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1.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(4): 283-289, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572184

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout the world. Poor mental health has been reported among healthcare professionals responding to COVID-19. However, no study has examined the impact of COVID-19-related workplace bullying or patient aggression on the mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak. This study examined the prevalence of COVID-19-related workplace bullying and patient aggression and its association with psychological distress among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May 22 to 26, 2020, inviting participants (n = 1,421) from an online survey of full-time employees. We limited the sample to healthcare professionals for further analyses. Using an online self-report questionnaire, workplace bullying and patient aggression related to COVID-19 was measured using nine items with dichotomous response options. Psychological distress was measured using the Japanese version of Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Among 1,032 participants (72.6%) who completed the survey, 111 healthcare professionals were identified. Among them, 19 participants (17.1%) had experienced any COVID-19-related workplace bullying or patient aggression: 11 participants (9.9%) had experienced any workplace bullying and 12 participants (10.8%) had experienced any patient aggression. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that any bullying or patient aggression related to COVID-19 significantly correlated with psychological distress. It was suggested that a non-negligible proportion of participants experienced workplace bullying or patient aggression related to COVID-19. Preventing and reducing workplace bullying and patient aggression may be effective in improving mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Aggression/psychology , Bullying , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Stress/complications , Psychological Distress , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(2): 883-893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with advanced dementia often exhibit responsive behaviors such as apathy, depression, agitation, aggression, and psychosis. Non-pharmacological approaches (e.g., listening to music, watching television, doing arts and crafts) are now considered as a first-line strategy to manage responsive behaviors in clinical practice due to the potential risks associated with the antipsychotic medications. To date, no evaluations of immersive non-head mounted virtual reality (VR) experience as a non-pharmacologic approach for people with advanced dementia living in nursing homes have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility (acceptance and safety) of VR experience. METHODS: A single site case series (nonrandomized and unblinded) with a convenience sample (N = 24; age = 85.8±8.6 years; Cognitive Performance Scale score = 3.4±0.6) measuring depression and agitation before and after the intervention. The intervention was a 30-min long research coordinator- facilitated VR experience for two weeks (10 sessions). RESULTS: The intervention was feasible (attrition rate = 0% ; adverse events = 0). A reduction in depression and in agitation was observed after the intervention. However, we suggest extreme caution in interpreting this result considering the study design and small sample size. CONCLUSION: This study provides the basis for conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of VR experience on responsive behaviors in nursing homes. Since our intervention uses a smart remote-controlled projector without a headset, infectious exposure can be avoided following the COVID-19 pandemic-induced physical distancing policy in care homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virtual Reality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aggression/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life/psychology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463708

ABSTRACT

Social behavioral changes, including social isolation or loneliness, increase the risk for stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide, which share a strong neuroinflammatory etiopathogenetic component. The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, a newly discovered target involved in emotional behavior regulation, is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor and a transcription factor that, following stimulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands, may induce neuroprotective effects by modulating neuroinflammation, and improve anxiety and depression-like behaviors by enhancing neurosteroid biosynthesis. How stress affects epigenetic mechanisms with downstream effects on inflammation and emotional behavior remains poorly understood. We studied the effects of 4-week social isolation, using a mouse model of PTSD/suicide-like behavior, on hippocampal PPAR-α epigenetic modification. Decreased PPAR-α expression in the hippocampus of socially isolated mice was associated with increased levels of methylated cytosines of PPAR-α gene CpG-rich fragments and deficient neurosteroid biosynthesis. This effect was associated with increased histone deacetylases (HDAC)1, methyl-cytosine binding protein (MeCP)2 and decreased ten-eleven translocator (TET)2 expression, which favor hypermethylation. These alterations were associated with increased TLR-4 and pro-inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-α,), mediated by NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus of aggressive mice. This study contributes the first evidence of stress-induced brain PPAR-α epigenetic regulation. Social isolation stress may constitute a risk factor for inflammatory-based psychiatric disorders associated with neurosteroid deficits, and targeting epigenetic marks linked to PPAR-α downregulation may offer a valid therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Hippocampus/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , PPAR alpha/genetics , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Aggression/psychology , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , CpG Islands , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Methylation , Mice , PPAR alpha/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Signal Transduction
4.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 289-300, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected the development of negative phenomena such as anxiety symptoms, a tendency to use alcohol and aggressive behaviors. It is postulated to investigate the factors limiting the development of the indicated adverse effects. One of the psychological resources that may have a significant, pro-health character in relation to mental functioning is ego-resiliency (ER). It is described as a personality trait associated with a high ability to adequately regulate self-control, depending on the conditions. There are studies providing information about the prohealth, adaptive nature of ER during the COVID­19 period. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between ER and anxiety, the tendency to use alcohol and aggression in the group of Polish people in the initial lockdown period in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 538 adult Polish people participated in the study. The Ego-Resiliency Scale referred to as ER89-R12, according to Block's concept, was used to measure ER. The other scales used were the General Anxiety Disorder Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, the multiple regression procedure, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis rank ANOVA. Cronbach's α coefficients were also assessed. RESULTS: Statistically significant negative relationships between ER and the severity of anxiety symptoms and generalized aggression were found. There was a weak positive relationship between ER and the tendency to use alcohol. Among the surveyed Polish people, higher ER was characteristic of the older respondents (aged >29 years) and people with higher education. CONCLUSIONS: Ego-resiliency in the times of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic can counteract the development of anxiety and aggression. Optimal regulation seems to play an important role in this relationship. The relationship between resiliency and the tendency to use alcohol requires further observation. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):289-300.


Subject(s)
Aggression/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Ego , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Community Psychol ; 49(6): 2134-2143, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103312

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess depression and anxiety levels among individuals, who are deaf during the lockdown throughout the first wave of the pandemic United Arab Emirates. The sample of the study consisted of 36 (n = 36) individuals aged 20.3 ± 1.2 years, who were deaf from birth. The respondents were divided into two groups; (1) those who were living with their parents (n = 20), (2) those who were independently living on their own (n = 16). Results of the study indicated that from May to October, there was decrease in the number of normal mental health cases among those living with parents (p ≤ 0.05). The results of the study show that in the time of the pandemic, deaf people constitute a vulnerable portion of the population. The correlation between living alone and stress levels was 0.78. The correlation between living with parents and stress levels was -0.85.


Subject(s)
Aggression/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Deafness/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
A A Pract ; 15(2): e01398, 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099913

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted the creation of novel techniques to protect patients and health care providers. Simulations showed that disposable oxygen face tents act as a physical barrier and can be repurposed as a negative airflow tent. This case study presents a pediatric patient requiring dental surgery, ineligible for preoperative testing for COVID-19 due to developmental delay and aggression. Precautionary measures were taken by means of full personal protective equipment (PPE) and negative airflow tent. The tent added additional protection and is a promising new technique that is disposable, widely available, and offers full access to proceduralists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Tooth Extraction , Aggression/psychology , Air Movements , Anesthesia, General , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Developmental Disabilities/psychology , Humans , Male , Patient Compliance/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113692, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989073

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the impact of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 disease on mood state and behaviours of children and adolescents with ADHD. Nine hundred ninety-two parents of children and adolescents with ADHD filled out an anonymous online survey through the ADHD family association website. The survey investigated the degree of severity of six emotional and mood states (sadness, boredom, little enjoyment/interest, irritability, temper tantrums, anxiety) and five disrupted behaviours (verbal and physical aggression, argument, opposition, restlessness) based on their frequency/week (absent; low: 1-2 days/week; moderate: 3-4 days/week; severe: 5-7 days/week) before and during the lockdown. Important fluctuations were found in all dimensions during the lockdown independently by the severity degree. Subjects with previous low severity degree of these behaviors significantly worsened in almost all dimensions during the lockdown. On the contrary, ADHD patients with moderate and severe degree showed important improvement during the lockdown. Little enjoyment/interests and boredom resulted the dimensions more strongly affected by the condition of restriction, overall in children. Children vs. adolescents showed substantially similar trend but the former resulted significantly more vulnerable to emotive changes. The results provided both the individuation of domains affected, and the indirect benefits produced by restriction condition.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Aggression/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Boredom , Child , Female , Humans , Irritable Mood , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Conscious Cogn ; 87: 103051, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921869

ABSTRACT

Ninety-one dreams collected during the Covid-19 pandemic (the epidemic-situation sample) were compared with ninety-one dreams collected before the start of the epidemic (the non-epidemic-situation sample). The dreams were classified according to their content, using methods based on previous studies. The frequency of themes was compared to predictions that would be anticipated by three contemporary theories of dreaming: 1) threat simulation theory (TST); 2) incorporation continuity hypothesis (ICH); and 3) social simulation theory (SST). The epidemic-situation sample dreamed more of threatening events than the non-epidemic-situation sample (supporting the TST) and more of non-aggression threatening events, possibly due to the hyperassociation during sleep. However, the epidemic-situation sample did not show a greater prevalence of illness events in dreams (not supporting the ICH). Additionally, there was no significant difference in social neutral and positive events in dreams between the two samples as would have been predicted by the SST.


Subject(s)
Aggression/psychology , Association , COVID-19 , Dreams/psychology , Fear/psychology , Psychological Theory , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
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