Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 82
Filter
1.
ASAIO J ; 68(4): 478-485, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764692

ABSTRACT

Cessation of continuous analgesia and sedation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitates early extubation, family, patient and provider engagement, and mobility. Outcomes associated with an awake ECMO strategy have not been well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in patients receiving this strategy. This was a retrospective review of ARDS patients receiving awake VV ECMO. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included days requiring ECMO, time from cannulation to extubation, complications, patients requiring tracheostomy, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition. In a subgroup analysis, outcomes were compared between non-COVID and COVID ECMO patients. Sixty-two patients were included with a survival to hospital discharge of 85.5%. Days requiring ECMO was 33.0 (0.0-75.0) and cannulation to extubation was 6.0 (4.0-11.0). Three patients received a tracheostomy (4.8%). Bleeding and infection were reported in 80.6% and 82.3% of patients, respectively. Intensive care unit length of stay was 46.0 days (29.0-90.0) and hospital LOS was 51.0 days (32.0-91.0). Over half of the patients (51.6%) were discharged to an acute rehabilitation facility and 27.4% were discharged home. There was similar survival to hospital discharge between the COVID and non-COVID awake ECMO patients (85% in both groups, p = 1.000). This study highlights the impact of an awake ECMO approach on survival to hospital discharge. Future studies are needed to evaluate this approach as compared to current practice to determine if this should become the standard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Wakefulness
3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(7): 3272-3287, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666292

ABSTRACT

There is significant interest in the potential for nebulised unfractionated heparin (UFH), as a novel therapy for patients with COVID-19 induced acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilation. The scientific and biological rationale for nebulised heparin stems from the evidence for extensive activation of coagulation resulting in pulmonary microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 pneumonia. Nebulised delivery of heparin to the lung may limit alveolar fibrin deposition and thereby limit progression of lung injury. Importantly, laboratory studies show that heparin can directly inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby prevent its entry into and infection of mammalian cells. UFH has additional anti-inflammatory and mucolytic properties that may be useful in this context. METHODS AND INTERVENTION: The Can nebulised HepArin Reduce morTality and time to Extubation in Patients with COVID-19 Requiring invasive ventilation Meta-Trial (CHARTER-MT) is a collaborative prospective individual patient data analysis of on-going randomised controlled clinical trials across several countries in five continents, examining the effects of inhaled heparin in patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation on various endpoints. Each constituent study will randomise patients with COVID-19 induced respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilation. Patients are randomised to receive nebulised heparin or standard care (open label studies) or placebo (blinded placebo-controlled studies) while under invasive ventilation. Each participating study collect a pre-defined minimum dataset. The primary outcome for the meta-trial is the number of ventilator-free days up to day 28 day, defined as days alive and free from invasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Airway Extubation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin , Humans , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 448, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Determining the optimal timing for extubation can be challenging in the intensive care. In this study, we aim to identify predictors for extubation failure in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We used highly granular data from 3464 adult critically ill COVID patients in the multicenter Dutch Data Warehouse, including demographics, clinical observations, medications, fluid balance, laboratory values, vital signs, and data from life support devices. All intubated patients with at least one extubation attempt were eligible for analysis. Transferred patients, patients admitted for less than 24 h, and patients still admitted at the time of data extraction were excluded. Potential predictors were selected by a team of intensive care physicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were extubation without reintubation or death within the next 7 days and within 48 h, respectively. We trained and validated multiple machine learning algorithms using fivefold nested cross-validation. Predictor importance was estimated using Shapley additive explanations, while cutoff values for the relative probability of failed extubation were estimated through partial dependence plots. RESULTS: A total of 883 patients were included in the model derivation. The reintubation rate was 13.4% within 48 h and 18.9% at day 7, with a mortality rate of 0.6% and 1.0% respectively. The grandient-boost model performed best (area under the curve of 0.70) and was used to calculate predictor importance. Ventilatory characteristics and settings were the most important predictors. More specifically, a controlled mode duration longer than 4 days, a last fraction of inspired oxygen higher than 35%, a mean tidal volume per kg ideal body weight above 8 ml/kg in the day before extubation, and a shorter duration in assisted mode (< 2 days) compared to their median values. Additionally, a higher C-reactive protein and leukocyte count, a lower thrombocyte count, a lower Glasgow coma scale and a lower body mass index compared to their medians were associated with extubation failure. CONCLUSION: The most important predictors for extubation failure in critically ill COVID-19 patients include ventilatory settings, inflammatory parameters, neurological status, and body mass index. These predictors should therefore be routinely captured in electronic health records.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19 , Treatment Failure , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Machine Learning
5.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(2): 111-115, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575295

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Corticosteroids, specifically dexamethasone, have become the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe COVID-19. Although the RECOVERY trial did not report adverse effects of corticosteroids, the METCOVID (Methylprednisolone as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19) study reported a higher blood glucose level in patients receiving methylprednisolone. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the association between corticosteroids and COVID-19-related outcomes in patients admitted to the medical ICU (MICU) for COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This is an observational study of 141 patients admitted to the MICU between March 18 and June 7, 2020. Data on demographics, laboratory and imaging studies, and clinical course were obtained, including data on corticosteroid use. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed between patient characteristics and mortality and successful extubation. RESULTS: Of the 141 patients, 86 required mechanical ventilation, 50 received steroids, and 71 died. Regarding demographics, patients had a median age of 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 48, 65), Hispanic (57.4%, n=81), and non-Hispanic Black (37.5%, n=53). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (49.6%, n=70) and diabetes (48.2%, n=68). Lower blood glucose levels on admission (125.5 vs. 148 mg/dL, p=0.025) and lower peak blood glucose levels on corticosteroids (215.5 vs. 361 mg/dL, p=0.0021) were associated with lower prevalence of mortality. Patients who were successfully extubated had a lower admission blood glucose (126.5 vs. 149 mg/dL, p=0.0074) and lower peak blood glucose on corticosteroids (217 vs. 361 mg/dL, p=0.0023). CONCLUSIONS: Lower blood glucose on admission and lower maximum blood glucose on corticosteroids were associated with lower odds of mortality and successful extubation, regardless of preexisting diabetes. Hyperglycemia may be negating any potential benefit of corticosteroid therapy. These findings suggest that glucose control could be a parameter that impacts the outcome of patients receiving corticosteroids for COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Airway Extubation , Glycemic Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextubation dysphagia predicting feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h after extubation. METHODS: This study examined the predictive validity of a two-item swallowing screen on feeding-tube dependence over 72 h in patients following endotracheal extubation. Intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients (≥ 20 years) successfully extubated after ≥ 48 h endotracheal intubation were screened by trained nurses using the swallowing screen (comprising oral stereognosis and cough-reflex tests) 24 h postextubation. Feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h postextubation was abstracted from the medical record by an independent rater. To verify the results and cross-check whether the screen predicted penetration and/or aspiration during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), participants agreeing to receive FEES were analyzed within 30 min of screening. RESULTS: The results showed that 95/123 participants (77.2%) failed the screen, which predicted ICU patients' prolonged (> 72 h) feeding-tube dependence, yielding sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.35, and accuracy of 0.68. Failed-screen participants had 2.96-fold higher odds of feeding-tube dependence (95% CI, 1.13-7.76). For the 38 participants receiving FEES, the swallowing screen had 0.89 sensitivity to detect feeding-tube dependence and 0.86 sensitivity to predict penetration/aspiration, although specificity had room for improvement (0.36 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: This ultra-brief swallowing screen is sufficiently sensitive to identify high-risk patients for feeding-tube dependence persisting over 72 h after extubation. Once identified, a further assessment and care are indicated to ensure the prompt return of patients' oral feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03284892, registered on September 15, 2017.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Enteral Nutrition , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Time Factors
7.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (146): 95-104, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524257

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In ICUs, many patients are intubated. UE is an indicator of the quality of care.Isolation associated with "air" precautions may increase the number of UEs in mechanically ventilated (MV) COVID patients.The main aim of the study was to compare the rate of UE between a COVID-19 period and a control period. The secondary aims were to identify UE risk factors and to study the experience of caregivers during the COVID-19 period. METHOD: The method of choice was a retrospective single center case-control study. MV patients aged ≥ 18 years were eligible in two periods: the control period from 01/02/2020 to 29/02/2020, and the COVID-19 period from 01/03/2020 to 31/03/2020. An anonymous survey was given to ICU caregivers in Vannes Hospital. RESULTS: The UE rate was 17% (n=7) vs. 20% (n=9) control period vs. COVID-19 period (p=0.58), with nocturnal preponderance (75%). A quarter (n=4) of patients fulfill MV weaning criteria at the time of UE. A 71% (n=49) survey response rate was obtained. The COVID-19 period had a higher estimated UE risk for 76% (n=37) of caregivers, who felt that they had a greater workload, difficulties with monitoring, and decreased regular visits to patients' rooms. CONCLUSION: Contrary to the caregiver experience, we reported a similar UE rate over both the COVID-19 period and the control period.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19 , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e055073, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To understand why critical care clinicians still implement physical restraints, to prevent unplanned extubation and to explore the driving factors influencing the decision-making of physical restraints use. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was used. The data were collected through one-to-one, semistructured interviews and analysed through the framework of thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 at one general intensive care unit (ICU) and one emergency ICU in a general tertiary hospital with 3200 beds in Hangzhou, China. The sampling strategy was combined maximum variation sampling and criterion sampling. RESULTS: A total of 14 clinicians participated in the study. The reason why critical care clinicians implemented physical restraints to prevent unplanned extubation was that the tense healthcare climate was caused by family members' rejection of mismatched expectations. As unplanned extubation was highly likely to create medical disputes, hospitals placed excessive emphasis on unplanned extubation, which resulted in a lack of analysis of the cause of unplanned extubation and strict measures for dealing with unplanned extubation. The shortage of nursing human resources, unsuitable ward environments, intensivists' attitudes, timely extubation for intensivists, nurse experiences and the patient's possibility of unplanned extubation all contributed to the decision-making resulting in the use of physical restraints. CONCLUSIONS: Although nurses played a crucial role in the decision-making process of using physical restraints, changing the healthcare climate and the hospital management mode for unplanned extubation are fundamental measures to reduce physical restraints use.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Restraint, Physical , Airway Extubation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research
9.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1149-1158, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Circulating nucleosomes and their component histones have been implicated as pathogenic in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. However, their role in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with plasma collection within 24 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We associated nucleosome levels with severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome and with nonpulmonary organ failures and tested for association of nucleosomes with PICU mortality and ventilator-free days at 28 days in univariate and multivariable analyses. We also performed proteomics of DNA-bound plasma proteins in a matched case-control study of septic children with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome in order to identify specific histone proteins elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome. SETTING: Large academic tertiary-care PICU. PATIENTS: Intubated children meeting Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 333 children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with 69 nonsurvivors (21%). Plasma nucleosomes were correlated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity and with the number of nonpulmonary organ failures at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Nucleosomes were higher (p < 0.001) in nonsurvivors (0.40 [interquartile range, 0.20-0.71] arbitrary units) relative to survivors (0.10 [interquartile range, 0.04-0.25] arbitrary units). Nucleosomes were associated with PICU mortality in multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio 1.84 per 1 sd increase; 95% CI, 1.38-2.45; p < 0.001). Nucleosomes were also associated with a lower probability of being extubated alive by day 28 after multivariable adjustment (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; p = 0.001). Proteomic analysis demonstrated higher levels of the core nucleosome histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 in septic children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, relative to septic children without acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma nucleosomes are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, nonpulmonary organ failures, and worse outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Histones/blood , Nucleosomes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Proteomics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1490-1497, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478301

ABSTRACT

Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to assess loss of aeration, which is associated with outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that LUS scores are associated with outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. This retrospective international multicenter study evaluated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with at least one LUS study within 5 days after invasive mechanical ventilation initiation. The global LUS score was calculated by summing the 12 regional scores (range 0-36). Pleural line abnormalities and subpleural consolidations were also scored. The outcomes were successful liberation from the ventilator and intensive care mortality within 28 days, analyzed with multistate, competing risk proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty-seven patients with COVID-19-related ARDS were included in our study. The global LUS score was associated with successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96; P = 0.0007) independently of the ARDS severity, but not with 28 days mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.08; P = 0.36). Subpleural consolidation and pleural line abnormalities did not add to the prognostic value of the global LUS score. Examinations within 24 hours of intubation showed no prognostic value. To conclude, a lower global LUS score 24 hours after invasive ventilation initiation is associated with increased probability of liberation from the mechanical ventilator COVID-19 ARDS patients, independently of the ARDS severity.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged
12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(1): 100-103, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maximizing operating room (OR) efficiency is essential for hospital cost containment and effective patient throughput. Little data is available regarding the safety and efficacy of extubation of children in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) by a nurse rather than in the OR. We sought to evaluate the impact of a long-standing practice of PACU extubation upon airway complications and OR efficiency. METHODS: The records of 1930 children who underwent inguinal hernia repair, laparoscopic appendectomy or pyloromyotomy at a children's hospital between July, 2018 and June, 2020 were reviewed. Extubations were performed in the OR only when the PACU was inadequately staffed or during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic. Cases in which there was a deep extubation, a PACU hold was in effect or a patient went directly to an inpatient unit from the OR were excluded. Intra- and post-operative time metrics were recorded and emergency airway interventions were assessed. RESULTS: 1747 operations were evaluated. Time from the end of the procedure to leaving the OR ranged from 4.1 to 4.8 min when extubation was done in the PACU and was 6-9 min less than with OR extubation. (see table). There were 23 airway events (1.5% of all cases) after PACU extubation that necessitated only brief bag-mask ventilation. There were no cases of re-intubation. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of children undergoing diverse surgical procedures, post-anesthesia care unit extubation was safe and resulted in rapid transfer of patients from the operating room after completion of their operation. Time saved because of shorter operating room times reduces hospital costs and can allow for increased throughput. Extubation in the post-anesthesia care unit may not only be as safe as operating room extubation, but may result in fewer serious airway events as patients may be less likely to have their endotracheal tube removed prematurely. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Treatment Study, Level III.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Airway Extubation , Child , Humans , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Anesth Analg ; 133(4): 876-890, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412364

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), often results in severe hypoxemia requiring airway management. Because SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread via respiratory droplets, bag-mask ventilation, intubation, and extubation may place health care workers (HCW) at risk. While existing recommendations address airway management in patients with COVID-19, no guidance exists specifically for difficult airway management. Some strategies normally recommended for difficult airway management may not be ideal in the setting of COVID-19 infection. To address this issue, the Society for Airway Management (SAM) created a task force to review existing literature and current practice guidelines for difficult airway management by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. The SAM task force created recommendations for the management of known or suspected difficult airway in the setting of known or suspected COVID-19 infection. The goal of the task force was to optimize successful airway management while minimizing exposure risk. Each member conducted a literature review on specific clinical practice section utilizing standard search engines (PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar). Existing recommendations and evidence for difficult airway management in the COVID-19 context were developed. Each specific recommendation was discussed among task force members and modified until unanimously approved by all task force members. Elements of Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Reporting Checklist for dissemination of clinical practice guidelines were utilized to develop this statement. Airway management in the COVID-19 patient increases HCW exposure risk. Difficult airway management often takes longer and may involve multiple procedures with aerosolization potential, and strict adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) protocols is mandatory to reduce risk to providers. When a patient's airway risk assessment suggests that awake tracheal intubation is an appropriate choice of technique, and procedures that may cause increased aerosolization of secretions should be avoided. Optimal preoxygenation before induction with a tight seal facemask may be performed to reduce the risk of hypoxemia. Unless the patient is experiencing oxygen desaturation, positive pressure bag-mask ventilation after induction may be avoided to reduce aerosolization. For optimal intubating conditions, patients should be anesthetized with full muscle relaxation. Videolaryngoscopy is recommended as a first-line strategy for airway management. If emergent invasive airway access is indicated, then we recommend a surgical technique such as scalpel-bougie-tube, rather than an aerosolizing generating procedure, such as transtracheal jet ventilation. This statement represents recommendations by the SAM task force for the difficult airway management of adults with COVID-19 with the goal to optimize successful airway management while minimizing the risk of clinician exposure.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Adult , Advisory Committees/standards , Airway Extubation/methods , Airway Extubation/standards , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards
17.
Anaesthesia ; 76(12): 1577-1584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318625

ABSTRACT

Many guidelines consider supraglottic airway use to be an aerosol-generating procedure. This status requires increased levels of personal protective equipment, fallow time between cases and results in reduced operating theatre efficiency. Aerosol generation has never been quantitated during supraglottic airway use. To address this evidence gap, we conducted real-time aerosol monitoring (0.3-10-µm diameter) in ultraclean operating theatres during supraglottic airway insertion and removal. This showed very low background particle concentrations (median (IQR [range]) 1.6 (0-3.1 [0-4.0]) particles.l-1 ) against which the patient's tidal breathing produced a higher concentration of aerosol (4.0 (1.3-11.0 [0-44]) particles.l-1 , p = 0.048). The average aerosol concentration detected during supraglottic airway insertion (1.3 (1.0-4.2 [0-6.2]) particles.l-1 , n = 11), and removal (2.1 (0-17.5 [0-26.2]) particles.l-1 , n = 12) was no different to tidal breathing (p = 0.31 and p = 0.84, respectively). Comparison of supraglottic airway insertion and removal with a volitional cough (104 (66-169 [33-326]), n = 27), demonstrated that supraglottic airway insertion/removal sequences produced <4% of the aerosol compared with a single cough (p < 0.001). A transient aerosol increase was recorded during one complicated supraglottic airway insertion (which initially failed to provide a patent airway). Detailed analysis of this event showed an atypical particle size distribution and we subsequently identified multiple sources of non-respiratory aerosols that may be produced during airway management and can be considered as artefacts. These findings demonstrate supraglottic airway insertion/removal generates no more bio-aerosol than breathing and far less than a cough. This should inform the design of infection prevention strategies for anaesthetists and operating theatre staff caring for patients managed with supraglottic airways.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/standards , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Operating Rooms/standards , Particle Size , Supraglottitis/therapy , Airway Extubation/methods , Airway Management/methods , Airway Management/standards , Cough/therapy , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Operating Rooms/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Prospective Studies
18.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(3): 299-310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291646

ABSTRACT

Methods for assessing diaphragmatic function can be useful in determining the functional status of the respiratory system and can contribute to determining an individual's prognosis, depending on their pathology. They can also be a useful tool for making objective decisions regarding mechanical ventilation weaning and extubation. Esophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, diaphragm ultrasound, diaphragmatic excursion, surface electromyography (sEMG) and some serum biomarkers are of increasing interest and use in clinical and intensive care settings to offer a more objective process for withdrawing mechanical ventilation; especially in the situation that we are experiencing with the increased demand for mechanical ventilation to treat patients with Covid-19-associated viral pneumonia. In this literature review, we updated the clinical and physiological indicators with more evidence to improve ventilator withdrawal techniques. We concluded that, to ensure successful extubation in a way that is useful, cost-effective, practical for health personnel and non-invasive for the patient, further studies of novel techniques such as surface electromyography should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Ventilator Weaning/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Function Tests
19.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1290-1299, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (i) investigate post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia amongst adults intubated with SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) and referred to speech and language therapy (SLT) in acute hospitals across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) between March and June 2020; (ii) identify variables predictive of post-extubation oral intake status and dysphonia and (iii) establish SLT rehabilitation needs and services provided to this cohort. DESIGN: A multi-site prospective observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred adults with confirmed COVID-19 who were intubated across eleven acute hospital sites in ROI and who were referred to SLT services between March and June 2020 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oral intake status, level of diet modification and perceptual voice quality. RESULTS: Based on initial SLT assessment, 90% required altered oral intake and 59% required tube feeding with 36% not allowed oral intake. Age (OR 1.064; 95% CI 1.018-1.112), proning (OR 3.671; 95% CI 1.128-11.943) and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 5.863; 95% CI 1.521-11.599) were predictors of oral intake status post-extubation. Two-thirds (66%) presented with dysphonia post-extubation. Intubation injury (OR 10.471; 95% CI 1.060-103.466) and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 24.196; 95% CI 1.609-363.78) were predictors of post-extubation voice quality. Thirty-seven per cent required dysphagia intervention post-extubation, whereas 20% needed intervention for voice. Dysphagia and dysphonia persisted in 27% and 37% cases, respectively, at hospital discharge. DISCUSSION: Post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia were prevalent amongst adults with COVID-19 across the ROI. Predictors included iatrogenic factors and underlying respiratory disease. Prompt evaluation and intervention is needed to minimise complications and inform rehabilitation planning.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Dysphonia/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(9): 1018-1024, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255853

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to identify clinical factors that predict extubation failure (reintubation) and its prognostic implications in critically ill COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, multi-center cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Multivariate competing risk models were employed to explore the rate of reintubation and its determining factors. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-one extubated patients were included (mean age, 61.0 years [±13.9]; 54.8% male). Reintubation occurred in 93 (33.1%). In multivariate analysis accounting for death, reintubation risk increased with age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04 per 1-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 -1.06), vasopressors (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.60), renal replacement (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.22-3.29), maximum PEEP (HR 1.07 per 1-unit increase, 95% CI 1.02 -1.12), paralytics (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.25) and requiring more than nasal cannula immediately post-extubation (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.50). Reintubation was associated with higher mortality (36.6% vs 2.1%; P < 0.0001) and risk of inpatient death after adjusting for multiple factors (HR 23.2, 95% CI 6.45-83.33). Prone ventilation, corticosteroids, anticoagulation, remdesivir and tocilizumab did not impact the risk of reintubation or death. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 1 in 3 critically ill COVID-19 patients required reintubation. Older age, paralytics, high PEEP, need for greater respiratory support following extubation and non-pulmonary organ failure predicted reintubation. Extubation failure strongly predicted adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL