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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197474

ABSTRACT

The association between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases is well known. This study aimed to identify the association between this exposure and hospitalizations for COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, SP, a medium-sized city, between April 2020 and April 2021. Hospitalization data, concerning code B34.2, was supplied by DATASUS, and data concerning pollutants and climate variables were supplied by CETESB. Cases were quantified by sex, age, length of hospital stay in days, and type of discharge, whether hospital discharge or death. The negative binomial regression model was chosen. Estimates were produced for the relative risk (RR) of significant exposure to pollutants (P≤0.05) with a 10 µg/m3 increase of pollutant, as well as for excess hospitalizations. There were 1873 hospitalizations, with a daily average of 4.7 (±3.8), ranging from zero to 21: 716 deaths (38.2%) were recorded, 1065 admissions were men, and women were less susceptible (OR=0.82). The average age of women was higher than that of men; in cases of death, men were older than women; discharged patients were younger. All the above variables were significant. The risk of ozone exposure was higher and more significant in Lag 2, and the risk of nitrogen dioxide exposure was high in Lag 3, which was the period of the highest increase in hospitalizations, at 11.3%. The findings of this study, the first conducted in Brazil, corroborate the results of studies conducted in other centers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 161, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been identified as related to the diseases of susceptible population, but the spatial heterogeneity of its economic burden and its determinants are rarely investigated. The issue is of great policy significance, especially after the epidemic of COVID-19, when human are facing the joint crisis of health and environment, and some areas is prone to falling into poverty. METHODS: The geographical detector was adopted to study the spatial distribution characteristics of the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (ICHE) for older adults in 100 rural areas in China at the prefecture-city level. The health factors, sociological factors, policy factors and environmental factors and their interactions are identified. RESULTS: First, most health service factors had strong explanatory power for ICHE whether it interacts with air pollution. Second, 50 single-factor high-risk areas of ICHE were found in the study, but at the same time, there were 21 areas dominated by multiple factors. CONCLUSION: The different contributions and synergy among the factors constitute the complex mechanism of factors and catastrophic health expenditure. Moreover, during this process, air pollution aggravates the contribution of health service factors toward ICHE. In addition, the leading factors of ICHE are different among regions. At the end, this paper also puts forward some policy suggestions from the perspective of health and environment crisis in the post-COVID-19 world: environmental protection policies should be combined with the prevention of infectious diseases; advanced health investment is the most cost-effective policy for the inverse health sequences of air pollution and infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); integrating environmental protection policy into healthy development policy, different regions take targeted measures to cope with the intertwined crisis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cities , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
8.
Risk Anal ; 42(7): 1571-1584, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097864

ABSTRACT

Understanding is still developing about spatial risk factors for COVID-19 infection or mortality. This is a secondary analysis of patient records in a confined area of eastern England, covering persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 through end May 2020, including dates of death and residence area. We obtained residence area data on air quality, deprivation levels, care home bed capacity, age distribution, rurality, access to employment centers, and population density. We considered these covariates as risk factors for excess cases and excess deaths in the 28 days after confirmation of positive Covid status relative to the overall case load and death recorded for the study area as a whole. We used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollie model to investigate the spatial dependency of cases and deaths allowing for a Poisson error structure. Structural equation models were applied to clarify relationships between predictors and outcomes. Excess case counts or excess deaths were both predicted by the percentage of population age 65 years, care home bed capacity and less rurality: older population and more urban areas saw excess cases. Greater deprivation did not correlate with excess case counts but was significantly linked to higher mortality rates after infection. Neither excess cases nor excess deaths were predicted by population density, travel time to local employment centers, or air quality indicators. Only 66% of mortality was explained by locally high case counts. Higher deprivation clearly linked to higher COVID-19 mortality separate from wider community prevalence and other spatial risk factors.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(11): 1897-1905, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097303

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine whether long-term ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) were associated with increased risk of testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant individuals who were universally screened at delivery and whether socioeconomic status (SES) modified this relationship. We used obstetrical data collected from New-York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, New York, between March and December 2020, including data on Medicaid use (a proxy for low SES) and COVID-19 test results. We linked estimated 2018-2019 PM2.5 concentrations (300-m resolution) with census-tract-level population density, household size, income, and mobility (as measured by mobile-device use) on the basis of residential address. Analyses included 3,318 individuals; 5% tested positive for COVID-19 at delivery, 8% tested positive during pregnancy, and 48% used Medicaid. Average long-term PM2.5 concentrations were 7.4 (standard deviation, 0.8) µg/m3. In adjusted multilevel logistic regression models, we saw no association between PM2.5 and ever testing positive for COVID-19; however, odds were elevated among those using Medicaid (per 1-µg/m3 increase, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.5). Further, while only 22% of those testing positive showed symptoms, 69% of symptomatic individuals used Medicaid. SES, including unmeasured occupational exposures or increased susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to concurrent social and environmental exposures, may explain the increased odds of testing positive for COVID-19 being confined to vulnerable pregnant individuals using Medicaid.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Social Class
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090189

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that air pollution may be closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. It has been observed that exposure to air pollution leads to reduced immune response, thereby facilitating viral penetration and replication. In our study, we combined information on confirmed COVID-19 daily new cases (DNCs) in one of the most polluted regions in the European Union (EU) with air-quality monitoring data, including meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and direction) and concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, the relationship between bacterial aerosol (BA) concentration and COVID-19 spread was analyzed. We confirmed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between NO2 concentrations and numbers of confirmed DNCs and observed positive correlations (p < 0.05) between BA concentrations and DNCs, which may point to coronavirus air transmission by surface deposits on bioaerosol particles. In addition, wind direction information was used to show that the highest numbers of DNCs were associated with the dominant wind directions in the region (southern and southwestern parts).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Ozone/analysis , China
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065980

ABSTRACT

It remains unknown which size fractions dominate the adverse cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this study aimed to explore the differential associations between size-fractioned particle number concentrations (PNCs) and cardiopulmonary function measures, including the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We conducted a panel study among 211 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Shanghai, China, between January 2014 and December 2021. We applied linear mixed-effect models to determine the associations between cardiopulmonary function measures and PNCs ranging from 0.01 to 10 µm in diameter. Generally, only particles <1 µm showed significant associations, i.e., ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1 µm) for FVC and particles ranging from 0.1 to 1 µm for FEV1 and LVEF. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in UFP was associated with decreases of 78.4 mL in FVC. PNC0.1-0.3 and PNC0.3-1 corresponded to the strongest effects on FEV1 (119.5 mL) and LVEF (1.5%) per IQR increment. Particles <1 µm might dominate the cardiopulmonary toxicity of PM, but UFPs might not always have the strongest effect. Tailored regulations towards particles <1 µm should be intensified to reduce PM pollution and protect vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e290, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In some patients, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by loss of smell and taste, and this has been reportedly associated with exposure to air pollutants. This study investigated the relationship between the occurrence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and air pollutant concentrations in Korea. METHODS: Information on the clinical symptom of chemosensory dysfunction, the date of diagnosis, residential area, age, and sex of 60,194 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported to the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from January 20 to December 31, 2020 was collected. In addition, the daily average concentration of air pollutants for a week in the patients' residential area was collected from the Ministry of Environment based on the date of diagnosis of COVID-19. A binomial logistic regression model, using age and gender, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, 24-hour mean temperature and relative humidity at the regional level as covariates, was used to determine the effect of air pollution on chemosensory dysfunction. RESULTS: Symptoms of chemosensory dysfunction were most frequent among patients in their 20s and 30s, and occurred more frequently in large cities. The logistic analysis showed that the concentration of particulate matter 10 (PM10) and 2.5 (PM2.5) up to 2 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) at least 7 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 affected the development of chemosensory dysfunction. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, and daily average temperature and relative humidity, it was found that an increase in the interquartile range of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the incidence of chemosensory dysfunction 1.10, 1.10, 1.17, 1.31, and 1.19-fold, respectively. In contrast, the O3 concentration had a negative association with chemosensory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: High concentrations of air pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the risk of developing chemosensory dysfunction from COVID-19 infection. This result underscores the need to actively prevent exposure to air pollution and prevent COVID-19 infection. In addition, policies that regulate activities and products that create high amounts of harmful environmental wastes may help in promoting better health for all during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
16.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104291, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While air pollution is a major issue due to its harmful effects on human health, few studies focus on its impact on the immune system and vulnerability to viral infections. The lockdown declared following the COVID-19 pandemic represents a unique opportunity to study the large-scale impact of variations in air pollutants in real life. We hypothesized that variations in air pollutants modify Th1 response represented by interferon (IFN) γ production. METHODS: We conducted a single center paired pilot cohort study of 58 participants, and a confirmation cohort of 320 participants in Nice (France), with for each cohort two samplings at six months intervals. We correlated the variations in the production of IFNγ after non-specific stimulation of participants' immune cells with variations in key regulated pollutants: NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 and climate variables. Using linear regression, we studied the effects of variations of each pollutant on the immune response. FINDINGS: In the pilot cohort, IFNγ production significantly decreased by 25.7% post-lockdown compared to during lockdown, while NO2 increased significantly by 46.0%. After the adjustment for climate variations during the study period (sunshine and temperature), we observed a significant effect of NO2 variation on IFNγ production (P=0.03). In the confirmation cohort IFNγ decreased significantly by 47.8% and after adjustment for environmental factors and intrinsic characteristics we observed a significant effect of environmental factors: NO2, PM10, O3, climatic conditions (sunshine exposure, relative humidity) on variation in IFNγ production (P=0.005, P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) but not independently from the BMI at inclusion and the workplace P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively). INTERPRETATION: We show a weakening of the antiviral cellular response in correlation with an increase of pollutants exposition. FUNDING: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Conseil Départemental des Alpes-Maritimes and Region Sud.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1614, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Every year, more than 700,000 people die due to suicide, one of the most common reasons for youth death. While many studies have revealed two main factors for suicidal behavior: impulsive suicidal behavior due to mental illness and financial stress, it is not clear what happens if individuals face deterioration of mental health and economic recession. This paper attempts to answer this question and how suicide rates are correlated with these factors. METHODS: We empirically investigate whether economic recessions and air pollution trigger suicides by examining Japan, a country with one of the highest suicide rates, from 2014 to 2021. We take advantage of the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic and the periods before the pandemic, when both economic recessions and reductions in air pollution occurred simultaneously. Using monthly and municipal- level data, we construct a triple difference model that takes air pollution and unemployment as treatments. RESULTS: Our findings show that high (upper half of each period) levels of air pollution and unemployment have substantial impacts on the suicide rates of adults (22.9% in the short term) and children (42.7% in the short term, 36.0% in the long term), indicating that the increase in suicide rates among children is almost twice as high as that among adults. Our study finds that unemployment and air pollution alone are not associated with increased suicide rates but their simultaneous occurrence triggers suicides during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study urges suicide prevention, particularly among children, as an essential consideration for public health. Furthermore, our results indicate the need for the government to allocate resources to recover air quality and the economy simultaneously during a recession to reduce suicide mortality of both child and adults.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Economic Recession , Humans , Pandemics , Unemployment/psychology
18.
Public Health ; 211: 66-71, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to air pollution is a known risk factor for asthma exacerbations and hospitalisations. This study aimed to identify if COVID-19 transport restrictions led to improvements in air quality in Dublin and if this had an impact on asthma-related hospital admissions. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Daily concentration levels of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) system provided the daily number of asthma-related hospital admissions in Dublin. The figures for 2018-2019 were compared with the period of transport restrictions (from March 2020). RESULTS: During the period of transport restrictions, there was a significant decrease in mean daily concentrations in both PM2.5 (8.9 vs 7.8 µg/m3, P = 0.002) and NO2 (24.0 vs 16.7 µg/m3, P < 0.001). There was also a significant reduction in the mean number of daily asthma admissions (4.5 vs 2.8 admissions, P < 0.001). Only NO2 showed a statistically significant correlation with asthma admissions (r = 0.132, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Transport restrictions introduced to mitigate against COVID-19 led to lower pollutant levels and improved air quality. Previously described associations between pollutants and asthma would indicate that these improvements in air quality contributed to the reduction in asthma-related admissions. The complex nature of PM is the likely explanation for the lack of correlation between its concentration and asthma admissions, unlike NO2 whose primary source is vehicular emissions. Public Health needs to advocate for transport policies, which can improve air quality and hence improve human health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Vehicle Emissions
19.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114155, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is speculated to increase the risks of COVID-19 spread, severity, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed studies investigating the relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 cases, non-fatal severity, and mortality in North America and Europe. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies investigating the effects of harmful pollutants, including particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 or 10 µm (PM2.5 or PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), on COVID-19 cases, severity, and deaths in Europe and North America through to June 19, 2021. Articles were included if they quantitatively measured the relationship between exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 health outcomes. RESULTS: From 2,482 articles screened, we included 116 studies reporting 355 separate pollutant-COVID-19 estimates. Approximately half of all evaluations on incidence were positive and significant associations (52.7%); for mortality the corresponding figure was similar (48.1%), while for non-fatal severity this figure was lower (41.2%). Longer-term exposure to pollutants appeared more likely to be positively associated with COVID-19 incidence (63.8%). PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, and CO were most strongly positively associated with COVID-19 incidence, while PM2.5 and NO2 with COVID-19 deaths. All studies were observational and most exhibited high risk of confounding and outcome measurement bias. DISCUSSION: Air pollution may be associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Future research is needed to better test the air pollution-COVID-19 hypothesis, particularly using more robust study designs and COVID-19 measures that are less prone to measurement error and by considering co-pollutant interactions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Ozone/toxicity , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987803

ABSTRACT

The Republic of Kosovo is a small country in the Balkans. The capital city of Pristina hosts most of its population and is situated in a mountain basin with poor air exchange, especially during winter. Domestic heating, road transport, industry and coal-fired power plants contribute to high levels of air pollution. We performed a time-series analysis on effects of particulate air pollution (PM2.5) on respiratory health of children and adolescents, using hospital admission and ambulatory visit numbers from the pediatric university clinic. From 2018 until 2020, daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 ranged between 2.41 and 161.03 µg/m³. On average, there were 6.7 ambulatory visits per day with lower numbers on weekends and during the first COVID-19 wave in 2020. An increase in PM2.5 led to an immediate increase in visit numbers that lasted over several days. Averaged over a full week, this amounted to about a 1% increase per 10 µg/m³. There were, on average, 1.7 hospital admissions per day. Two and three days after a rise in air pollution, there was also a rise in admission numbers, followed by a decline during the consecutive days. This might indicate that the wards were overstressed because of high admission numbers and restricted additional admissions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Kosovo/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
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