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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 170-178, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180480

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its chemical compositions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown, the ground-based data of PM2.5, trace gases, water-soluble inorganic ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed in three typical cities (Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding) in the BTH region of China from 5-15 February 2020. The PM2.5 source apportionment was established by combining the weather research and forecasting model and comprehensive air quality model with extensions (WRF-CAMx). The results showed that the maximum daily PM2.5 concentration reached the heavy pollution level (>150 µg/m3) in the above three cities. The sum concentration of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ played a dominant position in PM2.5 chemical compositions of Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding; secondary transformation of gaseous pollutants contributed significantly to PM2.5 generation, and the secondary transformation was enhanced as the increased PM2.5 concentrations. The results of WRF-CAMx showed obviously inter-transport of PM2.5 in the BTH region; the contribution of transportation source decreased significantly than previous reports in Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding during the COVID-19 lockdown; but the contribution of industrial and residential emission sources increased significantly with the increase of PM2.5 concentration, and industry emission sources contributed the most to PM2.5 concentrations. Therefore, control policies should be devoted to reducing industrial emissions and regional joint control strategies to mitigate haze pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40474-40495, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148922

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease represents the causative agent with a potentially fatal risk which is having great global human health concern. Earlier studies suggested that air pollutants and meteorological factors were considered as the risk factors for acute respiratory infection, which carries harmful pathogens and affects the immunity. The study intended to explore the correlation between air pollutants, meteorological factors, and the daily reported infected cases caused by novel coronavirus in India. The daily positive infected cases, concentrations of air pollutants, and meteorological factors in 288 districts were collected from January 30, 2020, to April 23, 2020, in India. Spearman's correlation and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to investigate the correlations of four air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2) and eight meteorological factors (Temp, DTR, RH, AH, AP, RF, WS, and WD) with COVID-19-infected cases. The study indicated that a 10 µg/m3 increase during (Lag0-14) in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 resulted in 2.21% (95%CI: 1.13 to 3.29), 2.67% (95% CI: 0.33 to 5.01), and 4.56 (95% CI: 2.22 to 6.90) increase in daily counts of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19)-infected cases respectively. However, only 1 unit increase in meteorological factor levels in case of daily mean temperature and DTR during (Lag0-14) associated with 3.78% (95%CI: 1.81 to 5.75) and 1.82% (95% CI: -1.74 to 5.38) rise of COVID-19-infected cases respectively. In addition, SO2 and relative humidity were negatively associated with COVID-19-infected cases at Lag0-14 with decrease of 7.23% (95% CI: -10.99 to -3.47) and 1.11% (95% CI: -3.45 to 1.23) for SO2 and for relative humidity respectively. The study recommended that there are significant correlations between air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19-infected cases, which substantially explain the effect of national lockdown and suggested positive implications for control and prevention of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20046, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133569

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the evaluation of air quality in different districts of Haryana. Geo-spatial techniques were used to estimate gaseous and particulate pollutant's spatial and temporal variation during complete nationwide lockdown period and same month of previous year 2019 (March to May). Data of six fixed pollutants were collected from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In this context, the data of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NOx, SO2, and CO) were analyzed for 2019 and 2020. The Spatio-temporal distribution of the Air Quality Index (AQI) clearly depicts difference in lockdown and unlock period. The result was showed that the air quality was very poor to satisfactory in 2019 and an improvement was observed from satisfactory to good in 2020 due to COVID-19 lockdown. On the basis of result, it will be concluded that automobile and industry are the major contributor in increase the pollutant concentration.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(11): 117006, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested links between ambient air pollution and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, yet confirmation by well-designed epidemiological studies with individual data is needed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with risk of mortality from COVID-19 for those infected with COVID-19. METHODS: The Cook County Medical Examiner's Office reports individual-level data for deaths from COVID-19 that occur in its jurisdiction, which includes all confirmed COVID-19 deaths in Cook County, Illinois. Case-crossover analysis was conducted to estimate the associations of estimated short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on the day of death and up to 21 d before death at location of death with COVID-19. A total of 7,462 deaths from COVID-19 that occurred up to 28 February 2021 were included in the final analysis. We adjusted for potential confounders by time-stratified case-crossover design and by covariate adjustments (i.e., time-invariant factors, meteorological factors, viral transmission, seasonality, and time trend). RESULTS: Of the 7,462 case and 25,457 self-control days, almost all were days with exposure levels below the PM2.5 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (35 µg/m3); 98.9% had O3 levels below the maximum 8-h NAAQS (35.7 µg/m3 or 70 parts per billion). An interquartile range (IQR) increase (5.2 µg/m3) in cumulative 3-wk PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 69.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.6, 113.8] increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. An IQR increase (8.2 µg/m3) in 3-d O3 exposure was associated with a 29.0% (95% CI: 9.9, 51.5) increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. The associations differed by demographics or race/ethnicity. There was indication of modification of the associations by some comorbid conditions. DISCUSSION: Short-term exposure to air pollution below the NAAQS may increase the mortality burden from COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10836.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Registries
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099537

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the digital economy has developed rapidly. The airborne nature of COVID-19 viruses has attracted worldwide attention. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the impact of the digital economy on particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) emissions. The research sample of this paper include 283 prefecture-level cities in China from 2011 to 2019 in China. Spatial Durbin model was adopted to explore the spatial spillover effect of digital economy on PM2.5 emissions. In addition, considering the impact of smart city pilot (SCP) policy, a spatial difference-in-differences (SDID) model was used to analyze policy effects. The estimation results indicated that (1) the development of the digital economy significantly reduces PM2.5 emissions. (2) The spatial spillover effect of the digital economy significantly reduces PM2.5 emissions in neighboring cities. (3) Smart city construction increases PM2.5 emissions in neighboring cities. (4) The reduction effect of the digital economy on PM2.5 is more pronounced in the sample of eastern cities and urban agglomerations.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Cities , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099494

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) have set sustainability development goals to reduce diseases, deaths, and the environmental impact of cities due to air pollution. In Istanbul, although average pollutant concentrations have been on a downward trend in recent years, extreme values and their annual exceedance numbers are high based on the air quality standards of WHO and the EU. Due to COVID-19 lockdowns, statistically significant reductions in emissions were observed for short periods. However, how long the effect of the lockdowns will last is unknown. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the impact of long-term lockdowns on Istanbul's air quality. The restriction period is approximated to the same periods of the previous years to eliminate seasonal effects. A series of paired t-tests (p-value < 0.05) were applied to hourly data from 12 March 2016, until 1 July 2021, when quarantines were completed at 36 air quality monitoring stations in Istanbul. The findings reveal that the average air quality of Istanbul was approximately 17% improved during the long-term lockdowns. Therefore, the restriction-related changes in emission distributions continued in the long-term period of 476 days. However, it is unknown how long this effect will continue, which will be the subject of future studies. Moreover, it was observed that the emission probability density functions changed considerably during the lockdowns compared to the years before. Accordingly, notable decreases were detected in air quality limit exceedances in terms of both excessive pollutant concentrations and frequency of occurrence, respectively, for PM10 (-13% and -13%), PM2.5 (-16% and -30%), and NO2 (-3% and -8%), but not for O3 (+200% and +540%) and SO2 (-10% and +2.5%).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18144, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096792

ABSTRACT

NO2 and nitric oxide (NO) are the most reactive gases in the atmosphere. The interaction of NOx molecules with oxygen, water and other chemicals leads to the formation of acid rain. The presence of NO2 in the air affects human health and forms a photochemical smog. In this study, we utilize wavelet analysis, namely, the Morlet wavelet, which is a type of continuous wavelet transform, to conduct a spectral analysis of the periodicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The study is conducted using data from 14 weather stations located in diverse geographic areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over a period of two years (2019 and 2020). We explain and relate the significance of human activities to the concentration level of NO2, particularly considering the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown to the periodicity of NO2. The results show that NO2 concentrations in desert areas such as Liwa and Al Quaa were unaffected by the lockdown period (April-July 2020) resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The other stations in the urban areas of Abu Dhabi city, Al Dhafra and Al Ain, showed a reduction in NO2 during the lockdown. NO2 is more highly concentrated during winter seasons than during other seasons. The periodicity of NO2 lasted from a few days up to 16 days in most regions. However, some stations located in the Al Dhafra region, such as Al Ruwais and the Gayathi School stations, exhibited a longer period of more than 32 days with a 0.05 significance test. In the Abu Dhabi region, NO2 lasted between 64 and 128 days at the Al Mafraq station. The correlation between the NO2 concentration across several ground stations was studied using wavelet coherence.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Wavelet Analysis , United Arab Emirates , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution/analysis
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090189

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that air pollution may be closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. It has been observed that exposure to air pollution leads to reduced immune response, thereby facilitating viral penetration and replication. In our study, we combined information on confirmed COVID-19 daily new cases (DNCs) in one of the most polluted regions in the European Union (EU) with air-quality monitoring data, including meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and direction) and concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, the relationship between bacterial aerosol (BA) concentration and COVID-19 spread was analyzed. We confirmed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between NO2 concentrations and numbers of confirmed DNCs and observed positive correlations (p < 0.05) between BA concentrations and DNCs, which may point to coronavirus air transmission by surface deposits on bioaerosol particles. In addition, wind direction information was used to show that the highest numbers of DNCs were associated with the dominant wind directions in the region (southern and southwestern parts).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Ozone/analysis , China
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081995

ABSTRACT

Air is a diverse mixture of gaseous and suspended solid particles. Several new substances are being added to the air daily, polluting it and causing human health effects. Particulate matter (PM) is the primary health concern among these air toxins. The World Health Organization (WHO) addressed the fact that particulate pollution affects human health more severely than other air pollutants. The spread of air pollution and viruses, two of our millennium's most serious concerns, have been linked closely. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can spread through the air, and PM could act as a host to spread the virus beyond those in close contact. Studies on COVID-19 cover diverse environmental segments and become complicated with time. As PM pollution is related to everyday life, an essential awareness regarding PM-impacted COVID-19 among the masses is required, which can help researchers understand the various features of ambient particulate pollution, particularly in the era of COVID-19. Given this, the present work provides an overview of the recent developments in COVID-19 research linked to ambient particulate studies. This review summarizes the effect of the lockdown on the characteristics of ambient particulate matter pollution, the transmission mechanism of COVID-19, and the combined health repercussions of PM pollution. In addition to a comprehensive evaluation of the implementation of the lockdown, its rationales-based on topographic and socioeconomic dynamics-are also discussed in detail. The current review is expected to encourage and motivate academics to concentrate on improving air quality management and COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066081

ABSTRACT

Under the clean air action plans and the lockdown to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the air quality improved significantly. However, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution still occurred on the North China Plain (NCP). This study analyzed the variations of PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) during 2017-2021 on the northern (Beijing) and southern (Henan) edges of the NCP. Furthermore, the drivers for the PM2.5 pollution episodes pre- to post-COVID-19 in Beijing and Henan were explored by combining air pollutant and meteorological datasets and the weighted potential source contribution function. Results showed air quality generally improved during 2017-2021, except for a slight rebound (3.6%) in NO2 concentration in 2021 in Beijing. Notably, the O3 concentration began to decrease significantly in 2020. The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a sharp drop in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO in February of 2020, but PM2.5 and CO in Beijing exhibited a delayed decrease in March. For Beijing, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the initial regional transport and later secondary formation under adverse meteorology. For Henan, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the primary emissions under the persistent high humidity and stable atmospheric conditions, superimposing small-scale regional transport. Low wind speed, shallow boundary layer, and high humidity are major drivers of heavy PM2.5 pollution. These results provide an important reference for setting mitigation measures not only for the NCP but for the entire world.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066023

ABSTRACT

Air pollution may change people's gym sports behavior. To test this claim, first, we used big data crawler technology and ordinary least square (OLS) models to investigate the effect of air pollution on people' gym visits in Beijing, China, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-2020, and the results showed that a one-standard-deviation increase in PM2.5 concentration (fine particulate matter with diameters equal to or smaller than 2.5 µm) derived from the land use regression model (LUR) was positively associated with a 0.119 and a 0.171 standard-deviation increase in gym visits without or with consideration of the COVID-19 variable, respectively. Second, using spatial autocorrelation analysis and a series of spatial econometric models, we provided consistent evidence that the gym industry of Beijing had a strong spatial dependence, and PM2.5 and its spatial spillover effect had a positive impact on the demand for gym sports. Such a phenomenon offers us a new perspective that gym sports can be developed into an essential activity for the public due to this avoidance behavior regarding COVID-19 virus contact and pollution exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065980

ABSTRACT

It remains unknown which size fractions dominate the adverse cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this study aimed to explore the differential associations between size-fractioned particle number concentrations (PNCs) and cardiopulmonary function measures, including the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We conducted a panel study among 211 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Shanghai, China, between January 2014 and December 2021. We applied linear mixed-effect models to determine the associations between cardiopulmonary function measures and PNCs ranging from 0.01 to 10 µm in diameter. Generally, only particles <1 µm showed significant associations, i.e., ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1 µm) for FVC and particles ranging from 0.1 to 1 µm for FEV1 and LVEF. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in UFP was associated with decreases of 78.4 mL in FVC. PNC0.1-0.3 and PNC0.3-1 corresponded to the strongest effects on FEV1 (119.5 mL) and LVEF (1.5%) per IQR increment. Particles <1 µm might dominate the cardiopulmonary toxicity of PM, but UFPs might not always have the strongest effect. Tailored regulations towards particles <1 µm should be intensified to reduce PM pollution and protect vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065929

ABSTRACT

In this work, the effect of the meteorological conditions and the agricultural waste burning on PM air pollution levels has been investigated in the city of Avellino, located in the Sabato Valley (southern Italy). Avellino has been described among the most polluted towns in Italy in terms of particulate matter (PM) during the last 10 years. The main aim of this study was to analyze the air quality data collected in Avellino and its surroundings during September 2021. In this period, the air quality in the Sabato Valley has been adversely affected by agricultural practices, which represent a significant source of PM. The impact of agricultural waste burning on PM levels in Avellino has been determined through an integrated monitoring network, consisting of two fixed urban reference stations and by several low-cost sensors distributed in the Sabato Valley. In the considered period, the two reference stations recorded several exceedances of the daily average PM10 legislative limit value (50 µg m-3) in addition to high concentrations of PM2.5. Moreover, we provide a detailed description of the event that took place on 25 September 2021, when the combined effect of massive agricultural practices and very stable atmospheric conditions produced a severe pollution episode. Results show PM exceedances in Avellino concurrent with high PM values in the areas bordering the city due to agricultural waste burning and adverse meteorological conditions, which inhibit PM dispersion in the atmosphere.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e290, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In some patients, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by loss of smell and taste, and this has been reportedly associated with exposure to air pollutants. This study investigated the relationship between the occurrence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and air pollutant concentrations in Korea. METHODS: Information on the clinical symptom of chemosensory dysfunction, the date of diagnosis, residential area, age, and sex of 60,194 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported to the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from January 20 to December 31, 2020 was collected. In addition, the daily average concentration of air pollutants for a week in the patients' residential area was collected from the Ministry of Environment based on the date of diagnosis of COVID-19. A binomial logistic regression model, using age and gender, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, 24-hour mean temperature and relative humidity at the regional level as covariates, was used to determine the effect of air pollution on chemosensory dysfunction. RESULTS: Symptoms of chemosensory dysfunction were most frequent among patients in their 20s and 30s, and occurred more frequently in large cities. The logistic analysis showed that the concentration of particulate matter 10 (PM10) and 2.5 (PM2.5) up to 2 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) at least 7 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 affected the development of chemosensory dysfunction. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, and daily average temperature and relative humidity, it was found that an increase in the interquartile range of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the incidence of chemosensory dysfunction 1.10, 1.10, 1.17, 1.31, and 1.19-fold, respectively. In contrast, the O3 concentration had a negative association with chemosensory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: High concentrations of air pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the risk of developing chemosensory dysfunction from COVID-19 infection. This result underscores the need to actively prevent exposure to air pollution and prevent COVID-19 infection. In addition, policies that regulate activities and products that create high amounts of harmful environmental wastes may help in promoting better health for all during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 874, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059930

ABSTRACT

The accent of the present study is determination of Urban Aerosol Pollution Island (UAPI) intensity and spatial variability in particulate matter concentration (PM10 and PM2.5) over Delhi. For analysis, the hourly concentration dataset of PM2.5 and PM10 from January 2019 to December 2020 was obtained from ten air quality monitoring stations of Delhi. Additionally, UAPI Index has been calculated to assess the intensity of particulate pollution. The daily, monthly, and annual variations in the trends of PM10, PM2.5, and UAPI index along with related meteorological parameters have been analyzed. Particulate pollution peaked majorly during two seasons, i.e., summer and winter. The highest concentration of PM10 was observed to be 426.77 µg/m3 while that of PM2.5 was observed to be 301.91 µg/m3 in January 2019 for traffic-affected regions. During winters, higher PM2.5 concentration was observed which can be ascribed to increased local emissions and enhanced secondary particle formations. While the increase in PM10 concentrations led to an increment in pollution episodes during summers over most of the sites in Delhi. The UAPI index was found to be declining in 2020 over traffic affected regions (77.92 and 27.22 for 2019 and 2020, respectively) as well as in the background regions (64.91 and 19.80 for 2019 and 2020, respectively) of Delhi. Low traffic intensity and reduced pollutant emission could have been responsible for the reduction of UAPI intensity in the year 2020. The result indicates that lockdown implemented to control the COVID-19 outbreak led to an unexpected decrease in the PM10 pollution over Delhi.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Seasons
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157881, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of the Intercontinental Terminals Company (ITC) fire and COVID-19 on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and the PM disproportionally affecting communities in Houston using low-cost sensors. METHODS: We compared measurements from a network of low-cost sensors with a separate network of monitors from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Houston metropolitan area from Mar 18, 2019, to Dec 31, 2020. Further, we examined the associations between neighborhood-level sociodemographic status and air pollution patterns by linking the low-cost sensor data to EPA environmental justice screening and mapping systems. FINDINGS: We found increased PM levels during ITC fire and pre-COVID-19, and lower PM levels after the COVID-19 lockdown, comparable to observations from the regulatory monitors, with higher variations and a greater number of locations with high PM levels detected. In addition, the environmental justice analysis showed positive associations between higher PM levels and the percentage of minority, low-income population, and demographic index. IMPLICATION: Our study indicates that low-cost sensors provide pollutant measures with higher spatial variations and a better ability to identify hot spots and high peak concentrations. These advantages provide critical information for disaster response and environmental justice studies. SYNOPSIS: We used measurements from a low-cost sensor network for air pollution monitoring and environmental justice analysis to examine the impact of anthropogenic and natural disasters.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Justice , Environmental Monitoring , Explosions , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
20.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116360, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041925

ABSTRACT

Under the strict control measures, China has achieved phased victory in combating with the COVID-19, production activities have gradually returned to normal. This paper examined whether air pollution was rebounded or realized green recovery in the post-COVID-19 era with a dataset of weather normalized pollutant concentrations using difference-in-differences models. Results showed that air pollution experienced a significant decline due to the wide range of control measures. With entering the post-epidemic period, air pollution raised due to the orderly production resumption. Specifically, production resumption increased the PM2.5 concentrations of lockdown cities and non-lockdown cities by 43.2% (22.3 µg/m3) and 35.9% (17.3 µg/m3) compared with that in the period of COVID-19 breakout. Although the economic activities of China have been gradually recovered, PM2.5 concentrations were 8.8-11.2 µg/m3 lower than the level of pre-epidemic period. In addition, the environmental effects varied across cities. With the process of production resumption, the PM2.5 concentrations of cities with higher GDP, higher secondary industry output, more private cars and higher export volume rebounded less. Most developed cities realized green recovery by economy growth and air quality improvement, such as Beijing and Shanghai. While cities with heavy industry reflected pollution rebound with slow economy recovery, such as Shenyang and Harbin. Understanding the environmental effects of control measure and production resumption can provide crucial information for developing epidemic recovery policies and dealing with pollution issues for both China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities
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