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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869803

ABSTRACT

From 29 November to 1 December 2021, an "emerging animal infectious disease conference (EAIDC)" was held at the Pennsylvania State University. This conference brought together distinguished thought leaders in animal health, veterinary diagnostics, epidemiology and disease surveillance, and agricultural economics. The conference's primary objective was to review the lessons learned from past experiences in dealing with high-consequence animal infectious diseases to inform an action plan to prepare for future epizootics and panzootics. Invited speakers and panel members comprised world-leading experts in animal infectious diseases from federal state agencies, academia, professional societies, and the private sector. The conference concluded that the biosecurity of livestock operations is critical for minimizing the devastating impact of emerging animal infectious diseases. The panel also highlighted the need to develop and benchmark cutting-edge diagnostics for rapidly detecting pathogens in clinical samples and the environment. Developing next-generation pathogen agnostic diagnostics will help detect variants of known pathogens and unknown novel pathogens. The conference also highlighted the importance of the One Health approach in dealing with emerging animal and human infectious diseases. The recommendations of the conference may be used to inform policy discussions focused on developing strategies for monitoring and preventing emerging infectious disease threats to the livestock industry.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Humans
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 882943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865473

ABSTRACT

In the present age, the world agricultural heritage can inspire agroecology and sustainable agriculture. But various risks have threatened, eroded and forgotten this heritage, so dynamic conservation of this heritage is essential. In this study, "Qanat Irrigated Agricultural Heritage Systems, Kashan, Iran" which has been registered worldwide in the face of corona pandemic risks has been selected as a case study. In this qualitative research, in addition to field observations and documentary studies, 25 in-depth interviews and 39 semi-structured interviews with experts and key informants was done and grounded theory and content analysis have been used. In the process of interviews and analyzes based on "risk society theory", risks and wicked problems and related solutions have been identified and finally based on cultural theory, "clumsy solution space" has been summarized and presented for dynamic conservation. Based on the findings of this study, paying attention to a kind of reward for ecosystem services, developing online sales of agricultural products in rural areas of Kashan and also creating twinning with similar areas can help solve wicked problems. Also, paying more attention to the regulations for the protection of qanats, as well as the laws for home business insurance, can strengthen sustainable development in this rural area. Due to the wide range of different dimensions of agricultural heritage, it is suggested that in future research, clumsy solution spaces for each of these dimensions be created and developed separately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1126489, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861688

ABSTRACT

Agricultural finance is in an embarrassing position in the current financial environment, especially during the process of COVID-19. Based on a small-scale peasant economy, it can no longer meet the rapidly rising demand of farmers for agricultural finance. Moreover, there has been a serious disconnection between the financial system of secondary and tertiary industries, and the quality of development needs to be improved urgently. The agricultural loan risk assessment has always been the main problem that we pay great attention to in the innovation of agricultural finance. Agricultural loans are an indispensable element in supporting agricultural development and promoting rural revitalization strategy. However, financial institutions have certain credit risks in reviewing and issuing agricultural loans. This article studies the speech emotion recognition of farmers in loan review to assess loan risk. As for emotional confusion caused by speech segmentation, a special method of data connection between Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) Networks is designed, and a variable-length speech emotion recognition model including CNN and Bi-LSTM is designed. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the risk assessment of farmers in loan review.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Agriculture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Risk Assessment
4.
Biomolecules ; 12(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855504

ABSTRACT

Global food systems are under significant pressure to provide enough food, particularly protein-rich foods whose demand is on the rise in times of crisis and inflation, as presently existing due to post-COVID-19 pandemic effects and ongoing conflict in Ukraine and resulting in looming food insecurity, according to FAO. Cultivated meat (CM) and cultivated seafood (CS) are protein-rich alternatives for traditional meat and fish that are obtained via cellular agriculture (CA) i.e., tissue engineering for food applications. Stem and progenitor cells are the building blocks and starting point for any CA bioprocess. This review presents CA-relevant vertebrate cell types and procedures needed for their myogenic and adipogenic differentiation since muscle and fat tissue are the primary target tissues for CM/CS production. The review also describes existing challenges, such as a need for immortalized cell lines, or physical and biochemical parameters needed for enhanced meat/fat culture efficiency and ways to address them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Meat , Stem Cells
5.
Glycoconj J ; 39(1): 83-97, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813733

ABSTRACT

Plants contain an extended group of lectins differing from each other in their molecular structures, biochemical properties and carbohydrate-binding specificities. The heterogeneous group of plant lectins can be classified in several families based on the primary structure of the lectin domain. All proteins composed of one or more lectin domains, or having a domain architecture including one or more lectin domains in combination with other protein domains can be defined as lectins. Plant lectins reside in different cell compartments, and depending on their location will encounter a large variety carbohydrate structures, allowing them to be involved in multiple biological functions. Over the years lectins have been studied intensively for their carbohydrate-binding properties and biological activities, which also resulted in diverse applications. The present overview on plant lectins especially focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of plant lectins and their applications for crop improvement, glycobiology and biomedical research.


Subject(s)
Lectins , Plant Lectins , Agriculture , Glycomics , Humans , Lectins/metabolism , Plant Lectins/chemistry , Protein Domains
6.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810311

ABSTRACT

Plant viruses constitute a large group of pathogens causing damaging diseases in many agricultural and horticultural crops around the world [...].


Subject(s)
Plant Viruses , Agriculture , Crops, Agricultural , Genomics , Plant Diseases , Plant Viruses/genetics
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809854

ABSTRACT

The occupational health of immigrant workers in the United States is a major concern. This analysis describes two domains, organization of work and work safety culture, important to the occupational health of Latinx women in farmworker families. Sixty-seven Latinx women in North Carolina farmworker families completed a baseline and five follow-up questionnaires in 2019 through 2021. Fifty-nine of the women were employed in the year prior to the Follow-Up 5 Questionnaire. These women experienced an abysmal organization of work and work safety culture. They experienced significant job churn, with most changing employment several times during the 18-month period. Most of their jobs were seasonal, paid less than $10.00 per hour, piece-rate, and almost all without benefits. The women's jobs had little skill variety (mean 1.5) or decision latitude (mean 1.1), but had high psychological demands (mean 2.0). Work safety climate was very low (mean 13.7), with 76.3% of women noting that their supervisors were "only interested in doing the job fast and cheaply" rather than safely. Women employed as farmworkers versus those in other jobs had few differences. Further research and intervention are needed on the organization of work and work safety culture of Latinx women manual workers.


Subject(s)
Occupational Injuries , Transients and Migrants , Agriculture , Farmers , Female , Humans , North Carolina , Safety Management
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the type and severity of stressors experienced among Latina farmworkers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A survey containing the Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory was administered to 77 female-identifying Latina farmworkers working in a US-Mexico border region. A sub-sample of five participants participated in key-informant interviews. Data collection occurred in Summer 2021. RESULTS: Nearly 40% of Latina farmworkers reported high stress levels indicative of clinical mental health risks. Health and safety concerns and experienced stressors identified included visible substance abuse and poor bathroom conditions at the field site, language barriers, and balancing work and home life demands. CONCLUSIONS: Latina farmworkers have unique health and safety needs, and COVID-19 has contributed to the experienced stressors. Understanding the familial and working environment sources of stress specific to female agriculture workers is imperative to implementing culturally and gender-responsive strategies to better support the health and safety of farming populations in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Transients and Migrants , Agriculture , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Farmers , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785703

ABSTRACT

Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to farming-related air pollutants might predispose to an increased risk of COVID-19-related death. To test this hypothesis, we performed an ecological study of five Italian Regions (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Sicily), linking all-cause mortality by province (administrative entities within regions) to data on atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and ammonia (NH3), which are mainly produced by agricultural activities. The study outcome was change in all-cause mortality during March-April 2020 compared with March-April 2015-2019 (period). We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by multivariate negative binomial regression models adjusting for air temperature, humidity, international import-export, gross domestic product and population density. We documented a 6.9% excess in MRR (proxy for COVID-19 mortality) for each tonne/km2 increase in NH3 emissions, explained by the interaction of the period variable with NH3 exposure, considering all pollutants together. Despite the limitations of the ecological design of the study, following the precautionary principle, we recommend the implementation of public health measures to limit environmental NH3 exposure, particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Future studies are needed to investigate any causal link between COVID-19 and farming-related pollution.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Particulate Matter , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily/epidemiology
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 824202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776021

ABSTRACT

This paper offers an evaluation index system of agricultural green development level based on the Rural Vitalization Strategy. The evaluation index system includes four dimensions: agricultural development, ecological resource protection, environment-friendly, and industrial extension and integration. Then, the paper calculates the level of agricultural green development in the three provinces of Northeast China using the entropy-gray correlation method from 2009 to 2019. The calculation results show that between 2009 and 2019, the level of agricultural green development in the three northeastern provinces of China fluctuates and increases, and there is some variation between them: in terms of the overall level of agricultural green development Heilongjiang Province > Liaoning Province > Jilin Province, in terms of the average change speed of agricultural green development level, Heilongjiang Province > Liaoning Province > Jilin Province; in terms of each dimension, the average level of correlation degree of agricultural development dimension is Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province, the average level of correlation degree of ecological resource protection dimension is Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > Liaoning Province, the average level of correlation degree of environment-friendly dimension is Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > Liaoning Province, and the average level of correlation degree of industrial extension and integration is Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province. Finally, the basis of the calculation results, combined with the actual situation of agricultural development in the three provinces, the countermeasures, and suggestions for promoting the green development of agriculture are put forward. Specifically, it includes the establishment of an evaluation system for agricultural green development; strengthening the protection of agricultural ecological resources; increasing rural environmental governance; promoting the integrated development of rural tertiary industries; vigorously supporting agricultural scientific and technological innovation; and strengthening regional cooperation and other suggestions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources , Sustainable Development , China , Environmental Policy , Humans
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42539-42559, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772989

ABSTRACT

Climate change is a long-lasting change in the weather arrays across tropics to polls. It is a global threat that has embarked on to put stress on various sectors. This study is aimed to conceptually engineer how climate variability is deteriorating the sustainability of diverse sectors worldwide. Specifically, the agricultural sector's vulnerability is a globally concerning scenario, as sufficient production and food supplies are threatened due to irreversible weather fluctuations. In turn, it is challenging the global feeding patterns, particularly in countries with agriculture as an integral part of their economy and total productivity. Climate change has also put the integrity and survival of many species at stake due to shifts in optimum temperature ranges, thereby accelerating biodiversity loss by progressively changing the ecosystem structures. Climate variations increase the likelihood of particular food and waterborne and vector-borne diseases, and a recent example is a coronavirus pandemic. Climate change also accelerates the enigma of antimicrobial resistance, another threat to human health due to the increasing incidence of resistant pathogenic infections. Besides, the global tourism industry is devastated as climate change impacts unfavorable tourism spots. The methodology investigates hypothetical scenarios of climate variability and attempts to describe the quality of evidence to facilitate readers' careful, critical engagement. Secondary data is used to identify sustainability issues such as environmental, social, and economic viability. To better understand the problem, gathered the information in this report from various media outlets, research agencies, policy papers, newspapers, and other sources. This review is a sectorial assessment of climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches worldwide in the aforementioned sectors and the associated economic costs. According to the findings, government involvement is necessary for the country's long-term development through strict accountability of resources and regulations implemented in the past to generate cutting-edge climate policy. Therefore, mitigating the impacts of climate change must be of the utmost importance, and hence, this global threat requires global commitment to address its dreadful implications to ensure global sustenance.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Ecosystem , Acclimatization , Agriculture , Biodiversity , Humans
12.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765544

ABSTRACT

Much concern about tropical deforestation focuses on oil palm plantations, but their impacts remain poorly quantified. Using nation-wide interpretation of satellite imagery, and sample-based error calibration, we estimated the impact of large-scale (industrial) and smallholder oil palm plantations on natural old-growth ("primary") forests from 2001 to 2019 in Indonesia, the world's largest palm oil producer. Over nineteen years, the area mapped under oil palm doubled, reaching 16.24 Mha in 2019 (64% industrial; 36% smallholder), more than the official estimates of 14.72 Mha. The forest area declined by 11% (9.79 Mha), including 32% (3.09 Mha) ultimately converted into oil palm, and 29% (2.85 Mha) cleared and converted in the same year. Industrial plantations replaced more forest than detected smallholder plantings (2.13 Mha vs 0.72 Mha). New plantations peaked in 2009 and 2012 and declined thereafter. Expansion of industrial plantations and forest loss were correlated with palm oil prices. A price decline of 1% was associated with a 1.08% decrease in new industrial plantations and with a 0.68% decrease of forest loss. Deforestation fell below pre-2004 levels in 2017-2019 providing an opportunity to focus on sustainable management. As the price of palm oil has doubled since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective regulation is key to minimising future forest conversion.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae , COVID-19 , Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources , Forests , Humans , Indonesia , Palm Oil , Pandemics
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745310

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest importer of agricultural products. Stability of agricultural imports directly affects domestic food availability, and hence influences national food security. This study is important to gauge effects of uncertainty resulting from global and domestic economic policy changes on the stability component of food security in China. Though many studies have explored the determinants and consequences of Chinese agricultural trade, research focusing on stability of agricultural imports is lacking. To fill the gap, this study calculates duration length and survival probability of China's agri-food imports, and estimates effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the stability. Results show that trade duration of the agri-food imports is 12.07 months in China. However, 51.69% of disrupted trade relationships would resume after 2 months and 92.68% of temporarily interrupted trade relationships return to the market after 12 months. Empirical estimations show that global EPU has a larger impact on the stability of agricultural imports than Chinese EPU. Although Chinese EPU has heterogeneous effects on imports of different agri-food products in China, global EPU does not. Stabilized domestic food price and improved domestic agricultural productivity would improve stability of the imports significantly. The study concludes that China's agricultural imports are less dynamic than previous studies claimed. However, EPU significantly erodes the trade stability. To offset negative effects of EPU on the stability, government should pay more attention on stabilizing domestic food price volatility and increasing food productivity, and therefore improve food security in China.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Economic Development , China , Uncertainty
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742473

ABSTRACT

At present, there are large number of articles on the impact of COVID-19, but there are only a few articles on the impact of COVID-19 and international agriculture. Agriculture product is different from other industrial products. If domestic food cannot be self-sufficient, it must be resolved through imports. This will inevitably face the dilemma between the opening up agriculture and the risk of importing COVID-19. This paper pioneered the use of entropy method, TOPSIS method and grey correlation analysis to predict the correlation between agricultural opening to the outside world and the input and spread of COVID-19. We use the correlation matrix quantifying the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and agricultural openness to deduce that there is a significant positive correlation between the flow of agricultural products caused by China's agricultural opening-up and the spread of COVID-19, and use the proposed matrix to predict the spread risk of COVID-19 in China. The results of the empirical analysis can provide strong evidence for decision-makers to balance the risk of COVID-19 transmission with the opening of agricultural markets, and they can take this evidence into full consideration to formulate reasonable policies. This has great implications both for preventing the spread of COVID-19 and for agricultural opening-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Food , Food Supply , Humans
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686749

ABSTRACT

This paper uses the Heckprobit two-stage econometric model to explore the influence mechanism of poultry farmers' willingness and behavior regarding scale based on 269 household survey data in the hinterland of Jianghan Plain, China. The results show that (1) family endowments, social capital, economic capital, product market prediction, and major public emergencies are the main influencing factors for farmers to engage in poultry farming; (2) economic capital, policy guarantees, product market prediction, and major public emergencies are the main factors that influence the changes in farmers' poultry breeding scale; and (3) sampled poultry farmers are inconsistent between their breeding willingness and breeding behavior in poultry decision-making and the factors that affect the willingness and behavior are varied. Based on these findings, this paper suggests that the government should pay attention to inducing corresponding assistance and subsidy policies, formulating financial support countermeasures, organizing training and exchange meetings of the breeding industry, and promoting poultry market informatization to help the poultry industry prosper.


Subject(s)
Farmers , Poultry , Agriculture , Animals , Breeding , China , Humans
16.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674011

ABSTRACT

Since it is an important human need and many organizations are involved in the value chain, the agricultural food supply chain is exposed to various risks that arise naturally or through human actions. This study aims to develop the application of a quality function deployment approach to increase the resilience of the food supply chain by understanding customer needs and logistical risks in the food supply chain. In-depth studies with empirical analysis were conducted to determine the importance of customer needs, food supply chain risks, and actions to improve supply chain resilience of SMEs in the agri-food industry. The result shows that the top three customer needs are "attractive, bright color", "firm texture" and "fresh smell". The top three risks in the agri-food supply chain are "improper storage," "Harvest Failure" and "Human Resource Risks" and the top three resilience actions are "continuous training," "preventive maintenance," and "supply chain forecasting." The implications of this study are to propose an idea that broadens the perspective of supply chain resilience in the agri-food industry by incorporating the needs of customers in considering how to mitigate the existing risks to the satisfaction of customers, and it also highlights the relatively low skill and coordination of the workforce in agri-food supply chains.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/standards , Commerce/standards , Consumer Behavior , Food Industry/standards , Food Supply/standards , Total Quality Management/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
17.
J Agromedicine ; 27(1): 4-5, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662014
18.
J Agromedicine ; 27(1): 1-3, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662013
19.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 49, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611362

ABSTRACT

Although an in-person meeting had been planned, concern about the spread of the omicron variant of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus led to BVA Council meeting virtually on 15 December 2021. Topics discussed included sustainability, workplace culture and potential governance changes.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 600, 2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overuse of chemical fertilizer highly influences grain filling rate and quality of rice grain. Biochar is well known for improving plant growth and grain yield under lower chemical fertilization. Therefore field trials were conducted in the early and late seasons of 2019 at Guangxi University, China to investigate the effects of combined biochar (B) and nitrogen (N) application on rice yield and yield components. There were a total of eight treatments: N1B0, 135 kg N ha- 1+ 0 t B ha- 1; N2B0,180 kg N ha- 1+ 0 t B ha- 1; N1B1,135 kg N ha- 1+ 10 t B ha- 1; N1B2,135kg N ha- 1+ 20 t B ha- 1; N1B3,135 kg N ha- 1+ 30 t B ha- 1; N2B1,180 kg N ha- 1+ 10 t B ha- 1; N2B2,180 kg N ha- 1+ 20 t B ha- 1; and N2B3,180 kg N ha- 1+ 30 t B ha- 1. RESULTS: Biochar application at 30 t ha- 1combined with low N application (135 kg ha- 1) increased the activity of starch-metabolizing enzymes (SMEs) during the early and late seasons compared with treatments without biochar. The grain yield, amylose concentration, and starch content of rice were increased in plots treated with 30 t B ha-1and low N. RT-qPCR analysis showed that biochar addition combined with N fertilizer application increased the expression of AGPS2b, SSS1, GBSS1, and GBSE11b, which increased the activity of SMEs during the grain-filling period. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the use of 20 to 30 t B ha- 1coupled with 135 kg N ha- 1 is optimal for improving the grain yield and quality of rice.


Subject(s)
Charcoal/pharmacology , Fertilizers , Nitrogen/pharmacology , Oryza/drug effects , 1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme/genetics , 1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme/metabolism , Agriculture , Amylose/metabolism , China , Enzyme Activation , Enzymes/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/drug effects , Genes, Plant , Oryza/enzymology , Oryza/genetics , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Starch/metabolism
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