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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sri Lanka is a developing country where the majority of households still rely on firewood for cooking. Furthermore, the prevalence of anemia among reproductive-aged women is of moderate public health importance, according the classification of World Health Organization. Despite the researchers' ongoing efforts to investigate a link between solid fuel smoke exposure and anemia, the veracity of their findings remains uncertain. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between biomass fuel smoke exposure and anemia in non-pregnant reproductive-aged women in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 non-pregnant reproductive-aged (15 to 49 years) women in Central Province, Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire, and exposure was assessed using a breath carbon monoxide monitor. Drabkin's cynomethhemoglobin technique was used to determine blood hemoglobin concentration. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 36.1%. The logistic regression model revealed no effect of cooking fuel type on anemic or non-anemic status after adjusting for potential confounding factors (p > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis also discovered that cooking fuel type had no effect on women's blood hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The study results suggest no impact of solid fuel smoke exposure on anemia among non-pregnant, reproductive-aged women. Larger scale prospective cohort studies are recommended. The reasons behind the high prevalence of anemia among reproductive-aged women should be further investigated, and corrective measures should be implemented urgently.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Anemia , Adult , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Anemia/epidemiology , Anemia/etiology , Biomass , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Smoke/adverse effects , Smoke/analysis
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11481, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921720

ABSTRACT

With a modified version of the Wells-Riley model, we simulated the size distribution and dynamics of five airborne viruses (measles, influenza, SARS-CoV-2, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus) emitted from a speaking person in a typical residential setting over a relative humidity (RH) range of 20-80% and air temperature of 20-25 °C. Besides the size transformation of virus-containing droplets due to evaporation, respiratory absorption, and then removal by gravitational settling, the modified model also considered the removal mechanism by ventilation. The trend and magnitude of RH impact depended on the respiratory virus. For rhinovirus and adenovirus humidifying the indoor air from 20/30 to 50% will be increasing the relative infection risk, however, this relative infection risk increase will be negligible for rhinovirus and weak for adenovirus. Humidification will have a potential benefit in decreasing the infection risk only for influenza when there is a large infection risk decrease for humidifying from 20 to 50%. Regardless of the dry solution composition, humidification will overall increase the infection risk via long-range airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Compared to humidification at a constant ventilation rate, increasing the ventilation rate to moderate levels 0.5 → 2.0 h-1 will have a more beneficial infection risk decrease for all viruses except for influenza. Increasing the ventilation rate from low values of 0.5 h-1 to higher levels of 6 h-1 will have a dominating effect on reducing the infection risk regardless of virus type.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Infections , Influenza, Human , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Humans , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(2): 501-513, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates indicate that household air pollution caused by solid fuel burning accounted for about 1.03 million premature mortalities in China in 2016. In the country's rural areas, more than half the population still relies on biomass fuels and coals for cooking and heating. Understanding the health impact of indoor air pollution and socioeconomic indicators is essential for the country to improve its developmental targets. We aimed to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with solid fuel users in a rural area in China. We also estimated the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in association with solid fuel use and described the relationship between solid fuel use, socioeconomic status and mortality. We also measured the risk of long-term use, and the effect of ameliorative action, on mortality caused by cardiovascular disease and other causes. METHODS: We used the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) site in Pengzhou, Sichuan, China. We followed a cohort of 55 687 people over 2004-13. We calculated the mean and standard deviation among subgroups classified by fuel use types: gas, coal, wood and electricity (central heating additionally for heating). We tested the mediation effect using the stepwise method and Sobel test. We used Cox proportional models to estimate the risk of incidences of cardiovascular disease and mortality with survival days as the time scale, adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, physical measurements, lifestyle, stove ventilation and fuel type used for other purposes. The survival days were defined as the follow-up days from the baseline survey till the date of death or 31 December 2013 if right-censored. We also calculated the absolute mortality rate difference (ARD) between the exposure group and the reference group. RESULTS: The study population had an average age of 51.0, and 61.9% of the individuals were female; 64.8% participants (n = 35 543) cooked regularly and 25.4% participants (n = 13 921) needed winter heating. With clean fuel users as the reference group, participant households that used solid fuel for cooking or heating both had a higher risk of all-cause mortality: hazard ratio (HR) for: cooking, 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.26]; heating, 1.34 (95% CI 1.16, 1.54). Solid fuel used for winter heating was associated with a higher risk of mortality caused by cerebrovascular disease: HR 1.64 (95% CI 1.12, 2.40); stroke: HR 1.70 (95% CI 1.13, 2.56); and cardiovascular disease: HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.10, 2.02). Low income and poor education level had a significant correlation with solid fuel used for cooking: odds ratio (OR) for income: 2.27 (95% CI 2.14, 2.41); education: 2.34 (95% CI 2.18, 2.53); and for heating: income: 2.69 (95% CI 2.46, 2.97); education: 2.05 (95% CI 1.88, 2.26), which may be potential mediators bridging the effects of socioeconomic status factors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Solid fuel used for cooking and heating accounted for 42.4% and 81.1% of the effect of poor education and 55.2% and 76.0% of the effect of low income on all-cause mortality, respectively. The risk of all-cause mortality could be ameliorated by stopping regularly cooking and heating using solid fuel or switching from solid fuel to clean fuels: HR for cooking: 0.90 (95% CI 0.84, 0.96); heating: 0.76 (95% CI 0.64, 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Our study reinforces the evidence of an association between solid fuel use and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. We also assessed the effect of socioeconomic status as the potential mediator on mortality. As solid fuel use was a major contributor in the effect of socioeconomic status on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, policies to improve access to clean fuels could reduce morbidity and mortality related to poor education and low income.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Coal/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Cooking , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Br J Surg ; 108(9): 1022-1025, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172644

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic surgery has been undermined throughout the COVID-19 pandemic by concerns that it may generate an infectious risk to the operating team through aerosolization of peritoneal particles. There is anyway a need for increased awareness and understanding of the occupational hazard for surgical teams regarding unfiltered escape of pollutants generated by surgical smoke and other microbials. Here, the aerosol-generating nature of this access modality was confirmed through repeatable real-time methodology both qualitatively and quantitively to inform best practice and additional engineering solutions to optimize the operating room environment.


Laparoscopic surgery has been undermined throughout the COVID-19 pandemic by concerns that it may generate an infectious risk to the operating team through aerosolization of peritoneal particles. There is anyway a need for increased awareness and understanding of the occupational hazard for surgical teams regarding unfiltered escape of pollutants generated by surgical smoke and other microbials. Here, the aerosol-generating nature of this access modality was confirmed through repeatable real-time methodology both qualitatively and quantitively to inform best practice and additional engineering solutions to optimize the operating room environment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Ventilation , Aerosols , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Laparoscopy/instrumentation , Operating Rooms , Smoke/analysis
5.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 146-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059879

ABSTRACT

Evidence supports the link between air pollution and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, exposure to indoor pollution (IDP) is likely to be associated with the disease. The poor, refugees, and migrant workers who live in feeble conditions are the most vulnerable. The pandemic has caused many people to remain indoors, especially at-risk individuals (e.g., the elderly, diabetics, obese, cardiac, and chronic lung disease patients). Home isolation may be an underlying factor to other health problems among these populations if the place where they are socially isolating is not adequately ventilated. Therefore, understanding the consequences of the relationship between IDP and the COVID-19 pandemic is essential.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Heating/adverse effects , Coal/adverse effects , Humans , Manure , Prognosis , Refugees , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Transients and Migrants , Wood/adverse effects , Working Poor
6.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(12): e537-e542, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963771

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has dramatically altered the health and well-being of children, particularly as they have been isolated indoors and in their homes as a result of social distancing measures. In this article, we describe several of the environmental threats that are affecting the health of children during the pandemic. These include increased exposure to household cleaning products, chemicals and lead in dust, indoor air pollutants, screen time, family stress, and firearms, as well as decreased availability of food, social supports, and routine childhood screenings. Importantly, many of these threats disproportionately affect children of racial or ethnic minorities or who have low socioeconomic status. Pediatric health care providers will need to screen and treat children and counsel their parents and/or other caregivers during well-child visits with an eye for these new or worsened environmental threats. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(12):e537-e542.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , Quarantine , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Child , Child Health Services , Child Welfare , Computers , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Dust , Family Conflict , Firearms , Food Deserts , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Sedentary Behavior , United States/epidemiology
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