Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7249, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821607

ABSTRACT

We analyzed symptoms and comorbidities as predictors of hospitalization in 710 outpatients in North-East Germany with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the first 3 days of infection, commonly reported symptoms were fatigue (71.8%), arthralgia/myalgia (56.8%), headache (55.1%), and dry cough (51.8%). Loss of smell (anosmia), loss of taste (ageusia), dyspnea, and productive cough were reported with an onset of 4 days. Anosmia or ageusia were reported by only 18% of the participants at day one, but up to 49% between days 7 and 9. Not all participants who reported ageusia also reported anosmia. Individuals suffering from ageusia without anosmia were at highest risk of hospitalization (OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.5-18.1). They also experienced more commonly dyspnea and nausea (OR of 3.0, 2.9, respectively) suggesting pathophysiological connections between these symptoms. Other symptoms significantly associated with increased risk of hospitalization were dyspnea, vomiting, and fever. Among basic parameters and comorbidities, age > 60 years, COPD, prior stroke, diabetes, kidney and cardiac diseases were also associated with increased risk of hospitalization. In conclusion, due to the delayed onset, ageusia and anosmia may be of limited use in differential diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. However, differentiation between ageusia and anosmia may be useful for evaluating risk for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 73(3): 200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720692
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Biological , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , Appetite , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Chills/diagnosis , Chills/etiology , Chills/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/virology , England , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/virology , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Int Dent J ; 72(2): 249-256, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to determine the relationship and prevalence of taste and smell dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population. METHODS: Enrolled participants were interviewed online via a phone call after obtaining their informed consent. Quantification of smell, taste, and other sensations before, during, and after COVID-19 infection was correlated with the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with (mild-severe) COVID-19 completed the survey. A total of 26.4% were asymptomatic, and 21.4% were classified as paucisymptomatic with less severe symptoms. Almost equal proportions of the studied population experienced extreme taste sensation reductions (43%) and loss of smell sensation (44%). Statistically significant drastic decreases in smell and taste senses were seen among younger individuals. The magnitude of reduction in both sense changes increased steeply from the asymptomatic group to the paucisymptomatic group to the symptomatic group. CONCLUSIONS: Sudden anosmia or ageusia need to be recognised for early detection of COVID-19 infection to identify otherwise hidden carriers, thus favoring an early isolation strategy that will restrict the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13580, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291169

ABSTRACT

In the DECODE project, data were collected from 3,114 surveys filled by symptomatic patients RT-qPCR tested for SARS-CoV-2 in a single university centre in March-September 2020. The population demonstrated balanced sex and age with 759 SARS-CoV-2( +) patients. The most discriminative symptoms in SARS-CoV-2( +) patients at early infection stage were loss of taste/smell (OR = 3.33, p < 0.0001), body temperature above 38℃ (OR = 1.67, p < 0.0001), muscle aches (OR = 1.30, p = 0.0242), headache (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0405), cough (OR = 1.26, p = 0.0477). Dyspnea was more often reported among SARS-CoV-2(-) (OR = 0.55, p < 0.0001). Cough and dyspnea were 3.5 times more frequent among SARS-CoV-2(-) (OR = 0.28, p < 0.0001). Co-occurrence of cough, muscle aches, headache, loss of taste/smell (OR = 4.72, p = 0.0015) appeared significant, although co-occurrence of two symptoms only, cough and loss of smell or taste, means OR = 2.49 (p < 0.0001). Temperature > 38℃ with cough was most frequent in men (20%), while loss of taste/smell with cough in women (17%). For younger people, taste/smell impairment is sufficient to characterise infection, whereas in older patients co-occurrence of fever and cough is necessary. The presented study objectifies the single symptoms and interactions significance in COVID-19 diagnoses and demonstrates diverse symptomatology in patient groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/classification , Young Adult
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 72-77, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been covered insufficiently in the literature. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients admitted to the study hospital with confirmed COVID-19 who experienced various skin manifestations during hospitalization or in the convalescence period, were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with COVID-19, admitted to the study hospital between 23 March and 12 September 2020, had intra-infectious rash or lesions of cutaneous vasculitis during convalescence. The most common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 were erythematous and erythematous papular rash. Twenty-seven of the 39 patients had anosmia (69.2%), 26 patients had ageusia (66.7%), 34 patients had pneumonia (87.2%) and 24 patients had intra-infectious enterocolitis (61.5%). Skin biopsies were rarely performed in these patients. This article reports the results of biopsies performed in two patients, showing histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in erythematous rash and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Both skin biopsies revealed early fibrous remodelling of the dermis, suggesting similarity with changes that occur in the lungs and other tissues in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between skin lesions and anosmia, ageusia and enteritis in patients with COVID-19 do not seem to be accidental, but are associated with a similar response to ACE2 receptor expression in these tissues.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Enteritis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 221, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss of smell and/or taste are cardinal symptoms of COVID-19. 'Long-COVID', persistence of symptoms, affects around one fifth of people. However, data regarding the clinical resolution of loss of smell and/or taste are lacking. In this study we assess smell and taste loss resolution at 4-6 week follow-up, aim to identify risk factors for persistent smell loss and describe smell loss as a feature of long-COVID in a community cohort in London with known SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibody status. We also compare subjective and objective smell assessments in a subset of participants. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-seven participants with acute loss of smell and/or taste who had undergone SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibody testing 4-6 weeks earlier completed a follow-up questionnaire about resolution of their symptoms. A subsample of 50 participants completed an objective olfactory test and results were compared to subjective smell evaluations. RESULTS: People with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with an acute loss of sense of smell and taste were significantly less likely to recover their sense of smell/taste than people who were seronegative (smell recovery: 57.7% vs. 72.1%, p = 0.027. taste recovery 66.2% vs. 80.3%, p = 0.017). In SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, a higher percentage of male participants reported full resolution of smell loss (72.8% vs. 51.4%; p < 0.001) compared to female participants, who were almost 2.5-times more likely to have ongoing smell loss after 4-6 weeks (OR 2.46, 95%CI 1.47-4.13, p = 0.001). Female participants with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and unresolved smell loss and unresolved taste loss were significantly older (> 40 years) than those who reported full resolution. Participants who experienced parosmia reported lower smell recovery rates and participants with distorted taste perception lower taste recovery rates. Parosmia had a significant association to unresolved smell loss (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.54-4.00, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although smell and/or taste loss are often transient manifestations of COVID-19, 42% of participants had ongoing loss of smell, 34% loss of taste and 36% loss of smell and taste at 4-6 weeks follow-up, which constitute symptoms of 'long-COVID'. Females (particularly > 40 years) and people with a distorted perception of their sense of smell/taste are likely to benefit from prioritised early therapeutic interventions. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04377815 Date of registration: 23/04/2020.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , London , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013665, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are highly variable. Some people with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain asymptomatic, whilst the infection can cause mild to moderate COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia in others. This can lead to some people requiring intensive care support and, in some cases, to death, especially in older adults. Symptoms such as fever, cough, or loss of smell or taste, and signs such as oxygen saturation are the first and most readily available diagnostic information. Such information could be used to either rule out COVID-19, or select patients for further testing. This is an update of this review, the first version of which published in July 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms to determine if a person presenting in primary care or to hospital outpatient settings, such as the emergency department or dedicated COVID-19 clinics, has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: For this review iteration we undertook electronic searches up to 15 July 2020 in the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the University of Bern living search database. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they included patients with clinically suspected COVID-19, or if they recruited known cases with COVID-19 and controls without COVID-19. Studies were eligible when they recruited patients presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. Studies in hospitalised patients were only included if symptoms and signs were recorded on admission or at presentation. Studies including patients who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection while admitted to hospital were not eligible. The minimum eligible sample size of studies was 10 participants. All signs and symptoms were eligible for this review, including individual signs and symptoms or combinations. We accepted a range of reference standards. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently selected all studies, at both title and abstract stage and full-text stage. They resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklist. We presented sensitivity and specificity in paired forest plots, in receiver operating characteristic space and in dumbbell plots. We estimated summary parameters using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis whenever five or more primary studies were available, and whenever heterogeneity across studies was deemed acceptable. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 44 studies including 26,884 participants in total. Prevalence of COVID-19 varied from 3% to 71% with a median of 21%. There were three studies from primary care settings (1824 participants), nine studies from outpatient testing centres (10,717 participants), 12 studies performed in hospital outpatient wards (5061 participants), seven studies in hospitalised patients (1048 participants), 10 studies in the emergency department (3173 participants), and three studies in which the setting was not specified (5061 participants). The studies did not clearly distinguish mild from severe COVID-19, so we present the results for all disease severities together. Fifteen studies had a high risk of bias for selection of participants because inclusion in the studies depended on the applicable testing and referral protocols, which included many of the signs and symptoms under study in this review. This may have especially influenced the sensitivity of those features used in referral protocols, such as fever and cough. Five studies only included participants with pneumonia on imaging, suggesting that this is a highly selected population. In an additional 12 studies, we were unable to assess the risk for selection bias. This makes it very difficult to judge the validity of the diagnostic accuracy of the signs and symptoms from these included studies. The applicability of the results of this review update improved in comparison with the original review. A greater proportion of studies included participants who presented to outpatient settings, which is where the majority of clinical assessments for COVID-19 take place. However, still none of the studies presented any data on children separately, and only one focused specifically on older adults. We found data on 84 signs and symptoms. Results were highly variable across studies. Most had very low sensitivity and high specificity. Only cough (25 studies) and fever (7 studies) had a pooled sensitivity of at least 50% but specificities were moderate to low. Cough had a sensitivity of 67.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.8% to 74.1%) and specificity of 35.0% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.9%). Fever had a sensitivity of 53.8% (95% CI 35.0% to 71.7%) and a specificity of 67.4% (95% CI 53.3% to 78.9%). The pooled positive likelihood ratio of cough was only 1.04 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.11) and that of fever 1.65 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.93). Anosmia alone (11 studies), ageusia alone (6 studies), and anosmia or ageusia (6 studies) had sensitivities below 50% but specificities over 90%. Anosmia had a pooled sensitivity of 28.0% (95% CI 17.7% to 41.3%) and a specificity of 93.4% (95% CI 88.3% to 96.4%). Ageusia had a pooled sensitivity of 24.8% (95% CI 12.4% to 43.5%) and a specificity of 91.4% (95% CI 81.3% to 96.3%). Anosmia or ageusia had a pooled sensitivity of 41.0% (95% CI 27.0% to 56.6%) and a specificity of 90.5% (95% CI 81.2% to 95.4%). The pooled positive likelihood ratios of anosmia alone and anosmia or ageusia were 4.25 (95% CI 3.17 to 5.71) and 4.31 (95% CI 3.00 to 6.18) respectively, which is just below our arbitrary definition of a 'red flag', that is, a positive likelihood ratio of at least 5. The pooled positive likelihood ratio of ageusia alone was only 2.88 (95% CI 2.02 to 4.09). Only two studies assessed combinations of different signs and symptoms, mostly combining fever and cough with other symptoms. These combinations had a specificity above 80%, but at the cost of very low sensitivity (< 30%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The majority of individual signs and symptoms included in this review appear to have very poor diagnostic accuracy, although this should be interpreted in the context of selection bias and heterogeneity between studies. Based on currently available data, neither absence nor presence of signs or symptoms are accurate enough to rule in or rule out COVID-19. The presence of anosmia or ageusia may be useful as a red flag for COVID-19. The presence of fever or cough, given their high sensitivities, may also be useful to identify people for further testing. Prospective studies in an unselected population presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings, examining combinations of signs and symptoms to evaluate the syndromic presentation of COVID-19, are still urgently needed. Results from such studies could inform subsequent management decisions.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Arthralgia/diagnosis , Arthralgia/etiology , Bias , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Humans , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physical Examination , Selection Bias , Symptom Assessment/classification , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
11.
Br Dent J ; 229(3): 149, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093346
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 258-263, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical evolution and predictors of symptom persistence during 2 months' follow-up in adults with noncritical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed descriptive clinical follow-up (day (D) 7, D30 and D60) of 150 patients with noncritical COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR at Tours University Hospital from 17 March to 3 June 2020, including demographic, clinical and laboratory data collected from the electronic medical records and by phone call. Persisting symptoms were defined by the presence at D30 or D60 of at least one of the following: weight loss ≥5%, severe dyspnoea or asthenia, chest pain, palpitations, anosmia/ageusia, headache, cutaneous signs, arthralgia, myalgia, digestive disorders, fever or sick leave. RESULTS: At D30, 68% (103/150) of patients had at least one symptom; and at D60, 66% (86/130) had symptoms, mainly anosmia/ageusia: 59% (89/150) at symptom onset, 28% (40/150) at D30 and 23% (29/130) at D60. Dyspnoea concerned 36.7% (55/150) patients at D30 and 30% (39/130) at D60. Half of the patients (74/150) at D30 and 40% (52/130) at D60 reported asthenia. Persistent symptoms at D60 were significantly associated with age 40 to 60 years old, hospital admission and abnormal auscultation at symptom onset. At D30, severe COVID-19 and/or dyspnoea at symptom onset were additional factors associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 2 months after symptom onset, two thirds of adults with noncritical COVID-19 had complaints, mainly anosmia/ageusia, dyspnoea or asthenia. A prolonged medical follow-up of patients with COVID-19 seems essential, whatever the initial clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Asthenia/epidemiology , Asthenia/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1114-1134, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic had intense social and economic effects. Patients infected with COVID-19 may present with a series of conditions. A considerable number of patients express taste and smell disturbances as a prodromal, coexistent, or as the only manifestation of COVID-19 infection. The objective of the present review is to review the hypothetical mechanisms of action and etiopathogenesis of dysgeusia in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple scientific databases were explored, including PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane-library, LILACS, Livivo and OpenGrey. All types of articles that discussed the pathogenesis of dysgeusia were included, while articles that described dysgeusia without detail about its mode of action were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 47 articles, with different designs, were included in this review. These articles suggested direct viral neural invasion to olfactory and gustatory nerves, viral cytotoxicity to taste buds, angiotensin II imbalance, augmented pro-inflammatory cytokines, and disturbances in salivary glands and sialic acid. COVID-19 induced-dysgeusia was also associated with systemic diseases, medications, zinc, chemicals, and disinfectants. CONCLUSIONS: The most likely cause of transient dysgeusia in COVID-19 is peripheral neurotropism and direct toxicity to taste buds or olfactory epithelium. Other factors may also play a contributory role in dysgeusia, such as a defect in the quality and quantity of saliva, pro-inflammatory cytokines, angiotensin II accumulation, systemic diseases, hypozincemia, and excessive use of chemicals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/metabolism , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology
14.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(5): 813-824, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072103

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease induced by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 presents among its symptoms alterations of the chemosensory functions. In the first studies on the Chinese population, this symptomatology was not particularly relevant, and hyposmia and hypogeusia were excluded from the symptoms to be evaluated to diagnose the disease. With the pandemic spread of the illness, there has been an augment in reports on chemosensory dysfunctions among patients. The first data analysis showed the presence of these disorders mainly in paucisymptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The interest in chemosensory systems therefore increased considerably, because the olfactory and gustatory symptoms could be the key to stop the infection spread. Furthermore, the degree of alert and attention grew, considering that these types of dysfunctions are prognostic symptoms of serious neurodegenerative diseases. About 9 months have passed since the first anecdotal reports on the involvement of the olfactory and gustatory systems in the COVID-19 pathology. For this reason, a careful review of the literature was conducted to understand if it is clearer which people present chemosensory symptoms and if these are related to the severity of the disease. Furthermore, we have identified which aspects still remain to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Ageusia/etiology , China , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Sensation Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/etiology
15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709621990765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063170

ABSTRACT

Smell loss is important for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) screening and diagnosis. Particular attention should be paid to individuals with pre-COVID-19 chronic hyposmia or anosmia. We report a case of reversible taste impairment in a COVID-19 patient with chronically impaired sense of smell. This case emphasizes the importance of COVID-19-related taste assessment.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mil Med ; 185(11-12): e2176-e2179, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059375

ABSTRACT

A novel corona virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, found in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has since spread to multiple continents and has been implicated in thousands of deaths. This pandemic-causing virus has been initially described (corona virus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) with the presentation of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. The majority of studies published have been conducted on inpatient cases and a shortage of tests has encouraged screening only of patients with classic presentation. A positive COVID-19 case of a healthy military male, with the chief complaint of anosmia and ageusia, instigated local re-evaluation of the screening protocol for possible COVID-19 patients. Multiple studies in Europe have implicated anosmia and ageusia as symptoms associated with COVID-19, and subsequently, anosmia and ageusia have been added to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention screening guidelines as well. There should be a higher index of suspicion when evaluating a patient with high-risk activities, travel, and atypical symptoms. More studies need to be conducted with a healthy outpatient population to further understand this disease and decrease its impact.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Military Personnel , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 85-88, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005761

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection is mixed. It ranges from asymptomatic cases, medium-intensity forms with mild to moderate symptoms, to severe ones with bilateral lung involvement and respiratory distress, which can require transfer to ICUs and intubation. In most cases, the clinical picture is characterized by a persistent fever, cough, dyspnoea, expectoration, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, nasal congestion, and pharyngodynia. The spread of COVID-19 in Europe has highlighted an atypical presentation of disease involving upper airways and, above all, dysfunction of olfactory and gustatory senses. There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children than in adults. However, due to difficulties in assessing the disorder in children, especially among very young patients, the olfaction and gustatory dysfunctions remain open issues. This article sheds light on the upper airway involvement in pediatric COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Ageusia/diagnosis , Anosmia/diagnosis , Child , Humans
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927956, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This case report is of a patient who presented with loss of taste and facial weakness and was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Bell's palsy, associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. GBS is a neurological emergency defined as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The patient responded to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 44-year-old Hispanic man who came for evaluation of bilateral facial weakness and lack of taste sensation. He had lower motor neuron facial weakness. His head computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging scans did not show any pathological abnormalities. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by a nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis via lumbar puncture revealed elevated protein levels, no leukocytes, and a negative Gram stain. The CSF RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 was negative. PCR tests of the CSF for other viral infections were negative. A diagnosis of GBS was made, and he was treated successfully with IVIG. After the fourth dose of IVIG, the patient was able to close his eyes, frown, show his teeth, and smile. CONCLUSIONS Our case is rare because the patient did not present with lower extremity weakness, but only with bilateral Bell's palsy. Physicians should be aware of GBS because it is a neurological emergency for which COVID-19 can be a risk factor. Early diagnosis and treatment of GBS can prevent neurological disability.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/drug therapy , Ageusia/etiology , Bell Palsy/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL