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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468445

ABSTRACT

Older adults are susceptible to poor night-time sleep, characterized by short sleep duration and high sleep disruptions (i.e., more frequent and longer awakenings). This study aimed to longitudinally and objectively assess the changes in sleep patterns of older Australians during the 2020 pandemic lockdown. A non-invasive mattress-based device, known as the EMFIT QS, was used to continuously monitor sleep in 31 older adults with an average age of 84 years old before (November 2019-February 2020) and during (March-May 2020) the COVID-19, a disease caused by a form of coronavirus, lockdown. Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, time to bed, and time out of bed were measured across these two periods. Overall, there was no significant change in total sleep time; however, women had a significant increase in total sleep time (36 min), with a more than 30-min earlier bedtime. There was also no increase in wake after sleep onset and sleep onset latency. Sleep efficiency remained stable across the pandemic time course between 84-85%. While this sample size is small, these data provide reassurance that objective sleep measurement did not deteriorate through the pandemic in older community-dwelling Australians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467680

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is an antiviral used for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation. Information on its cardiovascular safety profile is scarce. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with COVID-19 who developed bradycardia after receiving remdesivir. We recommend a baseline ECG for all patients prior to receiving remdesivir and continuous cardiac monitoring during treatment, especially among those with underlying cardiovascular disease, elderly and using ß-blockers.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this paper, the authors present insights and findings drawn from the authors' experiences of containing a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large prison in northern Italy.Within penitentiaries, close-quarter living is ripe terrain for outbreaks of disease among detainees and staff. If left unchecked, these outbreaks can easily spill over the prison walls to threaten the general public. Moreover, these risks are heightened by preexisting environmental conditions, especially overcrowding. It is thus paramount to establish effective protocols for prevention, early detection and outbreak management. The purpose of this article is to document a strategy that been at least partially successful in reducing the damage that could potentially be caused by a sustained SARS-CoV-2 outbreak within a correctional facility. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis on patients' and health-care workers' medical records to obtain demographic and clinical information. Descriptive data analysis was then carried out. FINDINGS: In total, the authors tested 453 people with oropharyngeal swabs from March 15, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Of these people, 58 were positive and 395 were negative, with a prevalence of 12.8%.Of the 453 patients, 60 were health workers: 24 tested positive for SARS-CoV2 ribonucleic acid (RNA); 18 developed symptoms; and three needed hospitalization.Among patients in detention, 34 resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Two were hospitalized and later died. Both had severe preexisting conditions; they were aged 76 and 59 years old, respectively. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In this study, the authors describe the design and effective implementation of prevention and containment measures against SARS-CoV-2 within the walls of a correctional facility. The authors describe how they rapidly created clean confinement sections to isolate cases in an environment designed for security at the expense of virus containment and how educational efforts have played a vital role in their strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Prisons/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Acta Oncol ; 60(11): 1459-1465, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467204

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are considered to have a higher risk of dying and developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there are few studies including co-morbidities and sociodemographic factors when investigating the outcome of COVID-19 in a cohort of cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed cancer patients that have been hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Sweden to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on mortality and morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients with cancer that were hospitalized due to COVID-19-related symptoms at Uppsala University Hospital and Karolinska University Hospital between 1 March and 31 August 2020. The primary endpoint was COVID-19-related death and the secondary endpoint was to describe COVID-19 severity, defined as symptom severity (grades 0-4) and length of stay (LOS) at the university hospitals. RESULTS: In total, 193 patients were included among which 31% died due to COVID-19 and 8% died of other causes. In a multivariable analysis, older age >70 (OR 3.6; 95% CI [1.8-7.3], p < 0.001) and male gender (OR 2.8 [1.4-5.8], p = 0.005) were factors associated with higher likelihood of COVID-19-related death. Several comorbidities ≥2 (OR 5.4 [2.0-14.3], p = 0.001) was independently associated with COVID-19 severity. Treatment with chemotherapy within 90 days prior to COVID-19 diagnosis were not associated with COVID-19-related death or severity. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with higher likelihood of COVID-19-related death were older age and male gender. More severe COVID-19 symptoms were seen in patients with multiple comorbidities. We did not see any associations between COVID-19-related death or severity and recent treatment including chemotherapy. In summary, this supports a thorough assessment regarding potential risks with COVID-19 infection in patients with cancer, with a combination of individual risk factors in addition to cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 2021-2025.e1, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To inform future policies and disaster preparedness plans in the vulnerable nursing home setting, we need greater insight into the relationship between nursing homes' (NHs') quality and the spread and severity of COVID-19 in NH facilities. We therefore extend current evidence on the relationships between NH quality and resident COVID-19 infection rates and deaths, taking into account NH structural characteristics and community characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 15,390 Medicaid- and Medicare-certified NHs. METHODS: We obtained and merged the following data sets: (1) COVID-19 weekly data reported by each nursing home to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network, (2) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Five Star Quality Rating System, (3) county-level COVID-19 case counts, (4) county-level population data, and (5) county-level sociodemographic data. RESULTS: Among 1-star NHs, there were an average of 13.19 cases and 2.42 deaths per 1000 residents per week between May 25 and December 20, 2020. Among 5-star NHs, there were an average of 9.99 cases and 1.83 deaths per 1000 residents per week. The rate of confirmed cases of COVID-19 was 31% higher among 1-star NHs compared with 5-star NHs [model 1: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.39], and the rate of COVID-19 deaths was 30% higher (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.20, 1.41). These associations were only partially explained by differences in community spread of COVID-19, case mix, and the for-profit status and size of NHs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We found that COVID-19 case and death rates were substantially higher among NHs with lower star ratings, suggesting that NHs with quality much below average are more susceptible to the spread of COVID-19. This relationship, particularly with regard to case rates, can be partially attributed to external factors: lower-rated NHs are often located in areas with greater COVID-19 community spread and serve more socioeconomically vulnerable residents than higher-rated NHs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Medicare , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Med Life ; 14(4): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464169

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis is a necessary treatment for end-stage kidney disease patients. It imposes undergoing three sessions of dialysis per week in a specialized center. Amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, precautionary measures were mandatory in all dialysis facilities and may have negatively impacted patients' well-being. This study aimed to uncover the scale of this effect. We performed a cross-sectional study of all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in two dialysis units (one urban and another rural). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were excluded. Patients filled a questionnaire including information on socio-demographics, factors related to the dialysis facility, and the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on their mental health. A total of 72 patients responded. Their median age was 70 (60.79) years. Of them, 68% were males, 71% were married, and 10% were living alone. Following the pandemic, 35% felt more anxious, with a higher incidence of anxiety in the rural unit (p=0.021). Half of them felt very limited in their relationships, and 29% were isolated from their families. In total, 98% of patients were satisfied with the staff support. The imposed preventive measures were perceived as very strict in 27% of the surveyed patients. The majority of the urban group were bothered for not eating during the session, and they felt significantly more stress than the rural group (p=0.001). The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased anxiety among hemodialysis patients from a rural setting. Stress was more prevalent in the urban group and most probably related to limitations in eating during sessions. The majority were satisfied with staff support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis
8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1582-1588, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464140

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To analyze the liver injury and coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19 severe/critical type patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 414-419, 2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464004

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Coronavirus Disease-19 (Covid-19) pandemic, in the last year, has resulted in a significant number of infections and deaths among nursing homes' residents. This phenomenon has set up the necessity to subject these patients, often suffering from mental disabilities to a vaccination against Covid-19. However, vaccination has long been the subject of public atten-tion, being regulated differently in many European countries. In Italy, the Ministry of Health has given priority, vaccination-wise, to health facilities' patients. The government has regulated through-law no. 1 of January 5, 2021, art. 5, the manifestation of consent to be Covid-19 vac-cinated in incapacitated subjects admitted to assisted health facilities. This rule arose from the need to protect fragile individuals as well as providing real dispositions for the involved health professionals. Nursing homes' elderly guests could be divided into four catego-ries: a) subjects capable to express their will (affected by physical problems); b) subjects who, due to varying degrees of incapacitation, have their own legal guardian, curator or support administrator, ap-pointed in accordance with the law; c) incapacitated subjects without legal representatives d) subjects who, pursuant to law no. 219/2017, have appointed their own trustee. This paper provides for a clear exemplification of all the possible scenarios identified by the Italian law no.1/2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(3): 232-238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463957

ABSTRACT

The major route of entry for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) into human host cells is by means of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) transmembrane receptor. This zinc-containing carboxypeptidase and membrane-integral surface receptor is ubiquitous and widely expressed in multiple cell types. Hence SARS-CoV-2, an unusually large RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the remarkable capacity to invade many different types of human host cells simultaneously. Although COVID-19 is generally considered to be primarily an acute respiratory disease SARS-CoV-2 also targets specific anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). In the normal CNS the highest ACE2 levels of expression are found within the medullary respiratory centers of the brainstem and this, in part, may explain the susceptibility of numerous COVID-19 patients to severe respiratory distress. About ~35% of all COVID-19 patients experience neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a pre-existing diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) predicts the highest risk of COVID-19 yet identified, with the highest mortality among elderly AD patients. In the current study of multiple anatomical regions of AD brains compared to age-, post-mortem interval- and gender-matched controls (n = 10 regions, n = 32 brains), ACE2 expression was found to be significantly up-regulated in AD in the occipital lobe, temporal lobe neocortex and hippocampal CA1. The temporal lobe and hippocampus of the brain are also targeted by the inflammatory neuropathology that accompanies AD, suggesting a significant mechanistic overlap between COVID-19 and AD, strongly centered on invasion by the neurotropic SARS-CoV-2 virus via the increased presence of ACE2 receptors in limbic regions of the AD-affected brain.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation
11.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(3): 219-231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463956

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a global challenge to healthcare and society in the early 21st century. We report neuropathological changes in 52 patients aged between 22 years and 88 years (median 58 years) who were infected with the CoV-2 coronavirus. Patients died under various circumstances and had various pre-existing diseases. The inclusion criteria for this study were: positive result for the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, diagnosis of pneumonia of SARS-CoV-2 or nucleoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 in pulmonary tissue confirmed by immunohistochemical methods (IHC). Samples from all brain structures and lung specimens were taken for histopathological examinations. Brain and pulmonary samples were stained typically with histological and immunohistochemical methods and small tissue fragments were examined with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The light and electron microscopy examination confirmed the numerous neuropathological changes in the brains of the patients infected with the CoV-2. Many of these changes were caused by pre-existing diseases of patients and/or by necessary treatment. However, vascular lesions and the inflammatory process seem to be characteristic of the CoV-2 infection. In all of the structures of 52 brains of patients, damage of the vessel walls and morphological feature of the damage to the blood-brain barrier were observed. Lymphocytic and microglial infiltrates, both perivascular and diffuse, were also observed. Hence, the brain changes due to COVID-19 infection, could be called COVID-19 cerebral angiopathy with diffuse inflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463525

ABSTRACT

This study assessed fear of the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19), preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors, and the association between fear of COVID-19 and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors among older people in Iran and Taiwan. Older people aged over 60 years (n = 144 for Iranians and 139 for Taiwanese) completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and two items on preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (i.e., hand washing and mouth covering when sneezing). Iranian older people had a significantly higher level of fear of COVID-19 than did Taiwanese older people. Moreover, Iranian older people had significantly lower frequencies of preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors than did Taiwanese older people. Different timings in implementing COVID-19 infection control policies in Iran and Taiwan may explain why Iranian older people had greater fear of COVID-19 and lower preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors than did Taiwanese older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Fear , Health Behavior , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719665, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463524

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and vaccination efforts may be impeded by vaccine hesitancy. The present study examined willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, the associated reasons for willingness/unwillingness, and vaccine safety perceptions in a cross-sectional assessment of community adults in Ontario. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty seven individuals (60.6% female, mean age = 37.5%) participated in this study between January 15, 2021 and February 15, 2021. Perceptions of vaccine safety and reasons for willingness/unwillingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine were investigated using an online assessment. Perceptions were investigated in general and by age, sex and education using analysis of variance. Results: Overall, 82.8% of the sample reported they were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and 17.2% reported they were unwilling. The three most common reasons for unwillingness were long-term side effects (65.5%), immediate side effects (60.5%), and lack of trust in the vaccine (55.2%). Vaccine willingness significantly differed by sex and education level, with female participants and those with less than a bachelor's degree being more likely to report unwillingness. Perception of COVID-19 vaccine safety was significantly lower (-10.3%) than vaccines in general and differed by age, sex and education, with females, older adults, and individuals with less than a bachelor's degree reporting lower perceived COVID-19 vaccine safety. Conclusion: In this sample of community adults, the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate was less than one in five individuals, but with higher rates in population subgroups. Targeting public health messaging to females and individuals with less than bachelor's degree, and addressing concerns about long-term and immediate side effects may increase vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e31400, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have experienced 2 predominant waves of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Comparing the clinical trajectories of patients hospitalized in separate waves of the pandemic enables further understanding of the evolving epidemiology, pathophysiology, and health care dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed electronic health record (EHR) data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections hospitalized in participating health care systems representing 315 hospitals across 6 countries. We compared hospitalization rates, severe COVID-19 risk, and mean laboratory values between patients hospitalized during the first and second waves of the pandemic. METHODS: Using a federated approach, each participating health care system extracted patient-level clinical data on their first and second wave cohorts and submitted aggregated data to the central site. Data quality control steps were adopted at the central site to correct for implausible values and harmonize units. Statistical analyses were performed by computing individual health care system effect sizes and synthesizing these using random effect meta-analyses to account for heterogeneity. We focused the laboratory analysis on C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatinine based on their reported associations with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Data were available for 79,613 patients, of which 32,467 were hospitalized in the first wave and 47,146 in the second wave. The prevalence of male patients and patients aged 50 to 69 years decreased significantly between the first and second waves. Patients hospitalized in the second wave had a 9.9% reduction in the risk of severe COVID-19 compared to patients hospitalized in the first wave (95% CI 8.5%-11.3%). Demographic subgroup analyses indicated that patients aged 26 to 49 years and 50 to 69 years; male and female patients; and black patients had significantly lower risk for severe disease in the second wave than in the first wave. At admission, the mean values of CRP were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. On the seventh hospital day, the mean values of CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. In general, countries exhibited variable changes in laboratory testing rates from the first to the second wave. At admission, there was a significantly higher testing rate for D-dimer in France, Germany, and Spain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized in the second wave were at significantly lower risk for severe COVID-19. This corresponded to mean laboratory values in the second wave that were more likely to be in typical physiological ranges on the seventh hospital day compared to the first wave. Our federated approach demonstrated the feasibility and power of harmonizing heterogeneous EHR data from multiple international health care systems to rapidly conduct large-scale studies to characterize how COVID-19 clinical trajectories evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 503, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular outpatient rehabilitation is prescribed for many patients with chronic neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis, to constantly support patients and their proxies in disease management. Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, federal institutions and governments worldwide have directed local or nationwide lockdowns. During these times, the provision of regular outpatient rehabilitation service is drastically limited, making it actually impossible for community-dwelling patients with neurological disorders to receive prescribed rehabilitation interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old White Swiss man with two chronic neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, underwent a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation in our hospital. The main rehabilitation goals were related to improvements of mobility and a decrease in the risk of falls. The patient gained significant functional improvements that he maintained over the following months, supported by the continuation of physiotherapy in the domestic environment. Due to a coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-related interruption of the regular ambulatory rehabilitation for several weeks during the first coronavirus disease 2019 wave in Switzerland, the patient's functional abilities decreased significantly. Thus, the patient was again referred to our hospital for intensive inpatient rehabilitation to regain his physical functioning and mobility capacity. At hospital discharge, the patient improved most of his physical functioning to a prepandemic level. CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of a rehabilitation service due to a pandemic-related lockdown can significantly impact the functional abilities of patients with chronic neurological diseases. This case report supports the claim for continuous access to rehabilitation services for all people with rehabilitation needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 226, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava thrombosis is cited to be a complication of inferior vena cava filter placement and post coronary artery bypass surgery. Often only mild symptoms arise from these thrombi; however, due to the chronic nature of some thrombi and the recanalization process, more serious complications can arise. Although anticoagulation remains the gold standard of treatment, some patients are unable to be anticoagulated. In this case, we present a 65-year-old male who underwent IVC filter placement and open-heart surgery who later developed extensive femoral and iliocaval thrombosis leading to right heart failure, which required thrombus extraction with an AngioVac suction device. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 65-year-old male who presented with bilateral pulmonary emboli with extensive right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Upon investigation he had ischemic heart disease and underwent a five-vessel coronary artery bypass for which he had an IVC filter placed preoperatively. On post operative day 3 to 4, he was decompensated and was diagnosed with an IVC thrombus. He progressed to right heart failure and worsening cardiogenic shock despite therapeutic anticoagulation and was taken for a suction thrombectomy using the AngioVac (AngioDynamics, Latham, NY) aspiration thrombectomy device. The thrombectomy was successful and he was able to recover and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Despite being a rare complication, IVC thrombosis can have detrimental effects. This case is an example of how IVC thrombus in the post-operative setting can lead to mortality. The gold standard is therapeutic anticoagulation but despite that, this patient continued to have worsening cardiogenic shock. Other therapies have been described but because of its rarity, they are only described in case reports. This case shows that the AngioVac device is a successful treatment option for IVC thrombus and can have the possibility of future use.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Shock, Cardiogenic/surgery , Thrombectomy , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Thrombectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1834, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the lifting of the lockdown implemented to control the COVID-19 first wave in 2020 was followed by a reinforced contact-tracing (CT) strategy for the early detection of cases and transmission chains. We developed a reporting system of clusters defined as at least three COVID-19 cases, within seven days and belonging to the same community or having participated in the same gathering, whether they know each other or not. The aim of this study was to describe the typology and criticality of clusters reported between the two lockdowns in France to guide future action prioritisation. METHODS: In this study we describe the typology and criticality of COVID-19 clusters between the two lockdowns implemented in France (between May and end of October 2020). Clusters were registered in a national database named "MONIC" (MONItoring des Clusters), established in May 2020. This surveillance system identified the most affected communities in a timely manner. A level of criticality was defined for each cluster to take into consideration the risk of spreading within and outside the community of occurrence, and the health impact within the community. We compared the level of criticality according to the type of community in which the cluster occurred using Pearson's chi-square tests. RESULTS: A total of 7236 clusters were reported over the study period, particularly in occupational environment (25.1%, n = 1813), elderly care structures (21.9%, n = 1586), and educational establishments (15.9%, n = 1154). We show a shift over time of the most affected communities in terms of number of clusters. Clusters reported in occupational environment and the personal sphere had increased during summer while clusters reported in educational environment increased after the start of the school year. This trend mirrors change of transmission pattern overtime according to social contacts. Among all reported clusters, 43.1% had a high level of criticality with significant differences between communities (p < 0.0001). A majority of clusters had a high level of criticality in elderly care structures (82.2%), in disability care centres (56.6%), and health care facilities (51.7%). CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of targeting public health action based on timely sustained investigations, testing capacity and targeted awareness campaigns. The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants strengthen these public health recommendations and the need for rapid and prioritise vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1094, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To ensure safe delivery of oncologic care during the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has been rapidly adopted. However, little data exist on the impact of telemedicine on quality and accessibility of oncologic care. This study assessed whether conducting an office visit for thoracic oncology patients via telemedicine affected time to treatment initiation and accessibility. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with thoracic malignancies seen by a multidisciplinary team during the first surge of COVID-19 cases in Philadelphia (March 1 to June 30, 2020). Patients with an index visit for a new phase of care, defined as a new diagnosis, local recurrence, or newly discovered metastatic disease, were included. RESULTS: 240 distinct patients with thoracic malignancies were seen: 132 patients (55.0%) were seen initially in-person vs 108 (45.0%) via telemedicine. The majority of visits were for a diagnosis of a new thoracic cancer (87.5%). Among newly diagnosed patients referred to the thoracic oncology team, the median time from referral to initial visit was significantly shorter amongst the patients seen via telemedicine vs. in-person (median 5.0 vs. 6.5 days, p < 0.001). Patients received surgery (32.5%), radiation (24.2%), or systemic therapy (30.4%). Time from initial visit to treatment initiation by modality did not differ by telemedicine vs in-person: surgery (22 vs 16 days, p = 0.47), radiation (27.5 vs 27.5 days, p = 0.86, systemic therapy (15 vs 13 days, p = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid adoption of telemedicine allowed timely delivery of oncologic care during the initial surge of the COVID19 pandemic by a thoracic oncology multi-disciplinary clinic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Thoracic Neoplasms/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Patient Care Team , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Thoracic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors
19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 370, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show the elevation of liver enzymes and liver fibrosis index (FIB-4) independently on pre-existing liver diseases. It points to increased liver fibrogenesis during acute COVID-19 with possible long-term consequences. This study aimed to assess liver fibrosis in COVID-19 patients by serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and FIB-4. METHODS: The study included the acute COVID-19 group (66 patients, 50% females, mean age 58.3 ± 14.6), the post-COVID group (58 patients in 3-6 months after the recovery, 47% females, mean age 41.2 ± 13.4), and a control group (17 people, 47% females, mean age 42.8 ± 11.0). Ultrasound elastography was performed in the post-COVID and control groups. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the acute COVID-19 group had increased FIB-4 (> 1.45), and 38% of patients had FIB-4 ≥ 3.25. After matching by demographics, 52% of acute COVID-19 and 5% of the post-COVID group had FIB-4 > 1.45, and 29% and 2% of patients had FIB-4 ≥ 3.25, respectively. Increased serum HA (≥ 75 ng/ml) was observed in 54% of the acute COVID-19 and 15% of the post-COVID group. In the acute COVID-19 group, HA positively correlated with FIB-4, AST, ALT, LDH, IL-6, and ferritin and negatively with blood oxygen saturation. In the post-COVID group, HA did not correlate with FIB-4, but it was positively associated with higher liver stiffness and ALT. CONCLUSION: More than half of acute COVID-19 patients had increased serum HA and FIB-4 related to liver function tests, inflammatory markers, and blood oxygen saturation. It provides evidence for the induction of liver fibrosis by multiple factors during acute COVID-19. Findings also indicate possible liver fibrosis in about 5% of the post-COVID group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
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