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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 880, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a collective scientific effort to study its viral causing agent SARS-CoV-2. Research is focusing in particular on its infection mechanisms and on the associated-disease symptoms. Interestingly, this environmental pathogen directly affects the human chemosensory systems leading to anosmia and ageusia. Evidence for the presence of the cellular entry sites of the virus, the ACE2/TMPRSS2 proteins, has been reported in non-chemosensory cells in the rodent's nose and mouth, missing a direct correlation between the symptoms reported in patients and the observed direct viral infection in human sensory cells. Here, mapping the gene and protein expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 in the mouse olfactory and gustatory cells, we precisely identify the virus target cells to be of basal and sensory origin and reveal the age-dependent appearance of viral entry-sites. Our results propose an alternative interpretation of the human viral-induced sensory symptoms and give investigative perspectives on animal models.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Age Factors , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mice , Olfactory Perception , Taste Perception
2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(5): 691-694, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is typically associated with a respiratory syndrome, but gastrointestinal symptoms have been described in early reports from China. However, data from European centres are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterise the gastrointestinal manifestations of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their disease course. METHODS: Patients admitted at our centre between March and April 2020 with diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Asymptomatic patients or those without symptom information were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory data and disease severity (mechanical ventilation, intensive care admission or death) were analysed. RESULTS: Two-hundred one patients were included (median age 71 years; 56.2% male). Digestive symptoms were reported by 60 (29.9%) patients during the disease course, being part of the disease presentation in 34 (16.9%). The most frequent were diarrhoea in 36 patients (17.9%). Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were younger (P = 0.032), had higher haemoglobin levels (P = 0.002) and lower C-reactive protein (P = 0.045) and potassium levels (P = 0.004). Patients with digestive symptoms had less severe disease (28.3 vs. 44.0%; P = 0.038). Regarding liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was elevated in 65.2% of patients and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 62.7%, but these patients did not present a more severe disease (elevated AST P = 0.062; elevated ALT P = 0.276). CONCLUSION: A significant portion of COVID-19 patients have digestive symptoms, mostly at presentation. This should be taken into account in order to keep a high level of suspicion to reach an early diagnosis and setup infection control measures to control the transmission rate. This subgroup of patients appears to have a less severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/metabolism , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/metabolism , Nausea/physiopathology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/metabolism , Young Adult
3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709621990765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063170

ABSTRACT

Smell loss is important for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) screening and diagnosis. Particular attention should be paid to individuals with pre-COVID-19 chronic hyposmia or anosmia. We report a case of reversible taste impairment in a COVID-19 patient with chronically impaired sense of smell. This case emphasizes the importance of COVID-19-related taste assessment.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
5.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 174S-179S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine taste and smell impairment rates in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Between March 2020 and May 2020, patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in the ICU were enrolled in this study. Upon discharge, patients were telephoned and asked to complete a survey related to taste and smell impairment. Characteristics were compared between patients with and without taste and/or smell impairment. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were enrolled (mean age, 61.32 ± 12.53 years; mean ICU stay, 10.19 ± 10.24 days). Age, sex, type/number of comorbid diseases, most ICU support modalities, and ICU stay duration did not significantly differ between groups. Patients in group B required more high-flow nasal oxygen therapy than patients in group A (P = .010). In total, 22 (42.3%) of 52 patients experienced taste and/or smell impairment. Three patients experienced isolated smell impairment and one patient experienced isolated taste impairment. Among the 21 patients who experienced smell impairment, 18 (85.78%) experienced hyposmia (mean visual analog scale [VAS] score: 6.33 ± 0.97), while 3 (14.28%) experienced anosmia. Among the 19 patients who experienced taste impairment, 16 (84.22%) experienced hypogeusia (mean VAS score: 6.43 ± 1.03) and 3 (15.78%) experienced ageuisa. Among 22 patients who experienced taste and/or smell impairment, 15 (68.18%) patients (n = 15/22) experienced smell and/or taste impairment before the ICU stay, while 7 (31.82%) patients (n = 7/22) experienced impairment during the ICU stay. Overall, 28.84% (n = 15/52) of the patients experienced taste and/or smell impairment before the ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who were hospitalized in the ICU experienced lower rates of taste and/or smell impairment. Some patients experienced taste and/or smell impairment during the ICU stay.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 169S-173S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory dysfunction is relatively high in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of olfactory disorder objectively in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study included 31 healthy controls and 59 COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed and treated in the COVID departments in a tertiary hospital. The patients with corona virus infection were screened by a questionnaire and were classified into 2 groups as either group 2 (patients without self-reported smell loss) or group 3 (patients with self-reported smell loss). Age and gender matched healthy controls who do not have chronic nasal condition or nasal surgery history comprised the control group (group 1). All of the patients and subjects in the control group were tested by the Sniffin' Sticks test. All of the answers and scores were recorded, and the comparisons were made. RESULTS: The rate of self-reported smell and taste loss in all COVID-19 patients in this study was 52.5% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant difference in threshold, discrimination, identification, and Threshold, Discrimination, Identification (TDI) scores between groups 1 and 2. When the comparisons between group 1 and 3 were made, again threshold, discrimination, identification, and TDI scores were significantly different. The comparison between groups 2 and 3 demonstrated a significant difference in discrimination, identification, and TDI scores, but threshold score was not different statistically. With questionnaire, the rate of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients was 52.5%, but with objective test, the rate was calculated as 83%. CONCLUSION: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are common in COVID-19 patients. According to findings with the objective test method in this study, smell disorder in COVID-19 patients was much higher than those detected by questionnaires.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Self Report , Sensory Thresholds , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odorants , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Threshold , Young Adult
7.
Neurol Sci ; 42(1): 39-46, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A wide range of neurological manifestations has been described in COVID-19. METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective observational study, patients in Tunisia diagnosed with COVID-19 between the 2nd of March and the 16th of May 2020 were contacted by telephone. We collected demographic and clinical data and specified characteristics and evolution of main neurological symptoms. RESULTS: Of 1034 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 646 were included (mean age 42.17 years old) and 466 (72.1%) had neurological symptoms. Neurological symptoms were isolated 22.7% (n = 106). Headache was the most frequent neurological symptom (n = 279, 41.1%): mainly frontotemporal (n = 143, 51.1%) and mild or moderate (n = 165, 59.1%). When associated with fever (n = 143, 51.3%), headache was more likely to be severe and present at onset. Recovery was reported in 83.2%. Smell and taste impairment were found in 37.9% (n = 245) and 36.8% (n = 238) respectively. Among them, 65.3% (156/239) were anosmic and 63.2% (146/231) were ageusic. A complete improvement was found in 72.1% (174/240) of smell impairment and in 76.8% (179/233) of taste impairment. Myalgia (n = 241, 37.3%) and sleep disturbances (n = 241, 37.3%) were also frequent. Imported cases had more neurological symptoms (p = 0.001). In 14.5%, neurological symptoms preceded the respiratory signs (RS). RS were associated with more frequent (p = 0.006) and numerous (p < 0.001) neurological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 are frequent, can be isolated and present at onset. A total recovery is the most recorded outcome. RS are predictive of neurological symptoms. Studies in to virus and host genetics should be considered to understand the different phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Myalgia/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Tunisia/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 3-11, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pooled global prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: Literature searches of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were conducted on April 19, 2020, to include articles written in English that reported the prevalence of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. REVIEW METHODS: Search strategies developed for each database contained keywords such as anosmia, dysgeusia, and COVID-19. Resulting articles were imported into a systematic review software and underwent screening. Data from articles that met inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed. Meta-analysis using pooled prevalence estimates in a random-effects model were calculated. RESULTS: Ten studies were analyzed for olfactory dysfunction (n = 1627), demonstrating 52.73% (95% CI, 29.64%-75.23%) prevalence among patients with COVID-19. Nine studies were analyzed for gustatory dysfunction (n = 1390), demonstrating 43.93% (95% CI, 20.46%-68.95%) prevalence. Subgroup analyses were conducted for studies evaluating olfactory dysfunction using nonvalidated and validated instruments and demonstrated 36.64% (95% CI, 18.31%-57.24%) and 86.60% (95% CI, 72.95%-95.95%) prevalence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are common symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and may represent early symptoms in the clinical course of infection. Increased awareness of this fact may encourage earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as heighten vigilance for viral transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to report on the prevalence of these symptoms in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Global Health , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
9.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 121, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Headache is the most common COVID-19-related neurological symptom. We aimed to reveal diagnostic clues of headache for COVID-19 infection and to investigate the course of primary headaches during the pandemic. METHODS: We developed a detailed web-based questionnaire screening the characteristics and course of headaches besides clinical COVID-19 features. The participants were grouped according to being diagnosed with COVID-19 infection or not, and having previous or new-onset headaches. The COVID-19 related headache features and their associations with other clinical features were investigated. A binary logistic regression model was performed to differentiate the characteristics of headache related to COVID-19. FINDINGS: A total of 3458 participants (2341 females;67.7%, 1495 healthcare workers;43.2%) with a mean age of 43.21 ± 11.2 years contributed to the survey. Among them, 262 participants had COVID-19 diagnosis and 126 (48.1%) were male. The rate of males in the group without COVID-19 was 31% (991 out of 3196 participants) showing significant gender difference between groups (p < 0.000). COVID-19 related headaches were more closely associated with anosmia/ageusia and gastrointestinal complaints (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and showed different characteristics like pulsating, pressing, and even stabbing quality. Logistic regression analyses showed that bilateral headache, duration over 72 h, analgesic resistance and having male gender were significant variables to differentiate COVID-19 positive patients from those without COVID-19 (p = 0.04 for long duration and p < 0.000 for others). A worsening of previous primary headaches due to the pandemic-related problems was not reported in the majority of patients. INTERPRETATION: Bilateral, long-lasting headaches, resistance to analgesics and having male gender were more frequent in people with COVID-19 in conjunction with anosmia/ageusia and gastrointestinal complaints. These features may be helpful for diagnosing the headache related to COVID-19 during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Headache/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(4): 691-697, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840632

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal evidence rapidly accumulated during March 2020 from sites around the world that sudden hyposmia and hypogeusia are significant symptoms associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of hyposmia and hypogeusia and compare it in hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients to evaluate an association of these symptoms with disease severity. We performed a cross-sectional survey during 5 consecutive days in March 2020, within a tertiary referral center, associated outpatient clinic, and two primary care outpatient facilities in Paris. All SARS-CoV-2-positive patients hospitalized during the study period and able to be interviewed (n = 198), hospital outpatients seen during the previous month (n = 129), and all COVID-19-highly suspect patients in two primary health centers (n = 63) were included. Hospitalized patients were significantly more often male (64 vs 40%) and older (66 vs 43 years old in median) and had significantly more comorbidities than outpatients. Hyposmia and hypogeusia were reported by 33% of patients and occurred significantly less frequently in hospitalized patients (12% and 13%, respectively) than in the health centers' outpatients (33% and 43%, respectively) and in the hospital outpatients (65% and 60%, respectively). Hyposmia and hypogeusia appeared more frequently after other COVID-19 symptoms. Patients with hyposmia and/or hypogeusia were significantly younger and had significantly less respiratory severity criteria than patients without these symptoms. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction occurs frequently in COVID-19, especially in young, non-severe patients. These symptoms might be a useful tool for initial diagnostic work-up in patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/physiopathology , Ambulatory Care , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
13.
Neurol India ; 68(3): 560-572, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640338

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, in most patients, presents with mild flu-like illness. Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths. Neurological complications are frequently reported in severely or critically ill patients with comorbidities. In COVID-19, both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes the disease COVID-19 and has the potential to invade the brain. The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain either via a hematogenous route or olfactory system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme two receptors, present on endothelial cells of cerebral vessels, are a possible viral entry point. The most severe neurological manifestations, altered sensorium (agitation, delirium, and coma), are because of hypoxic and metabolic abnormalities. Characteristic cytokine storm incites severe metabolic changes and multiple organ failure. Profound coagulopathies may manifest with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Rarely, SARS-CoV-2 virus encephalitis or pictures like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or acute necrotizing encephalopathy have been reported. Nonspecific headache is a commonly experienced neurological symptom. A new type of headache "personal protection equipment-related headache" has been described. Complete or partial anosmia and ageusia are common peripheral nervous system manifestations. Recently, many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19 patients have been observed, and a postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory process was held responsible for this. Guillain-Barré syndrome does respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury. Most of the reports about neurological complications are currently from China. COVID-19 pandemic is spreading to other parts of the world; the spectrum of neurological complications is likely to widen further.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/blood , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/immunology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coma/etiology , Coma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/immunology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/blood , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(8): e199-e200, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591042

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of a cluster of viral pneumonia cases in Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China, at the end of December 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus also known as "coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)," as of 7 April 2020, more than 1,214,466 cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in more than 67,767 deaths. The disease was recognized by World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Published reports of adult patients with COVID-19 infection described symptoms including fever, cough, fatigue, sputum production, headache, dyspnea and diarrhea. Children usually showed milder respiratory symptoms or were asymptomatic, while loss of taste or sensation of smell were seldom reported. In this paper, we report three cases of pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection who presented with anosmia and/or ageusia.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 699-702, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-96729

ABSTRACT

Neurologic sequelae can be devastating complications of respiratory viral infections. We report the presence of virus in neural and capillary endothelial cells in frontal lobe tissue obtained at postmortem examination from a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our observations of virus in neural tissue, in conjunction with clinical correlates of worsening neurologic symptoms, pave the way to a closer understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying central nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Ataxia/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Seizures/diagnosis , Aged , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/physiopathology , Ageusia/virology , Ataxia/complications , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Fatal Outcome , Frontal Lobe/blood supply , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/virology
20.
Neurology ; 95(5): e601-e605, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report 2 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented acutely with Miller Fisher syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis, respectively. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from medical records from the University Hospital "Príncipe de Asturias," Alcalá de Henares, and the University Hospital "12 de Octubre," Madrid, Spain. RESULTS: A 50-year-old man presented with anosmia, ageusia, right internuclear ophthalmoparesis, right fascicular oculomotor palsy, ataxia, areflexia, albuminocytologic dissociation, and positive testing for anti-GD1b-immunoglobulin G antibody. Five days previously, he had developed a cough, malaise, headache, low back pain, and fever. A 39-year-old man presented with ageusia, bilateral abducens palsy, areflexia, and albuminocytologic dissociation. Three days previously, he had developed diarrhea, a low-grade fever, and poor general condition. Oropharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay was positive in both patients and negative in the CSF. The first patient was treated with IV immunoglobulin and the second with acetaminophen. Two weeks later, both patients made a complete neurologic recovery, except for residual anosmia and ageusia in the first case. CONCLUSIONS: Our 2 cases highlight the rare occurrence of Miller Fisher syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These neurologic manifestations may occur because of an aberrant immune response to COVID-19. The full clinical spectrum of neurologic symptoms in patients with COVID-19 remains to be characterized.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/physiopathology , Neuritis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/immunology , Gangliosides/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/etiology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/immunology , Neuritis/etiology , Neuritis/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain
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