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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858405

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and taste disorders (OTD) are commonly found as presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with clinically mild COVID-19. Virus-specific T cells are thought to play an important role in the clearance of SARS-CoV-2; therefore the study of T cell specific immune responses in patients with mild symptoms may help to understand their possible role in protection from severe disease. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to four different peptide megapools covering all SARS-CoV-2 proteins during the acute phase of the disease in 33 individuals with mild or no other symptom beside OTD and in 22 age-matched patients with severe infection. A control group of 15 outpatients with OTD and consistently negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA swabs and virus-specific IgG serology was included in the study. Increased frequencies of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with OTD compared with those with severe COVID-19 and with SARS-CoV-2 negative OTD individuals. Moreover, enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 peptides was associated with higher interferon (IFN)γ production. Increased frequencies of Spike (S1/S2)-specific CD4+ T cells showing enhanced IFNγ secretion and granzyme B content were associated with serum spike-specific IgG in the OTD group. In conclusion, patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced OTD develop highly functional virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the symptomatic phase of the disease, suggesting that robust and coordinated T-cell responses provide protection against extension of COVID-19 to the lower respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/pathology , Anosmia/pathology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 553-557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363587

ABSTRACT

The persistence of neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the presence of late axonal damage, is still unknown. We performed extensive systemic and neurological follow-up evaluations in 107 out of 193 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 medical unit, University Hospital of Verona, Italy between March and June 2020. We analysed serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in all cases including a subgroup (n = 29) of patients with available onset samples. Comparisons between clinical and biomarker data were then performed. Neurological symptoms were still present in a significant number (n = 49) of patients over the follow-up. The most common reported symptoms were hyposmia (n = 11), fatigue (n = 28), myalgia (n = 14), and impaired memory (n = 11) and were more common in cases with severe acute COVID-19. Follow-up serum NfL values (15.2 pg/mL, range 2.4-62.4) were within normal range in all except 5 patients and did not differentiate patients with vs without persistent neurological symptoms. In patients with available onset and follow-up samples, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of NfL levels was observed and was more evident in patients with a severe acute disease. Despite the common persistence of neurological symptoms, COVID-19 survivors do not show active axonal damage, which seems a peculiar feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Axons/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , Axons/virology , Disease Progression , Fatigue/pathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Memory Disorders/pathology , Memory Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/pathology , Myalgia/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 785-789, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666422

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache, encephalitis, as well as olfactory and taste disorders. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/immunology , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe , Female , Headache/immunology , Headache/pathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North America , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Time Factors
5.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 19(12): 72, 2018 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411162

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: Taste sensation is vital for a healthy body as it influences our food intake, acts as a defense mechanism and elicits pleasure. Majority of the head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy suffer from altered taste function and often complain of inability to taste their food, reduced food intake, and weakness. However, there are not many studies conducted to assess this commonly reported side effect. Furthermore, clinical research on radiotherapy-induced taste alterations has proven to be difficult, considering a lack of reliable and validated study tools for assessing objective and subjective outcomes. Developing standardized tools for assessment of taste function and conducting prospective studies in larger population of HNC is the need of the hour. Taste sensation being critically important for sustenance, we need to focus on ways to preserve it. The physical properties of proton particle enable localization of the radiation dose precisely to the tumor and minimizing the exposure of the adjacent healthy tissues. By using Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy in HNC patients, we anticipate preserving the taste sensation by reducing the dose of radiation to the taste buds.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/pathology , Dysgeusia/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Injuries/pathology , Taste/radiation effects , Humans , Quality of Life , Taste/physiology
6.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 18(6): 289-97, 2012 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22266327

ABSTRACT

Bitter taste perception is an important sensory input warning against the ingestion of toxic and noxious substances. Bitter receptors, a family of ~30 highly divergent G-protein-coupled receptors, are exclusively expressed in taste receptor cells that contain the G-protein α-subunit gustducin, bind to α-gustducin in vitro, and respond to bitter tastes in functional expression assays. We generated a taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5)-Cre/green fluorescent protein reporter transgenic mouse to investigate the tissue distribution of T2R5. Our results showed that Cre gene expression in these mice was faithful to the expression of T2R5 in taste tissue. More surprisingly, immunostaining and X-gal staining revealed T2R5 expression in the testis. Ablation of T2R5 + cells led to a smaller testis and removed the spermatid phase from most of the seminiferous tubules. The entire taste transduction cascade (α-gustducin, Ggamma13, phospholipase Cß2) was detected in spermatogenesis, whereas transient receptor potential, cation channel subfamily M member 5 (Trpm5), was observed only in the later spermatid phase. In short, our results indicate that the taste transduction cascade may be involved in spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Phospholipase C beta/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spermatogenesis , Testis/metabolism , Ageusia/metabolism , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Animals , Crosses, Genetic , Genes, Reporter , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Oligospermia/metabolism , Oligospermia/pathology , Oligospermia/physiopathology , Organ Size , Organ Specificity , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Spermatids/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Taste Buds/metabolism , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/physiopathology , Testis/cytology , Testis/pathology , Testis/physiopathology
7.
J Neuroimaging ; 21(3): 263-5, 2011 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21255178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based upon scarce clinical data in humans and experimental findings in animal studies, it has been postulated that the ascending gustatory projection from the nucleus tractus solitarii courses ipsilaterally through the pons and midbrain to the ipsilateral ventral posteromedial nucleus. Thus, it has been assumed that ischemic lesions affecting the secondary projection gustatory fibers would cause ipsilateral taste disorders. DESCRIPTION OF CASE: We report a case of bilateral ageusia following an acute right midbrain and thalamic infarction affecting the ipsilateral central trigeminal tract and ventral posteromedial nucleus in a right-handed man. CONCLUSION: The present case indicates that, in contrast to animal data, some secondary projection gustatory fibers may cross in humans and consequently unilateral right-sided posterior circulation ischemic lesions can cause bilateral gustatory deficits.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Mesencephalon/pathology , Thalamus/pathology , Adult , Ageusia/pathology , Cerebral Infarction/pathology , Humans , Male , Solitary Nucleus/pathology
8.
An. psiquiatr ; 21(2): 88-90, mar.-abr. 2005. tab
Article in Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-041675

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los efectos secundarios de venlafaxina son considerados generalmente poco numerosos e importantes. Ageusia (ausencia de gusto) está muy poco descrito. Caso clínico: Paciente de 50 años de edad, diagnosticada de trastorno bipolar, episodio actual depresivo grave sin síntomas psicóticos (F31.4, CIE-10). Fue tratada con venlafaxina (225 mg) y carbonato de litio (1.000 mg). Desarrollando un cuadro de ageusia, que solo desapareció al suspender el tratamiento con el antidepresivo. Discusión y conclusiones: Venlafaxina, antidepresivo inhibidor de serotonina y noradrenalina, puede ocasionar ageusia raramente. El mecanismo de acción es desconocido, aunque se supone relacionado con los cambios en la recepción del gusto en las papilas gustativas


Introduction: The secondary effets of venlafaxine are not generally considerate important. We have not found cases of “taste absence” (ageusia) in the literature about velanfaxine. Case: The clinical case of a 50-year-old woman, diagnosed of bipolar disorder, current episode depressive serious, without psicotics symptoms. (F31.4, CIE-10). This patient was treated with venlafaxine (225 mg) and carbonate of litio (1,000 mg). This patient did a problem of taste absence (ageusia), which only disappear when venlafaxine was stopped. Discusion and conclusions: Venlafaxina, antidepressant ihibitor of serotonine and nor-adrenalin, may induce taste absence (ageusia) rarely. The mechanism of action is unknown, although is probably related with the changes in the reception of taste in the gustatory papillas


Subject(s)
Female , Adult , Humans , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/pathology , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/pathology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/adverse effects , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/prevention & control
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 110(6): 598-601, 1996 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8763388

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 31-year-old woman with ageusia. Her ageusia was related to a variety of causes including an unbalanced diet, administration of the anti-epileptic drug, carbamazepine and psychological factors. Her taste function recovered after stopping the carbamazepine and treatment with liver extracts and zinc sulphate.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anorexia/complications , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adult , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/psychology , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Tongue/pathology
10.
Eur Neurol ; 34(6): 344-6, 1994.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7851458

ABSTRACT

Ageusia and the cheirooral syndrome developed in a patient with a relapse of multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an area of demyelination in the thalamus. This lesion presumably affected the most medial part of the ventralis posterior nucleus, where taste information is located. Given the proximity of the taste area and somatosensory representation of the hand and oral cavity in the ventralis posterior nucleus, we propose that a diagnosis of thalamic lesion should be considered when ageusia occurs with the cheirooral syndrome.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Thalamus/pathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Sensation Disorders/complications , Sensation Disorders/diagnosis , Thalamic Nuclei/pathology
11.
J Oral Pathol ; 16(1): 13-7, 1987 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2435874

ABSTRACT

To explore the relationship between taste acuity and zinc deficiency, a histochemical investigation was made into the taste buds of mice fed a zinc-deficient diet. Nine weeks after the start of the diet, the average serum zinc level of the mice was 45% lower than that of a control group of mice. Moreover, growth was arrested significantly. Two-bottle preference tests revealed that the intake ratio of 10(-5) M quinine hydrochloride solutions had increased markedly in the zinc-deficient mice compared with the controls. The circumvallate taste buds showed no morphological changes. Fluorescent histochemical examination showed an uptake of a monoamine precursor (5-HTP) by the gustatory cells in the zinc-deficient mice after the 5-HTP treatment. Upon immunohistological examination, however, no serotonin immunoreactivity appeared in the gustatory cells of the zinc-deficient mice after the 5-HTP treatment. These results suggest that zinc-deficiency may induce hypogeusia and decrease the ability to transform a monoamine precursor to monoamine in the gustatory cells, albeit the monoamine precursor uptake ability is not affected.


Subject(s)
APUD Cells/metabolism , Ageusia/metabolism , Taste Buds/metabolism , Taste Disorders/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , APUD Cells/pathology , Ageusia/pathology , Animals , Body Weight , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Staining and Labeling , Taste Buds/pathology , Zinc/blood , Zinc/metabolism
12.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 89(3-4): 240-8, 1980.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7395495

ABSTRACT

By administering acetyl-homocysteine and D-Penicillamine to the guinea pig, ageusia and hipogeusia respectively were obtained. Copper concentration was estimated in serum, saliva, liver, salivary glands, muscle, heart and tongue. A significant decrease in the concentration of this metal in the liver was observed and a slight increase in the rest (average values). The results were similar for both drugs. We believe that copper does not play any role in the taste process. The fact that this and other metals restore taste would indicate that those metals bind the SH groups of the drugs and that they are probably responsible for the ageusia.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/chemically induced , Copper/metabolism , Homocysteine/analogs & derivatives , Penicillamine , Taste Disorders/chemically induced , Ageusia/pathology , Animals , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Guinea Pigs , Liver/analysis , Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism , Taste/drug effects , Time Factors , Tongue/pathology
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