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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1015-1019, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707230

ABSTRACT

On March 24, 2020, the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDOH) was notified of a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an employee at a meat processing facility (facility A) and initiated an investigation to isolate the employee and identify and quarantine contacts. On April 2, when 19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees, enhanced testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was implemented, so that any employee with a COVID-19-compatible sign or symptom (e.g., fever, cough, or shortness of breath) could receive a test from a local health care facility. By April 11, 369 COVID-19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees; on April 12, facility A began a phased closure* and did not reopen during the period of investigation (March 16-April 25, 2020). At the request of SDDOH, a CDC team arrived on April 15 to assist with the investigation. During March 16-April 25, a total of 929 (25.6%) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were diagnosed among 3,635 facility A employees. At the outbreak's peak, an average of 67 cases per day occurred. An additional 210 (8.7%) cases were identified among 2,403 contacts of employees with diagnosed COVID-19. Overall, 48 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, including 39 employees and nine contacts. Two employees died; no contacts died. Attack rates were highest among department-groups where employees tended to work in proximity (i.e., <6 feet [2 meters]) to one another on the production line. Cases among employees and their contacts declined to approximately 10 per day within 7 days of facility closure. SARS-CoV-2 can spread rapidly in meat processing facilities because of the close proximity of workstations and prolonged contact between employees (1,2). Facilities can reduce this risk by implementing a robust mitigation program, including engineering and administrative controls, consistent with published guidelines (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Meat-Packing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Card Fail ; 26(7): 626-632, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome with high rates of mortality, and there is a need for easily obtainable markers to provide prognostic information. We sought to determine whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) on hospital presentation provides prognostic information, specifically related to death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with COVID-19 who had an ECG at or near hospital admission. Clinical characteristics and ECG variables were manually abstracted from the electronic health record and first ECG. Our primary outcome was death. THERE WERE: 756 patients who presented to a large New York City teaching hospital with COVID-19 who underwent an ECG. The mean age was 63.3 ± 16 years, 37% were women, 61% of patients were nonwhite, and 57% had hypertension; 90 (11.9%) died. In a multivariable logistic regression that included age, ECG, and clinical characteristics, the presence of one or more atrial premature contractions (odds ratio [OR] 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.36, P = .01), a right bundle branch block or intraventricular block (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-5.18, P = .002), ischemic T-wave inversion (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.56-7.80, P = .002), and nonspecific repolarization (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.27-4.21, P = .006) increased the odds of death. ST elevation was rare (n = 5 [0.7%]). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with ECG findings of both left-sided heart disease (atrial premature contractions, intraventricular block, repolarization abnormalities) and right-sided disease (right bundle branch block) have higher odds of death. ST elevation at presentation was rare.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bundle-Branch Block/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Electrocardiography/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Bundle-Branch Block/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Blood ; 136(4): 489-500, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704282

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated D-dimer levels. Early reports describe high venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rates, but data are limited. This multicenter retrospective study describes the rate and severity of hemostatic and thrombotic complications of 400 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients (144 critically ill) primarily receiving standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. Coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared between patients with and without coagulation-associated complications. Multivariable logistic models examined the utility of these markers in predicting coagulation-associated complications, critical illness, and death. The radiographically confirmed VTE rate was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.3), and the overall thrombotic complication rate was 9.5% (95% CI, 6.8-12.8). The overall and major bleeding rates were 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9-7.3) and 2.3% (95% CI, 1.0-4.2), respectively. In the critically ill, radiographically confirmed VTE and major bleeding rates were 7.6% (95% CI, 3.9-13.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.4-10.7), respectively. Elevated D-dimer at initial presentation was predictive of coagulation-associated complications during hospitalization (D-dimer >2500 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio [OR] for thrombosis, 6.79 [95% CI, 2.39-19.30]; adjusted OR for bleeding, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.01-12.66]), critical illness, and death. Additional markers at initial presentation predictive of thrombosis during hospitalization included platelet count >450 × 109/L (adjusted OR, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.27-9.97]), C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 mg/L (adjusted OR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.26-5.86]), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >40 mm/h (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.07-6.51]). ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than in those without. DIC, clinically relevant thrombocytopenia, and reduced fibrinogen were rare and were associated with significant bleeding manifestations. Given the observed bleeding rates, randomized trials are needed to determine any potential benefit of intensified anticoagulant prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/therapy
5.
Radiology ; 296(2): E46-E54, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697192

ABSTRACT

Background Despite its high sensitivity in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a screening population, the chest CT appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia is thought to be nonspecific. Purpose To assess the performance of radiologists in the United States and China in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia at chest CT. Materials and Methods In this study, 219 patients with positive COVID-19, as determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and abnormal chest CT findings, were retrospectively identified from seven Chinese hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 6 to February 20, 2020. Two hundred five patients with positive respiratory pathogen panel results for viral pneumonia and CT findings consistent with or highly suspicious for pneumonia, according to original radiologic interpretation within 7 days of each other, were identified from Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, RI. Three radiologists from China reviewed all chest CT scans (n = 424) blinded to RT-PCR findings to differentiate COVID-19 from viral pneumonia. A sample of 58 age-matched patients was randomly selected and evaluated by four radiologists from the United States in a similar fashion. Different CT features were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results For all chest CT scans (n = 424), the accuracy of the three radiologists from China in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia was 83% (350 of 424), 80% (338 of 424), and 60% (255 of 424). In the randomly selected sample (n = 58), the sensitivities of three radiologists from China and four radiologists from the United States were 80%, 67%, 97%, 93%, 83%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. The corresponding specificities of the same readers were 100%, 93%, 7%, 100%, 93%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Compared with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia was more likely to have a peripheral distribution (80% vs 57%, P < .001), ground-glass opacity (91% vs 68%, P < .001), fine reticular opacity (56% vs 22%, P < .001), and vascular thickening (59% vs 22%, P < .001), but it was less likely to have a central and peripheral distribution (14% vs 35%, P < .001), pleural effusion (4% vs 39%, P < .001), or lymphadenopathy (3% vs 10%, P = .002). Conclusion Radiologists in China and in the United States distinguished coronavirus disease 2019 from viral pneumonia at chest CT with moderate to high accuracy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Competence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists/standards , Adult , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
Radiology ; 296(2): E41-E45, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697187

ABSTRACT

Some patients with positive chest CT findings may present with negative results of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, the authors present chest CT findings from five patients with COVID-19 infection who had initial negative RT-PCR results. All five patients had typical imaging findings, including ground-glass opacity (five patients) and/or mixed ground-glass opacity and mixed consolidation (two patients). After isolation for presumed COVID-19 pneumonia, all patients were eventually confirmed to have COVID-19 infection by means of repeated swab tests. A combination of repeated swab tests and CT scanning may be helpful for individuals with a high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection but negative findings at RT-PCR screening.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1015-1019, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696738

ABSTRACT

On March 24, 2020, the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDOH) was notified of a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an employee at a meat processing facility (facility A) and initiated an investigation to isolate the employee and identify and quarantine contacts. On April 2, when 19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees, enhanced testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was implemented, so that any employee with a COVID-19-compatible sign or symptom (e.g., fever, cough, or shortness of breath) could receive a test from a local health care facility. By April 11, 369 COVID-19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees; on April 12, facility A began a phased closure* and did not reopen during the period of investigation (March 16-April 25, 2020). At the request of SDDOH, a CDC team arrived on April 15 to assist with the investigation. During March 16-April 25, a total of 929 (25.6%) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were diagnosed among 3,635 facility A employees. At the outbreak's peak, an average of 67 cases per day occurred. An additional 210 (8.7%) cases were identified among 2,403 contacts of employees with diagnosed COVID-19. Overall, 48 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, including 39 employees and nine contacts. Two employees died; no contacts died. Attack rates were highest among department-groups where employees tended to work in proximity (i.e., <6 feet [2 meters]) to one another on the production line. Cases among employees and their contacts declined to approximately 10 per day within 7 days of facility closure. SARS-CoV-2 can spread rapidly in meat processing facilities because of the close proximity of workstations and prolonged contact between employees (1,2). Facilities can reduce this risk by implementing a robust mitigation program, including engineering and administrative controls, consistent with published guidelines (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Meat-Packing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1026-1030, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694883

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is spread from person to person (1-3). Quarantine of exposed persons (contacts) for 14 days following their exposure reduces transmission (4-7). Contact tracing provides an opportunity to identify contacts, inform them of quarantine recommendations, and monitor their symptoms to promptly identify secondary COVID-19 cases (7,8). On March 12, 2020, Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) identified the first case of COVID-19 in the state. Because of resource constraints, including staffing, Maine CDC could not consistently monitor contacts, and automated technological solutions for monitoring contacts were explored. On May 14, 2020, Maine CDC began enrolling contacts of patients with reported COVID-19 into Sara Alert (MITRE Corporation, 2020),* an automated, web-based, symptom monitoring tool. After initial communication with Maine CDC staff members, enrolled contacts automatically received daily symptom questionnaires via their choice of e-mailed weblink, text message, texted weblink, or telephone call until completion of their quarantine. Epidemiologic investigations were conducted for enrollees who reported symptoms or received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. During May 14-June 26, Maine CDC enrolled 1,622 contacts of 614 COVID-19 patients; 190 (11.7%) eventually developed COVID-19, highlighting the importance of identifying, quarantining, and monitoring contacts of COVID-19 patients to limit spread. In Maine, symptom monitoring was not feasible without the use of an automated symptom monitoring tool. Using a tool that permitted enrollees to specify a method of symptom monitoring was well received, because the majority of persons monitored (96.4%) agreed to report using this system.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
11.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 659-664, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691351

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 64 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital from January 12, 2020 to February 28, 2020. There were 36 males and 28 females, aging from 44 to 85 years[median 68 (62, 72)]. Fifty-two patients (81%) had underlying comorbidities. The patients were divided into the death group (n=40) and the survival group (n=24) according to the treatment outcomes. In the death group, 24 were male, and 16 were female, aging from 49 to 85 years [median 69 (62, 72)], with 31 cases (78%) complicated with underlying diseases. In the survival group, there were 12 males and 12 females, aging from 44 to 82 years[median 66 (61,73)], with 21 cases (88%) with comorbidities. Clinical data of the two groups were collected and compared, including general information, laboratory examinations, imaging features and treatments. For normally distributed data, independent group t test was used; otherwise, Mann Whitney test was used to compare the variables. χ(2) test and Fisher exact test was used when analyzing categorical variables. Results: The median of creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB) in the death group was 19.0 (17.0,23.0) U/L, which was higher than that in the survival group 16.5 (13.5,19.6) U/L. The median level of cTnI in the death group was 0.03 (0.03, 0.07) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (0.02, 0.03) µg/L, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.007). The concentration of myoglobin in the death group was 79.5 (28.7, 189.0) µg/L, which was higher than 33.1 (25.7, 54.5) µg/L in the survival group. The level of D-dimer in the death group was 2.0 (0.6, 5.2) mg/L, which was higher than 0.7 (0.4, 2.0) mg/L in the survival group. The LDH level of the death group was 465.0 (337.5,606.5) U/L, which was higher than that of the survibal group, 341.0 (284.0,430.0) U/L, the difference being statistically significant (P=0.006). The concentration of alanine aminotransferase in the death group was 40.0 (30.0, 48.0) U/L, which was higher than 32.5 (24.0, 40.8) U/L in the survival group, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.047).Abnormal ECG was found in 16 cases (62%) in the death group, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (29%), the difference being statistically significant (P=0.024) .The main causes of death were severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n=20), acute heart failure(n=9), atrial fibrillation(n=3) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, n=3). Conclusions: ARDS caused by severe pneumonia and acute heart failure and atrial fibrillation caused by acute viral myocarditis were the main causes of death in severe COVID-19 patients. Early prevention of myocardial injury and treatment of acute viral myocarditis complicated with disease progression may provide insights into treatment and reduction of mortality in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 654-658, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691318

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and imaging features of patients with COVID-19 in Henan Province People's Hospital. Methods: The epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory and radiologic data of 49 patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to the department of infectious disease in our hospital from January 23, 2020 to February 22, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All analyses were performed with SPSS software, version 22.0. Results: A total of 49 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, of which 28 were ordinary, 16 were severe, and 5 were critical in disease severity. The average ages of the 3 groups were (46±19) , (60±16) and (68±20) years, with statistical differences (P=0.015). Common symptoms at the onset were fever (41 patients), dry cough (35 patients), and fatigue (21 patients). Epidemiological investigations found that 31 (63%) patients had direct or indirect contact with confirmed cases, and 14 cases were family clustered. Laboratory test results showed that the lymphocyte counts progressively decreased [0.85 (0.5-1.6) ×10(9)/L,0.51 (0.4-0.9) ×10(9)/L and 0.43 (0.47-0.61) ×10(9)/L, respectively], while LDH [162 (145.1-203.5) U/L,265 (195.3-288.4) U/L and 387 (312.3-415.5) U/L, respectively] and D-dimer [0.15 (0.09-0.40) mg/L,0.4 (0.2-0.6) mg/L and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) mg/L, respectively] were significantly increased (P<0.05), in all the 3 groups. The levels of IL-6 [(43.2±15.4) µg/L, (78.5±31.2) µg/L and (132.4±47.9) µg/L, respectively] and IL-10 [(3.5±3.2) µg/L, (7.6±6.4) µg/L and (9.4±7.2) µg/L respectively] increased significantly with disease severity. Pulmonary imaging of ordinary patients mainly showed unilateral or bilateral multiple infiltrates, while severe and critically ill patients showed diffuse exudation and consolidation of both lungs, and a few patients showed signs of "white lungs". Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 has a definite history of contact with diagnosed patients, and has family aggregation. The clinical symptoms were mainly fever and dry cough. Laboratory results showed that lymphocyte count, LDH, D-dimer, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels had a significant correlation with the severity of the disease, which could be used as markers for disease progression and prognosis. Pulmonary imaging showed unilateral or bilateral ground glass infiltration. In severe and critically ill patients, diffuse infiltration and consolidation or even "white lung" were present.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 648-653, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690994

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features and death-related risk factors of COVID-19. Methods: We enrolled 891 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University from December 2019 to February 2020, including 427 men and 464 women. Of the 891 cases, 582 were severe or critical, including 423(73%)severe and 159 (27%) critical cases. We compared the demographics, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics, treatments and prognosis data of the 582 severe patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the risk factors associated with death in COVID-19 patients. Results: The 582 severe patients included 293 males and 289 females, with a median age of 64(range 24 to 106). Sixty-three patients died, including 45 males and 18 females, with a median age of 71(range 37 to 90). The average onset time of the 582 patients was 8 days, of whom 461 (79%) had fever, 358 (62%) dry cough, 274 (47%) fatigue. There were 206 cases with shortness of breath (35%), 155 cases with expectoration (27%), 83 cases with muscle pain or joint pain (14%), 71 cases with diarrhea (12%), and 29 cases with headache (4%). Underlying diseases were present in 267 (46%) patients, most commonly hypertension (194, 33%), followed by diabetes (69, 12%), coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (37, 6%), tumor (18, 3%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (5, 1%). Chest CT showed bilateral lung involvement in 505 patients (87%). Upon admission, the median lymphocyte count of the 582 patients was 0.8(IQR, 0.6-1.1)×10(9)/L, the median D-dimer was 0.5 (IQR, 0.4- 0.8) mg/L, the median N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-proBNP) was 433 (IQR, 141- 806) pg/L, and the median creatinine was 70.3 (IQR, 56.9-87.9) µmol/L. The death group had a median lymphocyte count of 0.5 (0.4-0.8)×10(9)/L, D-dimer 1.1 (0.7-10.0)mg/L, N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursor 1479(893-5 087) pg/ml, and creatinine 89.9(67.1-125.3) µmol/L. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that increased D-dimer (OR: 1.095, 95% CI: 1.045-1.148, P<0.001), increased NT-proBNP (OR: 4.759, 95% CI: 2.437-9.291, P<0.001), and decreased lymphocyte count (OR: 0.180, 95% CI: 0.059-0.550, P=0.003) were the risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: The average onset time of severe COVID-19 was 8 days, and the most common symptoms were fever, dry cough and fatigue. Comorbidities such as hypertension were common and mostly accompanied by impaired organ functions on admission. Higher D-dimer, higher NT-proBNP, and lower lymphocyte count were the independent risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 771-778, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Current recommendations for diagnostic imaging for moderately to severely ill patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include chest radiograph (CXR). Our primary objective was to determine whether lung ultrasound (LUS) B-lines, when excluding patients with alternative etiologies for B-lines, are more sensitive for the associated diagnosis of COVID-19 than CXR. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who presented to a single, academic emergency department in the United States between March 20 and April 6, 2020, and received LUS, CXR, and viral testing for COVID-19 as part of their diagnostic evaluation. The primary objective was to estimate the test characteristics of both LUS B-lines and CXR for the associated diagnosis of COVID-19. Our secondary objective was to evaluate the proportion of patients with COVID-19 that have secondary LUS findings of pleural abnormalities and subpleural consolidations. RESULTS: We identified 43 patients who underwent both LUS and CXR and were tested for COVID-19. Of these, 27/43 (63%) tested positive. LUS was more sensitive (88.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 71.1-97.0) for the associated diagnosis of COVID-19 than CXR (51.9%, 95% CI, 34.0-69.3; p = 0.013). LUS and CXR specificity were 56.3% (95% CI, 33.2-76.9) and 75.0% (95% CI, 50.0-90.3), respectively (p = 0.453). Secondary LUS findings of patients with COVID-19 demonstrated 21/27 (77.8%) had pleural abnormalities and 10/27 (37%) had subpleural consolidations. CONCLUSION: Among patients who underwent LUS and CXR, LUS was found to have a higher sensitivity than CXR for the evaluation of COVID-19. This data could have important implications as an aid in the diagnostic evaluation of COVID-19, particularly where viral testing is not available or restricted. If generalizable, future directions would include defining how to incorporate LUS into clinical management and its role in screening lower-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(30)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690919

ABSTRACT

We analysed consecutive RT-qPCR results of 537 symptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in home quarantine. Respectively 2, 3, and 4 weeks after symptom onset, 50%, 25% and 10% of patients had detectable RNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In patients with mild COVID-19, RNA detection is likely to outlast currently known periods of infectiousness by far and fixed time periods seem more appropriate in determining the length of home isolation than laboratory-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA Replicase/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e21163, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented worldwide public health crisis that requires new management approaches. COVIDApp is a mobile app that was adapted for the management of institutionalized individuals in long-term care facilities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report the implementation of this innovative tool for the management of long-term care facility residents as a high-risk population, specifically for early identification and self-isolation of suspected cases, remote monitoring of mild cases, and real-time monitoring of the progression of the infection. METHODS: COVIDApp was implemented in 196 care centers in collaboration with 64 primary care teams. The following parameters of COVID-19 were reported daily: signs/symptoms; diagnosis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; absence of symptoms for ≥14 days; total deaths; and number of health care workers isolated with suspected COVID-19. The number of at-risk centers was also described. RESULTS: Data were recorded from 10,347 institutionalized individuals and up to 4000 health care workers between April 1 and 30, 2020. A rapid increase in suspected cases was seen until day 6 but decreased during the last two weeks (from 1084 to 282 cases). The number of confirmed cases increased from 419 (day 6) to 1293 (day 22) and remained stable during the last week. Of the 10,347 institutionalized individuals, 5,090 (49,2%) remained asymptomatic for ≥14 days. A total of 854/10,347 deaths (8.3%) were reported; 383 of these deaths (44.8%) were suspected/confirmed cases. The number of isolated health care workers remained high over the 30 days, while the number of suspected cases decreased during the last 2 weeks. The number of high-risk long-term care facilities decreased from 19/196 (9.5%) to 3/196 (1.5%). CONCLUSIONS: COVIDApp can help clinicians rapidly detect and remotely monitor suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 among institutionalized individuals, thus limiting the risk of spreading the virus. The platform shows the progression of infection in real time and can aid in designing new monitoring strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Homes for the Aged , Mobile Applications , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236858, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690151

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to describe the temporal evolution of quantitative lung lesion features on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with common and severe types of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Records of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were reviewed retrospectively from 24 January 2020 to 15 March 2020. Patients were classified into common and severe groups according to the diagnostic criteria of severe pneumonia. The quantitative CT features of lung lesions were automatically calculated using artificial intelligence algorithms, and the percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (PGV), consolidation volume (PCV) and total lesion volume (PTV) were determined in both lungs. PGV, PCV and PTV were analyzed based on the time from the onset of initial symptoms in the common and severe groups. In the common group, PTV increased slowly and peaked at approximately 12 days from the onset of the initial symptoms. In the severe group, PTV peaked at approximately 17 days. The severe pneumonia group exhibited increased PGV, PCV and PTV compared with the common group. These features started to appear in Stage 2 (4-7 days from onset of initial symptoms) and were observed in all subsequent stages (p<0.05). In severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients, PGV, PCV and PTV began to significantly increase in Stage 2 and decrease in Stage 5 (22-30 days). Compared with common SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients, the patients in the severe group exhibited increased PGV, PCV and PTV as well as a later peak time of lesion and recovery time.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925047, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and compare these parameters in an elderly group with those in a younger group. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective, single-center observational study included 69 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from a tertiary hospital in Wuhan, China, between January 14, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as treatments, complications, and outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between elderly patients (aged ≥60 years) and younger patients (aged <60 years). Patients were followed until March 19, 2020. RESULTS Elderly patients had more complications than younger patients, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 9/25, 36% vs. 5/44, 11.4%) and cardiac injury (7/25, 28% vs. 1/44, 2.3%), and they were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (6/25, 24% vs. 2/44, 4.5%). As of March 19, 2020, 60/69 (87%) of the patients had been discharged, 6/69 (8.7%) had died, and 3/69 (4.3%) remained in the hospital. Of those who were discharged or died, the median duration of hospitalization was 13.5 days (interquartile range, 10-18 days). CONCLUSIONS Elderly patients with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to develop ARDS and cardiac injury than younger patients and were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In addition to routine monitoring and respiratory support, cardiac monitoring and supportive care should be a focus in elderly patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(1): 87-93, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688925

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to provide scientific basis for rapid screening and early diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through analysing the clinical characteristics and early imaging/laboratory findings of the inpatients. Methods: Three hundred and three patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from the East Hospital of People's Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) were selected and divided into four groups: youth (20-40 years, n = 64), middle-aged (41-60 years, n = 89), older (61-80 years, n = 118) and elderly (81-100 years, n = 32). The clinical characteristics and imaging/laboratory findings including chest computed tomography (CT), initial blood count, C-reactive protein [CRP]), procalcitonin (PCT) and serum total IgE were captured and analysed. Results: (1) The first symptoms of all age groups were primarily fever (76%), followed by cough (12%) and dyspnoea (5%). Beside fever, the most common initial symptom of elderly patients was fatigue (13%). (2) Fever was the most common clinical manifestation (80%), with moderate fever being the most common (40%), followed by low fever in patients above 40 years old and high fever in those under 40 years (35%). Cough was the second most common clinical manifestation and was most common (80%) in the middle-aged. Diarrhoea was more common in the middle-aged (21%) and the older (19%). Muscle ache was more common in the middle-aged (15%). Chest pain was more common in the youth (13%), and 13% of the youth had no symptoms. (3) The proportion of patients with comorbidities increased with age. (4) Seventy-one per cent of the patients had positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results and 29% had positive chest CT scans before admission to the hospital. (5) Lesions in all lobes of the lung were observed as the main chest CT findings (76%). (6) Decrease in lymphocytes and increase in monocytes were common in the patients over 40 years old but rare in the youth. Eosinophils (50%), red blood cells (39%) and haemoglobin (40%) decreased in all age groups. (7) The proportion of patients with CRP and PCT elevation increased with age. (8) Thirty-nine per cent of the patients had elevated IgE, with the highest proportion in the old (49%). Conclusion: The clinical characteristics and imaging/laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients vary in different age groups. Personalised criteria should be formulated according to different age groups in the early screening and diagnosis stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
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