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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 94, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about problems faced by emergency medical services-particularly helicopter services-caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. We aimed to describe the issues faced by air ambulance services in Europe as they transport potential COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Nine different HEMS providers in seven different countries across Europe were invited to share their experiences and to report their data regarding the care, transport, and safety measures in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 missions. Six air ambulance providers in six countries agreed and reported their data regarding development of special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic. Four providers agreed to provide mission related data. Three hundred eighty-five COVID-19-related missions were analysed, including 119 primary transport missions and 266 interfacility transport missions. RESULTS: All providers had developed special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for COVID-19. Ground transport was the preferred mode of transport in primary missions, whereas air transport was preferred for interfacility transport. In some countries the transport of COVID-19 patients by regular air ambulance services was avoided. Patients in interfacility transport missions had a significantly higher median (range) NACA Score 4 (2-5) compared with 3 (1-7), needed significantly more medical interventions, were significantly younger (59.6 ± 16 vs 65 ± 21 years), and were significantly more often male (73% vs 60.5%). CONCLUSIONS: All participating air ambulance providers were prepared for COVID-19. Safe care and transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is achievable. Most patients on primary missions were transported by ground. These patients were less sick than interfacility transport patients, for whom air transport was the preferred method.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transportation of Patients/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 40, 2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic highlights the challenges air ambulance services are facing when transporting highly infectious patients for several hours in enclosed spaces. This overview provides an example of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for infection prevention measures in HEMS missions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, we describe different methods used by several organizations in Europe and the experience of the Swiss air rescue organization Rega in transporting these patients. Possible benefits of the use of small patient isolation units (PIU) are discussed, including the fact that accompanying medical personnel do not need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) during the transport but can still maintain full access to the patient. Rega has developed and patented its own PIU. This device allows spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients to be transported in pressurized jet cabins, small helicopters and ambulance vehicles, without the need to change between transport units. This PIU is unique, as it remains air-tight even when there is a sudden loss of cabin pressure. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of means are being used for the aeromedical transport of infectious patients. These involve isolating either the patient or the medical crew. One benefit of PIUs is that the means of transport can be easily changed without contaminating the surroundings and while still allowing access to the patient.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , Air Ambulances/standards , Aircraft/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Transportation of Patients/methods , Transportation of Patients/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
3.
World Neurosurg ; 144: e710-e713, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has set a huge challenge to the delivery of neurosurgical services, including the transfer of patients. We aimed to share our strategy in handling neurosurgical emergencies at a remote center in Borneo island. Our objectives included discussing the logistic and geographic challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Miri General Hospital is a remote center in Sarawak, Malaysia, serving a population with difficult access to neurosurgical services. Two neurosurgeons were stationed here on a rotational basis every fortnight during the pandemic to handle neurosurgical cases. Patients were triaged depending on their urgent needs for surgery or transfer to a neurosurgical center and managed accordingly. All patients were screened for potential risk of contracting COVID-19 prior to the surgery. Based on this, the level of personal protective equipment required for the health care workers involved was determined. RESULTS: During the initial 6 weeks of the Movement Control Order in Malaysia, there were 50 urgent neurosurgical consultations. Twenty patients (40%) required emergency surgery or intervention. There were 9 vascular (45%), 5 trauma (25%), 4 tumor (20%), and 2 hydrocephalus cases (10%). Eighteen patients were operated at Miri General Hospital, among whom 17 (94.4%) survived. Ninety percent of anticipated transfers were avoided. None of the medical staff acquired COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This framework allowed timely intervention for neurosurgical emergencies (within a safe limit), minimized transfer, and enabled uninterrupted neurosurgical services at a remote center with difficult access to neurosurgical care during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Craniocerebral Trauma/surgery , Emergencies , Hemorrhagic Stroke/surgery , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Air Ambulances , Borneo/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/surgery , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Personal Protective Equipment , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery , Transportation of Patients , Triage
4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 256, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in The Netherlands, critically ill ventilated COVID-19 patients were transferred not only between hospitals by ambulance but also by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). To date, little is known about the physiological impact of helicopter transport on critically ill patients and COVID-19 patients in particular. This study was conducted to explore the impact of inter-hospital helicopter transfer on vital signs of mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19, with special focus on take-off, midflight, and landing. METHODS: All ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients who were transported between April 2020 and June 2021 by the Dutch 'Lifeliner 5' HEMS team and who were fully monitored, including noninvasive cardiac output, were included in this study. Three 10-min timeframes (take-off, midflight and landing) were defined for analysis. Continuous data on the vital parameters heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2 and noninvasive cardiac output using electrical cardiometry were collected and stored at 1-min intervals. Data were analyzed for differences over time within the timeframes using one-way analysis of variance. Significant differences were checked for clinical relevance. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were included in the analysis. During take-off, an increase was noticed in cardiac output (from 6.7 to 8.2 L min-1; P < 0.0001), which was determined by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (from 1071 to 739 dyne·s·cm-5, P < 0.0001) accompanied by an increase in stroke volume (from 88.8 to 113.7 mL, P < 0.0001). Other parameters were unchanged during take-off and mid-flight. During landing, cardiac output and stroke volume slightly decreased (from 8.0 to 6.8 L min-1, P < 0.0001 and from 110.1 to 84.4 mL, P < 0.0001, respectively), and total systemic vascular resistance increased (P < 0.0001). Though statistically significant, the found changes were small and not clinically relevant to the medical status of the patients as judged by the attending physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Interhospital helicopter transfer of ventilated intensive care patients with COVID-19 can be performed safely and does not result in clinically relevant changes in vital signs.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Aircraft , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide , Cardiac Output/physiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Vital Signs
5.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 43: e20200458, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the training of the military nursing team in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense to perform Aeromedical Evacuation in the coronavirus pandemic. This is an experience report about the training of the military nursing team in the Brazilian repatriation mission in China. Four members made up the aerospace nursing team. The period was from February to March 2020. Data analysis was carried out based on the survey of courses that each member of the nursing team had participated before the Operation. RESULTS: Training proved to be essential to meet the specificities of the mission. CONCLUSIONS: It is extremely important to operationalize protocols to improve the aeromedical service and transport mechanism, increasing the level of proficiency in the execution of missions. The training of the team allows the construction of necessary knowledge and skills during an aeromedical evacuation, guaranteeing the performance excellence required in this type of mission.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , Coronavirus Infections , Military Nursing , Military Personnel , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Air Med J ; 41(4): 376-379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the duration of activity of a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in Eastern Shizuoka Prefecture before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the duration of dispatch activities from February 2020 to June 2021 (pandemic group, n = 1,032) and from April 2016 to January 2020 (control group, n = 3,054). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the average age, percentage of male patients, interval from the request of HEMS dispatch to arrival, interval from arrival at the scene to leaving the scene, interval from leaving the scene to arrival at the hospital, or the ratio of requests for HEMS dispatch from the local fire department between the control and pandemic groups. In contrast, the interval from the first call to HEMS dispatch in the control group was significantly shorter than that in the pandemic group, and the ratio of requests for HEMS dispatch before contacting patients in the control group was significantly greater than that in the pandemic group. CONCLUSION: The interval from the first call to HEMS dispatch was prolonged in the COVID-19 pandemic period. However, the actual activity time of the HEMS was not affected.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Physicians , Aircraft , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935474, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and the sudden inflow of patients with severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) symptoms increased demand for hospital and pre-hospital care, the latter being provided by emergency medical teams. The Polish Medical Air Rescue Services include the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and the airplane-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS). This study aimed to present the experience of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of missions completed by the Polish Medical Air Rescue crews with respect to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases. We analyzed data from the medical records of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service, which included flights to accidents and emergencies, and air patient transport missions, where medical assistance was provided to patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first year of the pandemic in Poland. RESULTS Among the COVID-19 patients, the most common comorbidity was acute respiratory failure (41.58%). Emergency missions more often concerned older patients with sudden cardiac arrest, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection, stroke, and acute coronary syndromes. CONCLUSIONS During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service implemented procedures to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study highlights the importance of using single-patient isolation units for patient transport between hospitals and for emergency hospital admissions when the SARS-CoV-2 status of the patients were unknown.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Medical Records , Pandemics , Poland , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients
9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210432, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745264

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of aeromedical interhospital transport of an adult patient with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHOD: This is a case report, guided by the tool Case Report Guidelines, with a descriptive approach. Data were collected from the digital medical record and field notes after the approval by the Institution and the Human Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: The transport of a critically ill, unstable patient with acute respiratory syndrome 2 on extracorporeal oxygenation was an opportunity for the team to acquire new knowledge. The proper preparation of the fixed-wing aircraft and the profile of the team of specialist nurses contributed to the safety and quality in the three phases of flight: preflight, in-flight and post-flight. CONCLUSION: Air transport of adults on cardiopulmonary bypass to referral centers, under the care of an experienced multidisciplinary team, can contribute to positive results. The nurses' autonomy, their leadership role and expertise in process management are highlighted. Thus, success was evidenced with the patient's discharge after 45 days from the Intensive Care Unit.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 30(1): 6, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed exceptional demand on Intensive Care Units, necessitating the critical care transfer of patients on a regional and national scale. Performing these transfers required specialist expertise and involved moving patients over significant distances. Air Ambulance Kent Surrey Sussex created a designated critical care transfer team and was one of the first civilian air ambulances in the United Kingdom to move ventilated COVID-19 patients by air. We describe the practical set up of such a service and the key lessons learned from the first 50 transfers. METHODS: Retrospective review of air critical care transfer service set up and case review of first 50 transfers. RESULTS: We describe key elements of the critical care transfer service, including coordination and activation; case interrogation; workforce; training; equipment; aircraft modifications; human factors and clinical governance. A total of 50 missions are described between 18 December 2020 and 1 February 2021. 94% of the transfer missions were conducted by road. The mean age of these patients was 58 years (29-83). 30 (60%) were male and 20 (40%) were female. The mean total mission cycle (time of referral until the time team declared free at receiving hospital) was 264 min (range 149-440 min). The mean time spent at the referring hospital prior to leaving for the receiving unit was 72 min (31-158). The mean transfer transit time between referring and receiving units was 72 min (9-182). CONCLUSION: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have highly complex medical needs during transport. Critical care transfer of COVID-19-positive patients by civilian HEMS services, including air transfer, can be achieved safely with specific planning, protocols and precautions. Regional planning of COVID-19 critical care transfers is required to optimise the time available of critical care transfer teams.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aircraft , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e27881, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583961

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In February 2021, an explosion of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia overwhelmed the only hospital in Mayotte. To report a case series of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 who were evacuated by air from Mayotte to Reunion Island.This retrospective observational study evaluated all consecutive patients with ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 who were evacuated by air from Mayotte Hospital to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Félix Guyon University Hospital in Reunion Island between February 2, and March 5, 2021.A total of 43 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evacuated by air, for a total flight time of 2 hours and a total travel time of 6 hours. Of these, 38 patients (88.4%) with a median age of 55 (46-65) years presented with ARF and were hospitalized in our ICU. Fifteen patients were screened for the SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 variant, all of whom tested positive. Thirteen patients (34.2%) developed an episode of severe hypoxemia during air transport, and the median paO2/FiO2 ratio was lower on ICU admission (140 [102-192] mmHg) than on departure (165 [150-200], P = .022). Factors associated with severe hypoxemia during air transport was lack of treatment with curare (P = .012) and lack of invasive mechanical ventilation (P = .003). Nine patients (23.7%) received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in our ICU. Seven deaths (18.4%) occurred in hospital.Emergency air evacuation of patients with ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 was associated with severe hypoxemia but remained feasible. In cases of ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 requiring emergency air evacuation, sedated patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and curare should be prioritized over nonintubated patients. It is noteworthy that patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia related to the 501Y.V2 variant were very severe despite their young age.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Transportation of Patients , Aged , Aircraft , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comoros , Curare , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Reunion/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Air Med J ; 41(1): 47-51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Preserving air medical evacuation capabilities for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) required innovation for en route care logistics, training, and equipment. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics and in-flight interventions for patients with suspected COVID-19 requiring air medical evacuation by US Air Force critical care air transport teams (CCATTs). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with suspected COVID-19 requiring air medical evacuation by CCATT from April 2020 to February 2021. We included patients with an available CCATT medical record and transport with COVID-19 infection isolation precautions. CCATT medical records were the data source, and we performed descriptive analyses of patient characteristics and in-flight interventions. RESULTS: We reviewed 460 records and identified 16 patients for inclusion. The Transport Isolation System (50%) and Negatively Pressurized Conex (31%) were commonly used portable biocontainment units. The median patient age was 48.5 years, and 94% were male. All patients required oxygen supplementation, with 8 (50%) receiving mechanical ventilation. In-flight interventions among intubated patients (n = 8) included vasopressors (50%), paralytics (25%), and patient-ventilator asynchrony management (63%). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 requiring CCATT transport were older than prior military en route care cohorts, and in-flight interventions for patient-ventilator asynchrony were commonly required during mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Military Personnel , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Humans , Iraq War, 2003-2011 , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Air Med J ; 41(1): 68-72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 may have contributed to an excess of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OOHCAs). This observational study identified changes in OOHCA epidemiology pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown in a single UK helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS). METHODS: A retrospective, single-center (Essex & Herts Air Ambulance), observational study was undertaken with anonymized OOHCA data (demographics, etiology, and outcomes) from March 23, 2020, to June 23, 2020, and comparative data from March 23, 2019, to June 23, 2019. Supplementary data (total OOHCAs and patient outcomes) were provided by the East of England Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test; P < .05 was statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the HEMS activations during national lockdown, 33.6% were for OOHCAs compared with 25.8% during the reference time frame. The frequency of young and female OOHCAs demonstrated a statistically significant increase. Statistically significant variations in medical etiology and initial cardiac rhythm were identified. CONCLUSION: During the initial UK-wide lockdown, the OOHCA characteristics attended by 1 HEMS team were altered. The changes seen may be due to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 or an alteration in dispatch due to the demand placed on the wider ambulance service; this may require further consideration for any future lockdowns or pandemics.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Aircraft , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
14.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(11): 898-907, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While many COVID-19 studies focus on acute effects of the infection, few examine the intermediate and long-term sequelae of the illness. Studies have shown that a good portion of patients have chronic effects in several body systems for several months or longer. Such effects can potentially adversely impact pilot performance in flight. We sought to determine the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection, how such effects can affect pilot performance, and how to best evaluate pilots for aeromedical flight clearance.METHODS: We used the PubMed literature search engine to review peer-reviewed articles that focused on the intermediate and long-term effects of COVID-19 infection. Chronic signs and symptoms were subdivided based on the particular body organ system affected. Merging information obtained from case reviews, article reviews, and aeromedical standards, we created a risk stratification guide to assist with the aeromedical disposition of affected pilots.RESULTS: Long-term effects of COVID-19 infection can last for several months or longer. The most common effects are fatigue, weakness, pulmonary diffusion defects, depression, and anxiety.DISCUSSION: This review article focuses on the most common intermediate- and long-term COVID-19 conditions of aeromedical significance and the corresponding course of actions recommended for the aeromedical examiner. Aeromedical evaluation should take into consideration factors related to the pilot, aircraft type, and specific aviation environment. Such evaluation may include diagnostic testing, medical specialist consultation, preflight simulation in an altitude chamber, human centrifuge testing, and/or a flight simulator checkride.Ko SY, Nguyen NK, Lee CL, Lee LA, Nguyen KUT, Lee EC. Aeromedical implications of long-term COVID-19 sequelae. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(11):898-907.


Subject(s)
Aerospace Medicine , Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Pilots , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Air Med J ; 41(1): 88-95, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525664

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused an overwhelming pandemic. To relieve overloaded intensive care units in the most affected regions, the French Ministry of Defence triggered collective air medical evacuations (medevacs) on board an Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport of the French Air Force. Such a collective air medevac is a big challenge regarding biosafety; until now, only evacuations of a single symptomatic patient with an emergent communicable disease, such as Ebola virus disease, have been conducted. However, the COVID-19 pandemic required collective medevacs for critically ill patients and involved a virus that little is known about still. Thus, we performed a complete risk analysis using a process map and FMECA (Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis) to assess the risk and implement mitigation measures for health workers, flight crew, and the environment. We report the biosafety management experienced during 6 flights with a total of 36 critically ill COVID-19-positive patients transferred with no casualties while preserving both staffs and aircraft.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Emerg Med J ; 38(11): 842-845, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is significant interest in the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) attend the most seriously unwell and injured patients in the community; their data therefore present an early opportunity to examine self-harm trends. The primary aim was to compare the incidence of deliberate self-harm incident (DSH-I) encounters by HEMS before and during the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: Data were obtained from all three East of England HEMS: total number of activations and stand-downs, number of DSH-I activations and stand-downs, self-harm mechanism and number of 'severe' DSH-I patient encounters, in two 61-day periods: 1 March to 30 April in 2019 (control) and 2020 (COVID-19). Severe DSH-I was defined as cardiac arrest and/or died prehospital. Proportions were compared with a Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: There were a total of 1725 HEMS activations: n=981 (control) and n=744 (COVID-19), a decrease of 24.2% during COVID-19. DSH-I patient encounters increased by 65.4%: n=26 (control) and n=43 (COVID-19). The proportion of encounters that were DSH-I and severe DSH-I both significantly increased during COVID-19: p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively. The absolute number of hangings and falls from height both approximately tripled during COVID-19, whereas the number of other mechanisms remained almost constant. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction in overall HEMS patient encounters, there were significant increases in both the proportion of DSH-Is and their severity attended by HEMS during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the East of England.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/mortality , Trauma Severity Indices
19.
Mil Med ; 186(12 Suppl 2): 74-80, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381033

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus-19 pandemic, limited information existed about the risks and consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection associated with maternal transmission to neonates. With rapidly evolving evidence, Air Force Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses at U.S. Naval Hospital Okinawa, Japan, adapted their standard operating procedures to safeguard their at-risk neonatal patients. This interview describes an Air Force NICU nurse's view of neonatal transport and nursing care during the coronavirus-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Air Med J ; 40(4): 287-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286257

ABSTRACT

Virtually every country in the world has been affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nepal is a landlocked country located in Southern Asia. Nepal's population has suffered greatly due to a shortage of critical care facilities, resources, and trained personnel. For appropriate care, patients need access to hospitals mostly in the centrally located capital city of Kathmandu. Unfortunately, Nepal's resources and personnel dedicated to transferring COVID-19 patients are scarce. Road and traffic infrastructure problems and mountainous terrain prevent ground ambulances from performing effectively. This, in addition to Nepal lacking national standards for prehospital care, create great challenges for transferring patients via ground emergency medical services. The concept of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) began in 2013 in Nepal. Presently, 3 hospitals, Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Hospital for Advanced Medicine and Surgery (HAMS), and Grande International Hospital, coordinate with private helicopter companies to run proper HEMS. One entity, Simrik Air, has dedicated 2 Airbus H125/AS350 helicopters for the sole purpose of transferring COVID-19 patients. HEMS effectiveness is expanding in Nepal, but much remains to be accomplished.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Air Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/statistics & numerical data
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