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1.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(2): 242-250, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2022160

ABSTRACT

Resumo "Ageísmo" é o preconceito ou discriminação contra a pessoa idosa, seja por meio da estigmatização ou de práticas discriminatórias da sociedade e de suas instituições. No atual contexto da pandemia de covid-19, a postura ageísta da sociedade ocidental e, consequentemente, dos protocolos para distribuição de recursos em saúde tem sido fortemente evidenciada, trazendo consigo prejuízo importante à assistência a essa população. Este ensaio teórico discute manifestações e consequências do ageísmo em políticas de distribuição de recursos na pandemia, pensando as implicações bioéticas desse tipo de discriminação no que se refere aos princípios da justiça e da dignidade humana.


Abstract Ageism is the prejudice or discrimination of older adults, whether through stigmatization or discriminatory practices by society and its institutions. The current covid-19 pandemic context has shown Western society's ageist stance and, consequently, of its protocols on the distribution of health resources, leading to severe negative repercussions to the care of this population. This theoretical essay discusses the manifestations and consequences of ageism in the context of health resource distribution policies during the pandemic, considering the bioethical implications involved in this type of discrimination when considering the principles of justice and human dignity.


Resumen El "edadismo" se refiere al prejuicio y discriminación a las personas mayores, ya sea por estigmatización o prácticas discriminatorias por parte de la sociedad y sus instituciones. En el contexto actual de la pandemia de covid-19, se ha evidenciado fuertemente la postura edadista de la sociedad occidental y, en consecuencia, de los protocolos que involucran la distribución de los recursos en salud, trayendo consigo un daño importante a la atención en salud de esta población. Este ensayo teórico discute las manifestaciones y consecuencias del edadismo en el contexto de las políticas de distribución de recursos en salud en la pandemia, considerando las implicaciones éticas de esa discriminación respecto a los principios de justicia y dignidad humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bioethics , Aged , Ageism , COVID-19 , Health Policy
2.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 34(9): 757-759, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016469

Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , Humans , Stereotyping
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010051

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the vulnerability of older people to COVID-19 has been stressed in political discourse and the mass media, with the call to protect older adults. Therefore, policies aimed at reducing the spread of coronavirus, such as the COVID-19 vaccination passport policy, might be perceived as policies aimed at preserving the health of older people, and negative attitudes toward older people (i.e., ageism) might underlie negative attitudes toward such policies. While intergenerational contact is one of the main antecedents of reduced ageism, the pandemic has forced people to separate, and direct intergenerational contact in particular might have been reduced, possibly being replaced by telephone and virtual contact. In a correlational study (N = 153 Italian university students) we found that quantity and quality of direct intergenerational contact diminished during the pandemic. Virtual intergenerational contact was unexpectedly less frequent than direct contact. Quality of direct contact before the pandemic was associated, over and above the effects of other contact forms under investigation, with reduced ageism, which was in turn associated with negative attitude toward the vaccination passport. Findings will be discussed focusing on the roles of intergenerational contact and ageism for public health.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Vaccination
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(10): 2567-2576, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000163

ABSTRACT

The perceptions and attitudes of health professionals toward a certain group of society are among the factors affecting the quality of health service. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of physicians and nurses about ageism in the COVID-19 pandemic. An easy face-to-face survey was used to collect the data. It involves the questions about demographic information and geriatric perspectives, and they were taken from the University of California at Los Angeles Geriatrics Attitudes Scale (UCLA-GAS). In the study, 58.1% of participants were over 35 years old, 76.6% were women, and 50% were physicians out of 308 in total. It was found that most of the participants have worked in inpatient services and intensive care units for the longest time, where the triage issue was the most discussed topic during the pandemic. An average of 75% of the participants stated that they did not witness any ageist attitude in health care provided. In the comparative analyses conducted with the UCLA-GAS sub-dimensions, statistically significant results, which were anti-ageist and prioritized human life, were obtained. In the extraordinary periods such as pandemic, especially physicians should be able to give the treatment without feeling any social or legal concerns during their medical applications with the light of guidelines accepted scientifically, legally, and morally. Thus, health professionals will not only be away from legal concerns such as malpractice but also will not be exhausted mentally and they can provide more sufficient health service by working under these conditions.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 924591, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993889
6.
J Aging Stud ; 62: 101063, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966684

ABSTRACT

Considering the popularity of websites in social contexts and their significant force in producing collective discourses, attitudes, and patterns of behaviors, this study critically examined the projection of visual ageism on news websites during the COVID-19 pandemic. The social semiotic theory of visual grammar developed by Kress and Van Leeuwen (2006, 2020) was the theoretical framework for the visual semiotic analysis of photographs. The search for data was conducted between March 2020 and July 2020. The study searching protocol included strings "older adults AND COVID-19", "the elderly AND coronavirus", "older people AND COVID-19", and "old people AND coronavirus" in Google led to retrieving 71 photographs of Iranian older adults from Iranian news websites. The semiotic analysis of the photographs showed that the Iranian new websites continue to embrace a mindset that degrades the old people.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Attitude , Humans , Iran , Pandemics
7.
Gerontologist ; 62(8): 1185-1195, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have linked coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a rise in ageism. While a growing body of research examined hostile ageism during the pandemic, benevolent ageism received less attention. Drawing on the stereotype content theory and the classic tripartite model of attitudes, the current study explored how benevolent and hostile ageism are reflected in the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of attitudes toward older adults in German COVID-19-related tweets. The study examined the most prevalent attitudes as well as changes in prevalence between the first and second lockdown period in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven hundred and ninety-two German tweets concerning COVID-19 and aging were collected and coded using Mayring's qualitative content analysis with a dominantly inductive approach. Quantitative methods were used to identify the most prevalent subthemes as well as changes in prevalence. RESULTS: The coding resulted in 21 subthemes. Most tweets (60.73%) contained either hostile or benevolent ageist attitudes, with benevolent ageism being more prevalent. The top 5 subthemes in terms of prevalence and reach contained several opposing attitudes, such as devaluation and opposing devaluation. The chi-square tests revealed a shift from a promotion to an evaluation of COVID-19-related policies between the 2 lockdowns. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Results highlight social media's polarizing effect and its potential contribution to both hostile and benevolent ageism in the context of COVID-19 in Germany. Results indicate the need to consider the adverse effects of benevolent ageism and use of chronological age as risk factor, when designing COVID-19-related policies.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Ageism/psychology , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hostility , Humans
8.
Age Ageing ; 51(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908735
9.
Aten Primaria ; 54(6): 102320, 2022 06.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894790

ABSTRACT

Ageism is a form of abuse which has negative influence on elderly people. Although COVID-19 affects people of all ages, it has increased ageism effects, reducing the access of the elderly to different resources, including health system. Ageism is associated to cost overruns, poorer health and early mortality. From «GdT atención al mayor de semFYC¼ we make a series of proposals to decrease it based on community activities that favour intergenerational relationships and ageing education allowing a correct integration of the elderly on society.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Elder Abuse , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elder Abuse/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 57(3): 161-167, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRENCO project which was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic including intergenerational activities shared by students from primary and secondary education and users of two centers for older adults and a day hospital in Catalonia. The effectiveness was assessed in terms of well-being in older adults and on negative stereotypes about the elderly in primary and secondary students. METHODS: Three interventions were carried out in which 32 older persons (9 users of centers for older adults and 23 of a day hospital), 99 primary students and 56 secondary students participated. Participants answered a questionnaire before and after the interventions. Through multilevel linear models for repeated measures, changes in feelings of loneliness, social support, anxiety and depressive symptoms, self-reported health and health-related quality of life were evaluated in older people. In primary and secondary students, changes in age stereotypes were evaluated. RESULTS: Health-related quality of life and self-reported health improved statistically after the interventions in older persons. Users of the day hospital also reported an improvement in social support. Primary school students improved their age stereotypes; no statistically significant changes were detected in secondary students. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study contribute to underlining the importance of intergenerational programs such as the one proposed by CRENCO, capable of improving well-being and providing a more realistic vision of the older adults. Our results suggest that these programs should be implemented during childhood in order to prevent the proliferation of ageist stereotypes in later life stages.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageism/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Students
11.
J Aging Stud ; 61: 101024, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851393

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, a parallel pandemic of ageism is spreading through social media. This paper argues that COVID-19 health securitisation logic and the urgent need to disseminate public health information have allowed nuanced forms of ageism to be reproduced in online forums. I use a critical discourse analysis and social semiotic analysis to deconstruct the use of ageist representations of older adults in COVID-19 memes, which have been organised into four illustrative categories. The analysis attends to ageist representations that both reinforce stereotypical messages and exacerbate intergenerational tensions. Drawing upon moral anthropology, I propose that the memes employ "instrumental ageism," a nuanced form of ageism that advances the health securitisation agenda during the pandemic. The paper concludes with a recognition of the impact of ageist pandemic memes on intergenerational tensions and a call for attention to nuanced forms of ageism in our online and offline social worlds.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Social Media , Aged , Humans , Morals , Pandemics
12.
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e200885, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1817567

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho discute os efeitos da covid-19 na saúde de idosos, considerados principal grupo de risco nesta pandemia. Para tanto, partiremos de uma breve exposição demográfica do envelhecimento no Brasil para, então, discutir sobre como este período tem produzido e reforçado discursos que revelam estereótipos sobre envelhecimento. Esses discursos se relacionam com as dificuldades no enfrentamento dos efeitos deste período de distanciamento social e de suas possiblidades, tanto no contexto do cuidado residencial quanto nas instituições de longa permanência na Bahia, onde centralizamos esta discussão. Para finalizar, ressaltamos a urgência de ações organizadas e coordenadas que compreendam a complexidade do processo de envelhecimento para o enfrentamento, tanto dos discursos preconceituosos sobre os idosos quanto para os efeitos do isolamento. Também apontamos para a necessidade de nos reconhecermos e nos implicarmos nas demais gerações de que fazemos parte, seja em memória ou projeção.


Abstract Our work discusses the effects of Covid-19 on older adults' health, which is considered the leading risk group in this pandemic. We start with a brief ag(e)ing demographic discussion in Brazil and then address how this period has produced and reinforced discourses that show ag(e)ing stereotypes. These discourses are related to the difficulties in facing the social distancing effects and its possibilities in the context of residential care and in long-term institutions in the state of Bahia, Brazil, where we centralize this discussion. To conclude, we emphasize the urgency of organized and coordinated actions that understand the ag(e)ing process complexity to face both the prejudiced discourses about older adults and the effects of isolation. We also point to the need to recognize and involve ourselves in the other generations of which we are a part, whether in memory or projection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Socioeconomic Factors , Aging , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , Ageism , Physical Distancing , COVID-19
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809882

ABSTRACT

Negative outcomes of ageism in the context of the Canadian labor market are well documented. Older workers remain the target of age-based stereotypes and attitudes on the part of employers. This study aims at assessing (1) the extent to which quality and quantity intergroup contacts between younger and older workers as well as knowledge-sharing practices reduce ageist attitudes, in turn (2) how a decrease in ageist attitudes increase the level of workers' engagement and intentions to remain in the organization. Data were collected from 603 Canadian workers (aged 18 to 68 years old) from private and public organizations using an online survey measuring concepts under study. Results of a path analysis suggest that intergroup contacts and knowledge-sharing practices are associated with positive attitudes about older workers. More so, positive attitudes about older workers generate higher levels of work engagement, which in turn are associated with stronger intentions to remain with the organization. However, positive attitudes about older workers had no effect on intentions to remain in the workplace. Results are discussed in light of the intergroup contact theory.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ageism/prevention & control , Attitude , Canada , Humans , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
14.
J Aging Health ; 34(6-8): 1016-1036, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808067

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe's COVID-19 module (2020) (N = 57,025), country-level data from the European Social Survey (2008) and OECD (2020), and logistic regressions, this study examines predictors of older Europeans' forgone, postponed, and denied healthcare during the pandemic. Results: Country-level availability of physicians, healthcare systems' generosity, and beliefs that older persons burden healthcare systems all increased forgone healthcare. Healthcare system generosity increased postponed and denied healthcare. Greater medical resources decreased denied healthcare. Furthermore, missed healthcare varied by individual-level gender (higher rates among women), age, education, and health. Discussion: This study reveals predictors of missed healthcare during the pandemic. To decrease unintended health consequences of a pandemic, both individual-level determinants, such as gender and health, and contextual-level determinants, such as healthcare systems' characteristics, should be considered in research and practice.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785682

ABSTRACT

For almost two years, populations around the globe faced precariousness and uncertainty as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults were highly affected by the virus, and the policies meant to protect them have often resulted in ageist stereotypes and discrimination. For example, the public discourse around older adults had a paternalistic tone framing all older adults as "vulnerable". This study aimed to measure the extent to which perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the sense of loneliness and social isolation, fear and perception of COVID-19 risks, had a negative effect on older adults' mental illness. To do so, a self-report questionnaire was administered to 1301 participants (average age: 77.25 years old, SD = 5.46; 56.10% females, 43.90% males). Descriptive and correlational analyses were performed, along with structural equation modelling. Results showed that perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic positively predicts loneliness and also indirectly predicts mental illness. In addition, loneliness is the strongest predictor of mental illness together with fear of COVID-19 and social isolation. Such results highlight the importance of implementing public policies and discourses that are non-discriminating, and that favour the inclusion of older people.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Perception
17.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 722-723, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723854

ABSTRACT

In their recent article, 'Why lockdown of the elderly is not ageist and why levelling down equality is wrong', Savulescu and Cameron argue for selective isolation of the elderly as an alternative to general lockdown. An important part of their argument is the claim that the latter amounts to 'levelling down equality' and that this is 'unethical' or even 'morally repugnant'. This response argues that they fail to justify either part of this claim: the claim that levelling down is always morally wrong is subject to challenges that Savulescu and Cameron do not consider; and a policy of maintaining general lockdown does not constitute levelling down, as it provides absolute benefits to those who would be worse off under selective isolation.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aged , Humans
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715305

ABSTRACT

Ageism has been well-documented in the United States, but ageism experiences in Canada remain less well-known. To address this gap, in the current research middle-aged and older Canadians completed a conversational interview in which they described their ageism experiences. Their descriptions were coded for life domain, perpetrator, and type of ageist communication. The most common domain in which ageist communication occurred was the public sphere, with perpetrators most often being strangers. Ageist communication most often involved age-based social or physical assumptions about the participant. In combination, these findings detail how ageism manifests in the everyday lives of Canadians and contribute to understanding the nuances of the expression of ageism in North America.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aged , Aging , Attitude , Canada , Communication , Humans , Middle Aged , North America
19.
J Aging Stud ; 61: 101009, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712727

ABSTRACT

This study presents a critical gerontological framing analysis of how and why the term "elderly" is presently used in online news media articles in New Zealand, and the potential consequences of such constructions. The article contributes to conceptual debates on aging and later life research by challenging ageist (albeit perhaps subconscious) media practices. Analysis of online news media articles in New Zealand was conducted over an 18-month period before, during and since COVID. Findings revealed that "elderly" was framed as powerless, in predominantly negative (74% of data) stereotypical messages about older adults. The remaining positive stereotypes (26%) used human impact framing. Narratives of "elderly" as vulnerable, declining and a 'burden' may be dependent on several factors, including the media's role in both constructing and reflecting ageist societal attitudes and actions towards older adults. Recommendations are given to support re-framing societal attitudes towards age equality through non-discriminatory, respectful language.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Aged , Humans , Mass Media , New Zealand
20.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e70-e75, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, stigmatization of older persons increased in traditional and social media. It was unknown whether this negative messaging could be detrimental to the mental health of older individuals, and whether the relatively uncommon positive messaging about older individuals could benefit their mental health. METHOD: To address these gaps, we designed age-stereotype interventions based on actual news stories that appeared during the pandemic, and divided them into negative and positive versions of what we term personified (i.e., individual-based) and enumerative (i.e., number-based) age-stereotype messaging. The negative versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of decline, whereas the positive versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of resilience. RESULTS: As expected, the exposure of older individuals to the negative-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly worse mental health (i.e., more anxiety and less peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition; in contrast, the positive-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly better mental health (i.e., less anxiety and more peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition. The findings were equally strong for the personified and enumerative conditions. Also as expected, the interventions, which were self-irrelevant to the younger participants, did not significantly impact their mental health. DISCUSSION: This is the first-known study to experimentally demonstrate that institutional ageism, and statistics that reflect stereotypes about older individuals, can impact mental health. The results demonstrate the need for media messaging aimed at empowering older individuals during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stereotyping
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