were less severe than the local cases, with 40.4% versus 5.9% mild cases, 2.8% versus 15.7% severe cases, and no critical cases (P < .001). The length of hospital stay was longer in imported cases than in local cases (32.3 ±â€Š14.5 vs 21.7 ±â€Š11.2 days, P < .001). The imported cases showed smaller biochemical perturbations than the local cases. More imported cases had no sign of pneumonia at computed tomography (45.0% vs 14.9%, P = .001), and none had pleural effusion (0% vs 14.9%, P < .001).Compared with local cases, the imported cases of COVID-19 presented with milder disease and less extensive symptoms and signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
7.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 535-544, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the general population, the risk of severe COVID-19 is associated with old age, male sex, hypertension, obesity and chronic diseases. Chronic lung diseases are listed as additional risk factors for hospitalization and ICU admission. The purpose of this review is to define whether chronic lung diseases, such as bronchiectasis and interstitial diseases, represent a risk for a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients affected by common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary antibody defect. RECENT FINDINGS: CVID patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported since the beginning of the pandemic with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to mild/moderate and severe COVID-19. The meta-analysis of 88 CVID cases described in large cohorts and case reports demonstrated that CVID patients with chronic lung involvement have an increased risk for severe COVID-19 in comparison to CVID without lung diseases (50 vs. 28%, relative risk 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.04--2.92, P = 0.043). Differently from the general population, age and metabolic comorbidities did not represent a risk factor for severe course in this patient's population. SUMMARY: Underlying chronic lung diseases but not age represent a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in CVID. Prompt therapeutic intervention should be adopted in SARS-CoV-2 positive CVID patients with chronic lung diseases independently of their age.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Age Factors , Bronchiectasis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24277, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With conflicting information about COVID-19, the general public may be uncertain about how to proceed in terms of precautionary behavior and decisions about whether to return to activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. METHODS: National survey data were obtained from the Democracy Fund + UCLA Nationscape Project, an ongoing cross-sectional weekly survey. The sample was provided by Lucid, a web-based market research platform. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) COVID-19-related concerns, (2) precautionary behaviors, and (3) willingness to return to activity. Key independent variables included age, gender, race or ethnicity, education, household income, political party support, religion, news consumption, number of medication prescriptions, perceived COVID-19 status, and timing of peak COVID-19 infections by state. RESULTS: The data included 125,508 responses from web-based surveys conducted over 20 consecutive weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic (comprising approximately 6250 adults per week), between March 19 and August 5, 2020, approved by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Institutional Review Board for analysis. A substantial number of participants were not willing to return to activity even after the restrictions were lifted. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions indicated the following groups had different outcomes (all P<.001): individuals aged ≥65 years (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.93-2.18; precautionary behaviors: OR 2.38, 95% CI 2.02-2.80; return to activity: OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46 vs 18-40 years); men (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81; return to activity: OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.88-2.12 vs women); taking ≥4 medications (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54; precautionary behaviors: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.555; return to activity: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.81 vs <3 medications); Republicans (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.38-0.42; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50; return to activity: OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.09-2.36 vs Democrats); and adults who reported having COVID-19 (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.39; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81; return to activity: OR 3.99, 95% CI 3.48-4.58 vs those who did not). CONCLUSIONS: Participants' age, party affiliation, and perceived COVID-19 status were strongly associated with their COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. Future studies need to develop and test targeted messaging approaches and consider political partisanship to encourage preventative behaviors and willingness to return to activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Politics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Cancer Cell ; 38(2): 161-163, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130226

ABSTRACT

Two recent Lancet and Lancet Oncology papers report that cancer patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have higher mortality rates. Common independent factors associated with increased risk of death were older age, history of smoking status, number of comorbidities, more advanced performance status, and active cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i37-i44, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of COVID-19 patients is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. As with other pathogens, presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 may vary, depending on sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients by age/gender and to assess whether the diagnostic performance of these symptoms varied according to these variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross-sectional study involving primary care patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in Lyon, France. Among patients who tested positive, we examined whether there was an association between age/gender and various symptoms. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic performance of the most specific symptoms (smell/taste disorder). RESULTS: Among 1543 consecutive patients, 253 tested positive (16%). There were significant age/gender-related differences in symptoms. In middle-aged women, the diagnostic performance of smell/taste disorders were AUC = 0.65 [95%CI 0.59-0.71] and PPV = 72% [95%CI 53-87%], that is higher than in the entire sample (smell/taste disorders: AUC = 0.59 [95%CI 0.57-0.62] and PPV = 57% [95%CI 47-67%]. In contrast, the negative predictive values of smell/taste disorders were similar in both groups (85% [95%CI 81-89%] for middle-age women and 86% [95%CI 85-88%] for the entire sample). CONCLUSION: We found significant age/gender-related differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. Screening strategies based on smell/taste disorders performed better in middle-aged women, but could not ensure a diagnosis of COVID-19 in any subgroup of patients. Future diagnostic strategies should use age/gender differentiated approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Self Report , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
15.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 55(7): 545, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085362
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 193, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: School contacts were more frequent in controls than in cases (OR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9), while household contacts were higher in cases (OR 5.09; 95% CI: 2.2-12.0). In both cases and controls, school contacts were significantly less frequent, while on the contrary household contacts seemed to be more frequent in nursery school children compared to primary school or middle/high school children. A multivariate logistic regression showed that the probability of being positive to SARS-CoV-2 was significantly lower in children who had school contacts or who had flu symptoms compared to children who had household contacts. Results showed a 30.6% secondary attack rate for household contacts. CONCLUSION: In our study population, the two most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection were school and home contacts. The risk of being positive was 5 times lower in children who had school contacts than in children who had household contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1805-1809, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies against coronavirus disease-2019 in post-infection and post-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June, 1 to July 31, 2021 at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised subjects of either gender in whom immunogenicity was checked 35 days post-vaccination and 90 days post-infection. Correlation with age and gender was checked. Specimens were collected and investigated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein antibodies by consuming electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the total 256 patients enrolled, 70(27.34%) were included; 49(69%) males and 21(29.6%) females. The overall mean age was 44±7.75 years. Among 30(42.8%) patients with positive polymerase chain reaction test, the mean time between the positive test and antibody screening was 90±30 days. Among the 40(57.2%) vaccinated individuals, the time between vaccination and antibody screening was 35±9.74 days. Overall, 68(97%) patients revealed robust positive findings to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike proteins antibodies >50IU/mL. Male subjects had significantly higher immunogenic response compared to females (p=0.001), and immunogenicity decreased with advancing age (p<0.001). Also, post-vaccinated patients' antibody response was significant compared to post-infection patients' response (p=0.001). Conclusion: Majority of the patients had significantly higher antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. Males and younger individuals developed a significant humoral immunity compared to females and the elderly.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Age Factors , Sex Factors
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By forcing closure of schools, curtailing outpatient services, and imposing strict social distancing, the COVID-19 pandemic has abruptly affected the daily life of millions worldwide, with still unclear consequences for mental health. This study aimed to evaluate if and how child and adolescent psychiatric visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) changed during the pandemic lockdown, which started in Italy on February 24, 2020. METHODS: We examined all ED visits by patients under 18 years of age in the 7 weeks prior to February 24, 2020, and in the subsequent 8 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown at two urban university hospitals, in Turin and Rome, Italy. ED visits during the corresponding periods of 2019 served as a comparison using Poisson regression modeling. The clinician's decision to hospitalize or discharge home the patient after the ED visit was examined as an index of clinical severity. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a 72.0% decrease in the number of all pediatric ED visits (3,395) compared with the corresponding period in 2019 (12,128), with a 46.2% decrease in psychiatric visits (50 vs 93). The mean age of psychiatric patients was higher in the COVID-19 period (15.7 vs 14.1 years). No significant changes were found in hospitalization rate or in the prevalence distribution of the primary reason for the psychiatric ED visit (suicidality, anxiety/mood disorders, agitation). CONCLUSIONS: In the first 8 weeks of the COVID-19-induced social lockdown, the number of child and adolescent psychiatric ED visits significantly decreased, with an increase in patient age. This decrease does not appear to be explained by severity-driven self-selection and might be due to a reduction in psychiatric emergencies or to the implementation of alternative ways of managing acute psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Education, Distance , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 177, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053937

ABSTRACT

To date, information on COVID-19 long-term post-recovery sequelae in children and adolescents remains scarce. A retrospective descriptive cohort study was performed by collecting data on 92 patients (age ≤ 18 years). All were evaluated during a face-to-face visit following a specially designed post-COVID-19 symptom assessment protocol at the following stage: 1-3 months after COVID-19 onset. Among the 92 children, 45 (49%) were completely free of any COVID-19-related symptoms, while 47 (51%) reported persistence of at least one symptom, in particular tiredness, loss of taste and/or smell and headaches. The most common post-acute COVID-19 clinical features were noted in children aged between 10 and 18 years. A detailed multidisciplinary follow-up of patients with COVID-19 seems relevant, whatever the severity of the symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
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