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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884156

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the authors investigated changes in mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Daily samples of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were measured at an urban background sampling site in Zagreb, Croatia from 2009 to late 2020. For the purpose of meteorological normalization, the mass concentrations were fed alongside meteorological and temporal data to Random Forest (RF) and LightGBM (LGB) models tuned by Bayesian optimization. The models' predictions were subsequently de-weathered by meteorological normalization using repeated random resampling of all predictive variables except the trend variable. Three pollution periods in 2020 were examined in detail: January and February, as pre-lockdown, the month of April as the lockdown period, as well as June and July as the "new normal". An evaluation using normalized mass concentrations of particulate matter and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted. The results showed that no significant differences were observed for PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in April 2020-compared to the same period in 2018 and 2019. No significant changes were observed for the "new normal" as well. The results thus indicate that a reduction in mobility during COVID-19 lockdown in Zagreb, Croatia, did not significantly affect particulate matter concentration in the long-term..


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Desert dust outbreaks and dust storms are the major source of particulate matter globally and pose a major threat to human health. We investigated the microorganisms transported with desert dust particles and evaluated their potential impact on human health. METHODS: A systematic review of all reports on the association between non-anthropogenic desert dust pollution, dust microorganisms and human health is conducted. RESULTS: In total, 51 articles were included in this review. The affected regions studied were Asia (32/51, 62.7%) followed by Europe (9/51, 17.6%), America (6/51, 11.8%), Africa (4/51, 7.8%) and Australia (1/51, 2.0%). The Sahara Desert was the most frequent source of dust, followed by Asian and American deserts. In 39/51 studies the dust-related microbiome was analyzed, while, in 12/51 reports, the association of desert dust with infectious disease outbreaks was examined. Pathogenic and opportunistic agents were isolated from dust in 24/39 (61.5%) and 29/39 (74.4%) of the studies, respectively. A significant association of dust events with infectious disease outbreaks was found in 10/12 (83.3%) reports. The infectious diseases that were mostly investigated with dust outbreaks were pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, COVID-19, pulmonary tuberculosis and coccidioidomycosis. CONCLUSIONS: Desert dust outbreaks are vehicles of a significant number of pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms and limited data indicate an association between dust events and infectious disease outbreaks. Further research is required to strengthen the correlation between dust events and infectious diseases and subsequently guide preventive public health measures.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Desert Climate , Disease Outbreaks , Dust/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter
3.
J Travel Med ; 28(4)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883023

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE FOR REVIEW: In 2019, approximately, 1.4 billion people travelled internationally. Many individuals travel to megacities where air pollution concentrations can vary significantly. Short-term exposure to air pollutants can cause morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, with the literature clearly reporting a strong association between short-term exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm and ozone with adverse health outcomes in resident populations. However, limited research has been conducted on the health impacts of short-term exposure to air pollution in individuals who travel internationally. The objective of this systematic review was to review the evidence for the respiratory and cardiovascular health impacts from exposure to air pollution during international travel to polluted cities in adults aged ≥18 years old. KEY FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE for studies related to air pollution and the health impacts on international travellers. Of the initially identified 115 articles that fit the search criteria, 6 articles were selected for the final review. All six studies found indications of adverse health impacts of air pollution exposure on international travellers, with most of the changes being reversible upon return to their home country/city. However, none of these studies contained large populations nor investigated vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly or those with pre-existing conditions. CONCLUSIONS: More research is warranted to clearly understand the impacts of air pollution related changes on travellers' health, especially on vulnerable groups who may be at higher risk of adverse impacts during travel to polluted cities.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Cities , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt E): 113646, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881987

ABSTRACT

There is a need to improve the understanding of air quality parameters and meteorological conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different regions of the world. In this preliminary study, we explore the relationship between short-term air quality (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10)) exposure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 41 cities of Turkey with reported weekly cases from February 8 to April 2, 2021. Both linear and non-linear relationships were explored. The nonlinear association between weekly confirmed cases and short-term exposure to predictor factors was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM). The preliminary results indicate that there was a significant association between humidity and weekly confirmed COVID-19 cases. The cooler temperatures had a positive correlation with the occurrence of new confirmed cases. The low PM2.5 concentrations had a negative correlation with the number of new cases, while reducing SO2 concentrations may help decrease the number of new cases. This is the first study investigating the relationship between measured air pollutants, meteorological factors, and the number of weekly confirmed COVID-19 cases across Turkey. There are several limitations of the presented study, however, the preliminary results show that there is a need to understand the impacts of regional air quality parameters and meteorological factors on the transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Particulate Matter , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875636

ABSTRACT

Indoor air pollution is injurious to human health, even worse than outdoor air pollution. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence using large samples in developing countries regarding whether indoor air purification can improve human health by reducing indoor air pollutants. Using the data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2015, this study analyzes the relationship between indoor air purification and residents' self-rated health. We apply the generalized ordered logit model and find that indoor air purification has a significantly positive effect on residents' self-rated health. This positive effect is limited to improving the probability of residents' health level being rated "good", and there is no significant movement between the two levels of "bad" and "fair". The results also show that, as an important source of indoor air pollutants, solid fuels used in cooking significantly reduced residents' self-rated health level. Additional results show the heterogeneity of the relationship between indoor air purification and resident health among groups with different characteristics. This study provides empirical evidence for further optimizing the indoor air environment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , China , Humans , Nutrition Surveys
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2831-2839, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876197

ABSTRACT

The Chinese government triggered the immediate implementation of a lockdown policy in China following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to drastic decreases in air pollutant emissions. However, concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants increased during the COVID-19 lockdown over the Jing-Jin-Ji region compared with those averaged over 2015-2019, and two PM2.5 pollution events occurred during the lockdown. Using the ERA5 reanalysis data, we found that the Jing-Jin-Ji region during the COVID-19 lockdown was characterized by higher relative humidity, lower planetary boundary layer height, and anomalous updraft. These conditions were favorable for condensation and the secondary formation of aerosols and prevented turbulent diffusion of pollutants. Furthermore, we conducted sensitivity tests using the WRF-Chem model and found that ρ(PM2.5) increased by 20-55 µg·m-3(60%-170%) over the middle region of Jing-Jin-Ji during the COVID-19 lockdown due to changes in meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the enhanced aerosol chemistry and unfavorable diffusion conditions were identified as the key factors driving increases in PM2.5 concentrations during the lockdown. Planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity may become the important factors in forecasting PM2.5 pollution events over the Jing-Jin-Ji region under the background of emission reduction.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2851-2857, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876196

ABSTRACT

To study the variation in concentration and source analysis of metal elements during COVID-19 control in Suzhou, a multi-metal online monitor was used to determine hourly online data of 14 metal elements from December 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020. This study analyzed variation in concentration and source analysis of metal elements using a PMF model before, during, and after shutdown during COVID-19 control. The results showed that the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe during shutdown decreased the most, by 87.6%, 85.6%, 78.3%, and 72.2%, respectively, compared with those before shutdown. The concentrations of Mn, Cr, Zn, and Fe after shutdown increased the most, by 227.0%, 215.4%, 147.4%, and 113.4%, respectively, compared with those of the previous stage. The diurnal variation in K differed at three stages. Zn showed a single peak shape at three stages, but the peak width and peak time were different. Unlike the concentrations, the diurnal variations in Fe, Mn, Pb, Se, and Hg were not significantly changed. The daily variation characteristics of Ca, Ba, Cu, As, Cr, and Ni during and after shutdown were significantly different from those before shutdown. The results of source analysis by the PMF model showed that metal elements mainly came from dust, motor vehicle, coal burning, industrial smelting, and mixed-combustion sources. Among them, the concentration of industrial smelting sources changed greatly, with the concentration decreasing by 89.0% during shutdown and increasing by 358.0% after shutdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Metals , Particulate Matter/analysis
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2840-2850, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876195

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown was a typical occurrence of extreme emission reduction, which presented an opportunity to study the influence of control measures on particulate matter. Observations were conducted from January 16 to 31, 2020 using online observation instruments to investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 concentration, particle size distribution, chemical composition, source, and transport before (January 16-23, 2020) and during (January 24-31, 2020) the COVID-19 lockdown in Zhengzhou. The results showed that the atmospheric PM2.5 concentration decreased by 4.8% during the control period compared with that before the control in Zhengzhou. The particle size distribution characteristics indicated that there was a significant decrease in the mass concentration and number concentration of particles in the size range of 0.06 to 1.6 µm during the control period. The chemical composition characteristics of PM2.5 showed that secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) were the dominant component of PM2.5, and the significant increase in PM2.5 was mainly owing to the decrease in NO3- concentration during the control period. The main sources of PM2.5 identified by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were secondary sources, combustion sources, vehicle sources, industrial sources, and dust sources. The emissions from vehicle sources, industrial sources, and dust sources decreased significantly during the control period. The results of analyses using the backward trajectory method and potential source contribution factor method indicated that the effects of transport from surrounding areas on PM2.5 concentration decreased during the control period. In summary, vehicle and industrial sources should be continuously controlled, and regional combined prevention and control should be strengthened in the future in Zhengzhou.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
9.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115460, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867356

ABSTRACT

This work presents the temporal and spatial characteristics of the major air pollutants and their associated health risks in China from 2019 to 2020, by using the monitoring data from 367 cities. The annual average PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 concentrations decreased by 10.9%, 13.2%, 9.3%, 10.1%, 9.4%, and 5.5% from 2019 to 2020. National average PM2.5 concentration in 2020 met the standard of 35 µg/m3, and that of O3 decreased from 2019. COVID-19 lockdown affected NO2 level dramatically, yet influences on PM2.5 and O3 were less clear-cut. Positive correlations between PM2.5 and O3 were found, even in winter in all five key regions, e.g., Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ), FenWei Plain (FWP), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR), indicating importance of secondary production for both PM2.5 and O3. Large seasonal variability of PM2.5-SO2 correlation indicates a varying role of SO2 to PM2.5 pollution in different seasons; and generally weak correlations in winter between PM2.5 and NO2 or SO2 reveal the complexity of secondary formation processes to PM2.5 pollution in winter. Multilinear regression analysis between PM2.5 and SO2, NO2 and CO demonstrates that PM2.5 is more sensitive to the change of NO2 than SO2 in JJJ, FWP, PRD and CCR, suggesting a priority of NOx emission control for future PM2.5 reduction. Furthermore, the new World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG2021) were adopted to calculate the excess health risks (ER) as well as the health-risk based air quality index (HAQIWHO) of the pollutants. Such assessment points out the severity of air pollution associated health risks under strict standards: 40.0% of days had HAQIWHO>100, while only 14.4% days had AQI>100. PM2.5 ER was generally larger than O3 ER, but O3 ER in low PM2.5 region (PRD) and during summer became more serious. Notably, NO2 ER became even more important than PM2.5 due to its strict limit of WHO AQG2021. Overall, our results highlight the increasing importance of O3 in both air quality evaluation and health risk assessment, and the importance of coordinated mitigation of multiple pollutants (mainly PM2.5, O3 and NO2) in protecting the public health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135013, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864545

ABSTRACT

A single particle aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in a heavily polluted area of China during a coronavirus lockdown to explore the impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions on the chemical composition, size distributions, mixing state, and secondary formation of urban aerosols. Ten particle groups were identified using an adaptive resonance network algorithm. Increased atmospheric oxidation during the lockdown period (LP) resulted in a 42.2%-54% increase in the major NaK-SN particle fraction relative to the normal period (NP). In contrast, EC-aged particles decreased from 31.5% (NP) to 23.7% (LP), possibly due to lower emissions from motor vehicles and coal combustion. The peak particle size diameter increased from 440 nm during the NP to 500 nm during LP due to secondary particle formation. High proportions of mixed 62NO3- indicate extensive particle aging. Correlations between secondary organic (43C2H3O+, oxalate) and secondary inorganic species (62NO3-, 97HSO4- and 18NH4+) versus oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) and relative humidity (RH) indicate that increased atmospheric oxidation promoted the generation of secondary species, while the effects of RH were more complex. Differences between the NP and LP show that reductions in primary emissions had a remarkable impact on the aerosol particles. This study provides new insights into the effects of pollution emissions on atmospheric reactions and the specific aerosol types in urban regions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862777

ABSTRACT

In addition to outdoor atmospheric contamination, indoor exposure to pollutants is a prime contributor to the overall human exposure, and may condition the expressiveness and severity of respiratory, cardiovascular, and allergic diseases. This situation has worsened due to COVID-19, as people have spent more time indoors to comply with social isolation and mandatory telework. The primary purpose of this study was to assess and compare indoor air quality (IAQ) in a significant sample of dwellings of workers from a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Portugal who were teleworking and their usual workplace. The levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde, particles with equivalent diameters of less than 10 µm, 5 µm, 2.5 µm, 1 µm, 0.5 µm, and 0.3 µm, and ultrafine particles, as well as the level of thermal comfort, were measured at both of the sites assessed. It was found that most of the houses studied, as well as the HEI, had good IAQ, although there were places where the concentrations of some pollutants were above the legal standards. On the other hand, a link was identified between the IAQ and the symptoms and diseases observed in the workers who participated in the study. These results offer the opportunity to make corrective interventions, thereby controlling the sources of pollutants and promoting better ventilation in order to reduce the risk for workers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Teleworking
12.
CMAJ ; 194(20): E693-E700, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The tremendous global health burden related to COVID-19 means that identifying determinants of COVID-19 severity is important for prevention and intervention. We aimed to explore long-term exposure to ambient air pollution as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity, given its known impact on the respiratory system. METHODS: We used a cohort of all people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, aged 20 years and older and not residing in a long-term care facility in Ontario, Canada, during 2020. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3), and risk of COVID-19-related hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. We ascertained individuals' long-term exposures to each air pollutant based on their residence from 2015 to 2019. We used logistic regression and adjusted for confounders and selection bias using various individual and contextual covariates obtained through data linkage. RESULTS: Among the 151 105 people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Ontario in 2020, we observed 8630 hospital admissions, 1912 ICU admissions and 2137 deaths related to COVID-19. For each interquartile range increase in exposure to PM2.5 (1.70 µg/m3), we estimated odds ratios of 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.12), 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.90-1.11) for hospital admission, ICU admission and death, respectively. Estimates were smaller for NO2. We also estimated odds ratios of 1.15 (95% CI 1.06-1.23), 1.30 (95% CI 1.12-1.50) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.02-1.36) per interquartile range increase of 5.14 ppb in O3 for hospital admission, ICU admission and death, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Chronic exposure to air pollution may contribute to severe outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly exposure to O3.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ontario/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155970, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852049

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in 2020, severe haze pollution occurred in the North China Plain despite the significant reduction in anthropogenic emissions, providing a natural experiment to explore the response of haze pollution to the reduction of human activities. Here, we study the characteristics and causes of haze pollution during the COVID-19 outbreak based on comprehensive field measurements in Beijing during January and February 2020. After excluding the Spring Festival period affected by fireworks activities, we found the ozone concentrations and the proportion of sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased during the COVID-19 lockdown compared with the period before the lockdown, and sulfate played a more important role. Heterogeneous chemistry and photochemistry dominate the formation of sulfate and nitrate during the whole campaign, respectively, and the heterogeneous formation of nitrate at night was enhanced during the lockdown. The coeffects of more reductions in NOx than VOCs, weakened titration of NO, and increased temperature during the lockdown led to the increase in ozone concentrations, thereby promoting atmospheric oxidation capacity and photochemistry. In addition, the increase in relative humidity during the lockdown facilitated heterogeneous chemistry. Our results indicate that unbalanced emission reductions and adverse meteorological conditions induce the formation of secondary pollutants during the COVID-19 lockdown haze, and the formulation of effective coordinated emission-reduction control measures for PM2.5 and ozone pollution is needed in the future, especially the balanced control of NOx and VOCs.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrates , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfates
14.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt D): 113437, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851036

ABSTRACT

During the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic disease, like several countries, Romania experienced a multiwaves pattern over more than two years. The spreading pattern of SARS-CoV-2 pathogens in the Bucharest, capital of Romania is a multi-factorial process involving among other factors outdoor environmental variables and viral inactivation. Through descriptive statistics and cross-correlation analysis applied to daily time series of observational and geospatial data, this study aims to evaluate the synergy of COVID-19 incidence and lethality with air pollution and radon under different climate conditions, which may exacerbate the coronavirus' effect on human health. During the entire analyzed period 1 January 2020-21 December 2021, for each of the four COVID-19 waves were recorded different anomalous anticyclonic synoptic meteorological patterns in the mid-troposphere, and favorable stability conditions during fall-early winter seasons for COVID-19 disease fast-spreading, mostly during the second, and the fourth waves. As the temporal pattern of airborne SARS-CoV-2 and its mutagen variants is affected by seasonal variability of the main air pollutants and climate parameters, this paper found: 1) the daily outdoor exposures to air pollutants (particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide-NO2, sulfur dioxide-SO2, carbon monoxide-CO) and radon - 222Rn, are directly correlated with the daily COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and may contribute to the spread and the severity of the pandemic; 2) the daily ground ozone-O3 levels, air temperature, Planetary Boundary Layer height, and surface solar irradiance are anticorrelated with the daily new COVID-19 incidence and deaths, averageingful for spring-summer periods. Outdoor exposure to ambient air pollution associated with radon is a non-negligible driver of COVID-19 transmission in large metropolitan areas, and climate variables are risk factors in spreading the viral infection. The findings of this study provide useful information for public health authorities and decision-makers to develop future pandemic diseases strategies in high polluted metropolitan environments.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Radon , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Radon/analysis , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
15.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119510, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851033

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important reactive gas pollutant harmful to human health. The spatiotemporal coverage provided by traditional NO2 monitoring methods is insufficient, especially in the suburban and rural areas of north China, which have a high population density and experience severe air pollution. In this study, we implemented a spatiotemporal neural network (STNN) model to estimate surface NO2 from multiple sources of information, which included satellite and in situ measurements as well as meteorological and geographical data. The STNN predicted NO2 with high accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89 and a root mean squared error of 5.8 µg/m3 for sample-based 10-fold cross-validation. Based on the surface NO2 concentration determined by the STNN, we analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal trends of NO2 pollution in north China. We found substantial drops in surface NO2 concentrations ranging between 9.1% and 33.2% for large cities during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown when compared to those in 2019. Moreover, we estimated the all-cause deaths attributed to NO2 exposure at a high spatial resolution of about 1 km, with totals of 6082, 4200, and 18,210 for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces in 2020, respectively. We observed remarkable regional differences in the health impacts due to NO2 among urban, suburban, and rural areas. Generally, the STNN model could incorporate spatiotemporal neighboring information and infer surface NO2 concentration with full coverage and high accuracy. Compared with machine learning regression techniques, STNN can effectively avoid model overfitting and simultaneously consider both spatial and temporal correlations of input variables using deep convolutional networks with residual blocks. The use of the proposed STNN model, as well as the surface NO2 dataset, can benefit air quality monitoring, forecasting, and health burden assessments.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
16.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119468, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851031

ABSTRACT

The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to evaluate the air quality in the coastal city of Kannur, India, during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. From the Pre1 (March 1-24, 2020) period to the Lock (March 25-April 19, 2020) and Tri (April 20-May 9, 2020) periods, the Kerala state government gradually imposed a strict lockdown policy. Both the simulations and observations showed a decline in the PM2.5 concentrations and an enhancement in the O3 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods compared with that in the Pre1 period. Integrated process rate (IPR) analysis was employed to isolate the contributions of the individual atmospheric processes. The results revealed that the vertical transport from the upper layers dominated the surface O3 formation, comprising 89.4%, 83.1%, and 88.9% of the O3 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. Photochemistry contributed negatively to the O3 concentrations at the surface layer. Compared with the Pre1 period, the O3 enhancement during the Lock period was primarily attributable to the lower negative contribution of photochemistry and the lower O3 removal rate by horizontal transport. During the Tri period, a slower consumption of O3 by gas-phase chemistry and a stronger vertical import from the upper layers to the surface accounted for the increase in O3. Emission and aerosol processes constituted the major positive contributions to the net surface PM2.5, accounting for a total of 48.7%, 38.4%, and 42.5% of PM2.5 sources during the Pre1, Lock, and Tri periods, respectively. The decreases in the PM2.5 concentrations during the Lock and Tri periods were primarily explained by the weaker PM2.5 production from emission and aerosol processes. The increased vertical transport rate of PM2.5 from the surface layer to the upper layers was also a reason for the decrease in the PM2.5 during the Lock periods.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , India , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
17.
Environ Pollut ; 306: 119441, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851030

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the relationship between territorial human influence and decreases in NO2 air pollution during a total COVID-19 lockdown in Metropolitan France. NO2 data from the confinement period and the Human Influence Index (HII) were implemented to address the problem. The relative change in tropospheric NO2 was calculated using Sentinel-5P (TROPOMI) satellite data. Hotspot-Coldspot analysis was performed to examine the change in NO2. Moreover, the novel Human-Influenced Air Pollution Decrease Index (HIAPDI) was developed. Weather bias was investigated by implementing homogeneity analysis with χ2 test. The correlations between variables were tested with the statistical T-test. Likewise, remote observations were validated with data from in-situ monitoring stations. The study showed a strong correlation between the NO2 decrease during April 2020 under confinement measures and HII. The greater the anthropogenic influence, the greater the reduction of NO2 in the regions (R2 = 0.62). The new HIAPDI evidenced the degree of anthropogenic impact on NO2 change. HIAPDI was found to be a reliable measure to determine the correlation between human influence and change in air pollution (R2 = 0.93). It is concluded that the anthropogenic influence is a determining factor in the phenomenon of near-surface NO2 reduction. The implementation of HIAPDI is recommended in the analysis of other polluting gases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 41(2): 37-46, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847007

ABSTRACT

The rapid transmission of COVID-19 infection around the world in a brief timeframe has caused an exponential decline in street traffic and other industrial activities in various parts of the world. The confined human collaboration with the nature at the time of this emergency has shown up as an advantage for Mother Nature after COVID-19 flare because the air present in the atmosphere and water flowing in river streams is upgrading and untamed life is blossoming. India, being consistently seen as the center of contamination due to a tremendous population, overwhelming road traffic and industries which contribute to heavy pollution prompting rise in air quality index for almost all the big cities of the country. However, after the announcement of lockdown because of COVID-19, the air quality begun to upgrade and other environmental variables, for example, water quality in streams and waterways have begun offering a positive hint towards restoration. This review gives a brief knowledge on the structure and genomic organization of novel coronavirus as well as it focuses on alterations in air and water quality along with its environmental consequences at specific locations of the country during lockdown due to this pandemic circumstance.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 998, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meteorological factors and air pollutants have been reported to be associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics before the introduction of vaccine. However, there is limited evidence for studies with long-term dimensions. METHODS: We collected the daily HFMD counts, weather and air pollution data from 2014 to 2020 in Chengdu. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) were used to assess the associations of meteorological factors and air pollutants on HFMD cases. RESULTS: From 2014-2020, high relative humidity and precipitation and extremely high and low levels of PM10, O3, SO2 and CO increased the risk of HFMD. In pre-vaccination period, extreme high and low temperatures, PM10 and NO2, low precipitation and high concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 significantly increase the risk of HFMD; In post-vaccination period, high relative humidity and low level of CO can significantly increase the incidence of HFMD; During the period of COVID-19, only low temperature will significantly increase the risk of HFMD; Low concentration of air pollutants has the greatest impact on the 6-14 age group, while the high concentration of air pollutants has the greatest impact on the 0-1 age group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggest that high relative humidity and precipitation and extremely high and low levels of PM10, O3, SO2 and CO increased the risk of HFMD from 2014 to 2020. The results of this study provide a reference for local authorities to formulate intervention measures and establish an environment-based disease early warning system.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 21682-21691, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826837

ABSTRACT

As an air pollutant closely related to urban traffic and heavy industrial capacity, the variation of NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) concentration can directly reflect the strength of socioeconomic activities. Using the weekly average results of daily product synthesis of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite inversion, a weekly-scale variation series of standardized socioeconomic activity index during the Spring Festival period of 2019-2021 is constructed. The results show that the OMI-NO2 satellite data are in good consistency with ground-based monitoring data; the Spring Festival holiday also suppresses socioeconomic activity in normal years, but the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic leads to an extended period of 2-3 weeks of weakened socioeconomic activity in China after the holiday, while the minimum value of socioeconomic activity intensity decreases by 0.12. Although socioeconomic activity is significantly suppressed in the short term, the intensity of socioeconomic activity rises steadily with the gradual resumption of work and production everywhere from the third week after the Chinese Spring Festival and has reached 60.91% of the highest level before the holiday in the seventh week after the holiday. OMI-NO2 satellite data can be used for a rapid assessment of the intensity of air pollution emissions and the level of socioeconomic activity in different regions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
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