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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40474-40495, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148922

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease represents the causative agent with a potentially fatal risk which is having great global human health concern. Earlier studies suggested that air pollutants and meteorological factors were considered as the risk factors for acute respiratory infection, which carries harmful pathogens and affects the immunity. The study intended to explore the correlation between air pollutants, meteorological factors, and the daily reported infected cases caused by novel coronavirus in India. The daily positive infected cases, concentrations of air pollutants, and meteorological factors in 288 districts were collected from January 30, 2020, to April 23, 2020, in India. Spearman's correlation and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to investigate the correlations of four air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2) and eight meteorological factors (Temp, DTR, RH, AH, AP, RF, WS, and WD) with COVID-19-infected cases. The study indicated that a 10 µg/m3 increase during (Lag0-14) in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 resulted in 2.21% (95%CI: 1.13 to 3.29), 2.67% (95% CI: 0.33 to 5.01), and 4.56 (95% CI: 2.22 to 6.90) increase in daily counts of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19)-infected cases respectively. However, only 1 unit increase in meteorological factor levels in case of daily mean temperature and DTR during (Lag0-14) associated with 3.78% (95%CI: 1.81 to 5.75) and 1.82% (95% CI: -1.74 to 5.38) rise of COVID-19-infected cases respectively. In addition, SO2 and relative humidity were negatively associated with COVID-19-infected cases at Lag0-14 with decrease of 7.23% (95% CI: -10.99 to -3.47) and 1.11% (95% CI: -3.45 to 1.23) for SO2 and for relative humidity respectively. The study recommended that there are significant correlations between air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19-infected cases, which substantially explain the effect of national lockdown and suggested positive implications for control and prevention of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20046, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133569

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the evaluation of air quality in different districts of Haryana. Geo-spatial techniques were used to estimate gaseous and particulate pollutant's spatial and temporal variation during complete nationwide lockdown period and same month of previous year 2019 (March to May). Data of six fixed pollutants were collected from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In this context, the data of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NOx, SO2, and CO) were analyzed for 2019 and 2020. The Spatio-temporal distribution of the Air Quality Index (AQI) clearly depicts difference in lockdown and unlock period. The result was showed that the air quality was very poor to satisfactory in 2019 and an improvement was observed from satisfactory to good in 2020 due to COVID-19 lockdown. On the basis of result, it will be concluded that automobile and industry are the major contributor in increase the pollutant concentration.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis
5.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05043, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144961

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdowns have been fundamental to decreasing disease transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic even after vaccines were available. We aimed to evaluate and compare changes in air quality during the first year of the pandemic in different cities around the world, investigate how these changes correlate with changes in mobility, and analyse how lockdowns affected air pollutants' annual means. Methods: We compared the concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 in 42 cities around the world in the first months of the pandemic in 2020 to data from 2016-2019 and correlated them with changes in mobility using Human Development Indexes (HDIs). Cities with the highest decreases in air pollutants during this period were evaluated for the whole year 2020. We calculated the annual means for these cities and compared them to the new World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines. A Student's t-test (95% confidence interval) was used to evaluate significant changes. Results: Highest decreases in NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 were between -50 and -70%. Cities evaluated for the whole year 2020 generally showed a recovery in air pollution levels after the initial months of the pandemic, except for London. These changes positively correlated with year-long mobility indexes for NO2 and PM2.5 for some cities. The highest reductions in air pollutants' annual means were from -20 to -35%. In general, decreases were higher for NO2, compared to PM2.5 and PM10. All analysed cities showed annual means incompliant with the new WHO Air Quality Guidelines for NO2 of 10 µg/m3, with values 1.7 and 4.3 times higher. For PM2.5, all cities showed values 1.3 to 7.6 times higher than the WHO Guidelines of 5 µg/m3, except for New Delhi, with a value 18 times higher. For PM10, only New York complied with the new guidelines of 15 µg/m3 and all the other cities were 1.1 to 4.2 times higher, except for New Delhi, which was 11 times higher. Conclusions: These data show that even during a pandemic that highly affected mobility and economic activities and decreased air pollution around the world, complying with the new WHO Guidelines will demand a global strategical effort in the way we generate energy, move in and around the cities, and manufacture products.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/analysis , World Health Organization , Particulate Matter/analysis
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(11): 114002, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119417
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(11): 117006, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested links between ambient air pollution and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, yet confirmation by well-designed epidemiological studies with individual data is needed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with risk of mortality from COVID-19 for those infected with COVID-19. METHODS: The Cook County Medical Examiner's Office reports individual-level data for deaths from COVID-19 that occur in its jurisdiction, which includes all confirmed COVID-19 deaths in Cook County, Illinois. Case-crossover analysis was conducted to estimate the associations of estimated short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on the day of death and up to 21 d before death at location of death with COVID-19. A total of 7,462 deaths from COVID-19 that occurred up to 28 February 2021 were included in the final analysis. We adjusted for potential confounders by time-stratified case-crossover design and by covariate adjustments (i.e., time-invariant factors, meteorological factors, viral transmission, seasonality, and time trend). RESULTS: Of the 7,462 case and 25,457 self-control days, almost all were days with exposure levels below the PM2.5 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (35 µg/m3); 98.9% had O3 levels below the maximum 8-h NAAQS (35.7 µg/m3 or 70 parts per billion). An interquartile range (IQR) increase (5.2 µg/m3) in cumulative 3-wk PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 69.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.6, 113.8] increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. An IQR increase (8.2 µg/m3) in 3-d O3 exposure was associated with a 29.0% (95% CI: 9.9, 51.5) increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. The associations differed by demographics or race/ethnicity. There was indication of modification of the associations by some comorbid conditions. DISCUSSION: Short-term exposure to air pollution below the NAAQS may increase the mortality burden from COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10836.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Registries
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 161, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been identified as related to the diseases of susceptible population, but the spatial heterogeneity of its economic burden and its determinants are rarely investigated. The issue is of great policy significance, especially after the epidemic of COVID-19, when human are facing the joint crisis of health and environment, and some areas is prone to falling into poverty. METHODS: The geographical detector was adopted to study the spatial distribution characteristics of the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (ICHE) for older adults in 100 rural areas in China at the prefecture-city level. The health factors, sociological factors, policy factors and environmental factors and their interactions are identified. RESULTS: First, most health service factors had strong explanatory power for ICHE whether it interacts with air pollution. Second, 50 single-factor high-risk areas of ICHE were found in the study, but at the same time, there were 21 areas dominated by multiple factors. CONCLUSION: The different contributions and synergy among the factors constitute the complex mechanism of factors and catastrophic health expenditure. Moreover, during this process, air pollution aggravates the contribution of health service factors toward ICHE. In addition, the leading factors of ICHE are different among regions. At the end, this paper also puts forward some policy suggestions from the perspective of health and environment crisis in the post-COVID-19 world: environmental protection policies should be combined with the prevention of infectious diseases; advanced health investment is the most cost-effective policy for the inverse health sequences of air pollution and infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); integrating environmental protection policy into healthy development policy, different regions take targeted measures to cope with the intertwined crisis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cities , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115199

ABSTRACT

The association between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases is well known. This study aimed to identify the association between this exposure and hospitalizations for COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, SP, a medium-sized city, between April 2020 and April 2021. Hospitalization data, concerning code B34.2, was supplied by DATASUS, and data concerning pollutants and climate variables were supplied by CETESB. Cases were quantified by sex, age, length of hospital stay in days, and type of discharge, whether hospital discharge or death. The negative binomial regression model was chosen. Estimates were produced for the relative risk (RR) of significant exposure to pollutants (P≤0.05) with a 10 µg/m3 increase of pollutant, as well as for excess hospitalizations. There were 1873 hospitalizations, with a daily average of 4.7 (±3.8), ranging from zero to 21: 716 deaths (38.2%) were recorded, 1065 admissions were men, and women were less susceptible (OR=0.82). The average age of women was higher than that of men; in cases of death, men were older than women; discharged patients were younger. All the above variables were significant. The risk of ozone exposure was higher and more significant in Lag 2, and the risk of nitrogen dioxide exposure was high in Lag 3, which was the period of the highest increase in hospitalizations, at 11.3%. The findings of this study, the first conducted in Brazil, corroborate the results of studies conducted in other centers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40371-40377, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113586

ABSTRACT

Entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is expressed in nasal epithelial cells, and nasal delivery pathway can be a key feature of transmission. Here, a possibility of interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with air pollution particulate matter (PM) was considered. It was shown in our recent studies that water-suspended plastic and wood smoke aerosol PM and carbon-containing nanoparticles from burning organics can interact with the plasma membrane of brain nerve terminals presumably due to their lipid components. COVID-19 patients have neurological symptoms, viral particles were found in the brain, SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells via fusion of lipid viral envelope with the plasma membranes of infected cells, and so viral envelop can contain lipid components of the host neuronal membranes. Therefore, interaction of SARS-CoV-2 envelope with PM is possible in water surrounding. After drying, PM can serve as a carrier for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 immobilized at their surface. Moreover, PM and SARS-CoV-2 per se can enter human organism during nasal inhalation, and they both use the same nose-to-brain delivery pathways moving along axons directly to the brain, influencing the nervous system and exocytosis/endocytosis in nerve cells. Thus, PM can aggravate neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and vice versa, due to their identical nose-to-brain delivery mechanism and possible interference of neuronal effects. In addition, different types of PM because of their ability to interact with the plasma membranes of nerve cells can facilitate unspecific SARS-CoV-2 entrance to the cells, and can influence envelope features of SARS-CoV-2. Detailed studies are required to analyze interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with PM.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nervous System , Particulate Matter , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099537

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the digital economy has developed rapidly. The airborne nature of COVID-19 viruses has attracted worldwide attention. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the impact of the digital economy on particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) emissions. The research sample of this paper include 283 prefecture-level cities in China from 2011 to 2019 in China. Spatial Durbin model was adopted to explore the spatial spillover effect of digital economy on PM2.5 emissions. In addition, considering the impact of smart city pilot (SCP) policy, a spatial difference-in-differences (SDID) model was used to analyze policy effects. The estimation results indicated that (1) the development of the digital economy significantly reduces PM2.5 emissions. (2) The spatial spillover effect of the digital economy significantly reduces PM2.5 emissions in neighboring cities. (3) Smart city construction increases PM2.5 emissions in neighboring cities. (4) The reduction effect of the digital economy on PM2.5 is more pronounced in the sample of eastern cities and urban agglomerations.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Cities , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099494

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) have set sustainability development goals to reduce diseases, deaths, and the environmental impact of cities due to air pollution. In Istanbul, although average pollutant concentrations have been on a downward trend in recent years, extreme values and their annual exceedance numbers are high based on the air quality standards of WHO and the EU. Due to COVID-19 lockdowns, statistically significant reductions in emissions were observed for short periods. However, how long the effect of the lockdowns will last is unknown. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the impact of long-term lockdowns on Istanbul's air quality. The restriction period is approximated to the same periods of the previous years to eliminate seasonal effects. A series of paired t-tests (p-value < 0.05) were applied to hourly data from 12 March 2016, until 1 July 2021, when quarantines were completed at 36 air quality monitoring stations in Istanbul. The findings reveal that the average air quality of Istanbul was approximately 17% improved during the long-term lockdowns. Therefore, the restriction-related changes in emission distributions continued in the long-term period of 476 days. However, it is unknown how long this effect will continue, which will be the subject of future studies. Moreover, it was observed that the emission probability density functions changed considerably during the lockdowns compared to the years before. Accordingly, notable decreases were detected in air quality limit exceedances in terms of both excessive pollutant concentrations and frequency of occurrence, respectively, for PM10 (-13% and -13%), PM2.5 (-16% and -30%), and NO2 (-3% and -8%), but not for O3 (+200% and +540%) and SO2 (-10% and +2.5%).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
16.
Risk Anal ; 42(7): 1571-1584, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097864

ABSTRACT

Understanding is still developing about spatial risk factors for COVID-19 infection or mortality. This is a secondary analysis of patient records in a confined area of eastern England, covering persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 through end May 2020, including dates of death and residence area. We obtained residence area data on air quality, deprivation levels, care home bed capacity, age distribution, rurality, access to employment centers, and population density. We considered these covariates as risk factors for excess cases and excess deaths in the 28 days after confirmation of positive Covid status relative to the overall case load and death recorded for the study area as a whole. We used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollie model to investigate the spatial dependency of cases and deaths allowing for a Poisson error structure. Structural equation models were applied to clarify relationships between predictors and outcomes. Excess case counts or excess deaths were both predicted by the percentage of population age 65 years, care home bed capacity and less rurality: older population and more urban areas saw excess cases. Greater deprivation did not correlate with excess case counts but was significantly linked to higher mortality rates after infection. Neither excess cases nor excess deaths were predicted by population density, travel time to local employment centers, or air quality indicators. Only 66% of mortality was explained by locally high case counts. Higher deprivation clearly linked to higher COVID-19 mortality separate from wider community prevalence and other spatial risk factors.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(11): 1897-1905, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097303

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine whether long-term ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) were associated with increased risk of testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant individuals who were universally screened at delivery and whether socioeconomic status (SES) modified this relationship. We used obstetrical data collected from New-York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, New York, between March and December 2020, including data on Medicaid use (a proxy for low SES) and COVID-19 test results. We linked estimated 2018-2019 PM2.5 concentrations (300-m resolution) with census-tract-level population density, household size, income, and mobility (as measured by mobile-device use) on the basis of residential address. Analyses included 3,318 individuals; 5% tested positive for COVID-19 at delivery, 8% tested positive during pregnancy, and 48% used Medicaid. Average long-term PM2.5 concentrations were 7.4 (standard deviation, 0.8) µg/m3. In adjusted multilevel logistic regression models, we saw no association between PM2.5 and ever testing positive for COVID-19; however, odds were elevated among those using Medicaid (per 1-µg/m3 increase, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.5). Further, while only 22% of those testing positive showed symptoms, 69% of symptomatic individuals used Medicaid. SES, including unmeasured occupational exposures or increased susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to concurrent social and environmental exposures, may explain the increased odds of testing positive for COVID-19 being confined to vulnerable pregnant individuals using Medicaid.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Social Class
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18144, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096792

ABSTRACT

NO2 and nitric oxide (NO) are the most reactive gases in the atmosphere. The interaction of NOx molecules with oxygen, water and other chemicals leads to the formation of acid rain. The presence of NO2 in the air affects human health and forms a photochemical smog. In this study, we utilize wavelet analysis, namely, the Morlet wavelet, which is a type of continuous wavelet transform, to conduct a spectral analysis of the periodicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The study is conducted using data from 14 weather stations located in diverse geographic areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over a period of two years (2019 and 2020). We explain and relate the significance of human activities to the concentration level of NO2, particularly considering the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown to the periodicity of NO2. The results show that NO2 concentrations in desert areas such as Liwa and Al Quaa were unaffected by the lockdown period (April-July 2020) resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The other stations in the urban areas of Abu Dhabi city, Al Dhafra and Al Ain, showed a reduction in NO2 during the lockdown. NO2 is more highly concentrated during winter seasons than during other seasons. The periodicity of NO2 lasted from a few days up to 16 days in most regions. However, some stations located in the Al Dhafra region, such as Al Ruwais and the Gayathi School stations, exhibited a longer period of more than 32 days with a 0.05 significance test. In the Abu Dhabi region, NO2 lasted between 64 and 128 days at the Al Mafraq station. The correlation between the NO2 concentration across several ground stations was studied using wavelet coherence.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Wavelet Analysis , United Arab Emirates , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution/analysis
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090189

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that air pollution may be closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. It has been observed that exposure to air pollution leads to reduced immune response, thereby facilitating viral penetration and replication. In our study, we combined information on confirmed COVID-19 daily new cases (DNCs) in one of the most polluted regions in the European Union (EU) with air-quality monitoring data, including meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and direction) and concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, the relationship between bacterial aerosol (BA) concentration and COVID-19 spread was analyzed. We confirmed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between NO2 concentrations and numbers of confirmed DNCs and observed positive correlations (p < 0.05) between BA concentrations and DNCs, which may point to coronavirus air transmission by surface deposits on bioaerosol particles. In addition, wind direction information was used to show that the highest numbers of DNCs were associated with the dominant wind directions in the region (southern and southwestern parts).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Ozone/analysis , China
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