Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 94
Filter
2.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 66(2): e219-e231, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275079

ABSTRACT

Palliative extubation (PE), also known as compassionate extubation, is a common event in the critical care setting and an important aspect of end-of-life care.1 In a PE, mechanical ventilation is discontinued. Its goal is to honor the patient's preferences, optimize comfort, and allow a natural death when medical interventions, including maintenance of ventilatory support, are not achieving desired outcomes. If not done effectively, PE can cause unintended physical, emotional, psychosocial, or other stress for patients, families, and healthcare staff. Studies show that PE is done with much variability across the globe, and there is limited evidence of best practice. Nevertheless, the practice of PE increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic due to the surge of dying mechanically ventilated patients. Thus, the importance of effectively conducting a PE has never been more crucial. Some studies have provided guidelines for the process of PE. However, our goal is to provide a comprehensive review of issues to consider before, during, and after a PE. This paper highlights the core palliative skills of communication, planning, symptom assessment and management, and debriefing. Our aim is to better prepare healthcare workers to provide quality palliative care during PEs, most especially when facing future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospice Care , Terminal Care , Humans , Airway Extubation , Terminal Care/methods , Palliative Care/methods
3.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(12): 1751-1759, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262728

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy was noninferior to noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for preventing reintubation in a heterogeneous population at high-risk for extubation failure. However, outcomes might differ in certain subgroups of patients. Thus, we aimed to determine whether NIV with active humidification is superior to HFNC in preventing reintubation in patients with ≥ 4 risk factors (very high risk for extubation failure). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in two intensive care units in Spain (June 2020‒June 2021). Patients ready for planned extubation with ≥ 4 of the following risk factors for reintubation were included: age > 65 years, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score > 12 on extubation day, body mass index > 30, inadequate secretions management, difficult or prolonged weaning, ≥ 2 comorbidities, acute heart failure indicating mechanical ventilation, moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, airway patency problems, prolonged mechanical ventilation, or hypercapnia on finishing the spontaneous breathing trial. Patients were randomized to undergo NIV with active humidification or HFNC for 48 h after extubation. The primary outcome was reintubation rate within 7 days after extubation. Secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure, respiratory infection, sepsis, multiorgan failure, length of stay, mortality, adverse events, and time to reintubation. RESULTS: Of 182 patients (mean age, 60 [standard deviation (SD), 15] years; 117 [64%] men), 92 received NIV and 90 HFNC. Reintubation was required in 21 (23.3%) patients receiving NIV vs 35 (38.8%) of those receiving HFNC (difference -15.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -28.3 to -1%). Hospital length of stay was lower in those patients treated with NIV (20 [12‒36.7] days vs 26.5 [15‒45] days, difference 6.5 [95%CI 0.5-21.1]). No additional differences in the other secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among adult critically ill patients at very high-risk for extubation failure, NIV with active humidification was superior to HFNC for preventing reintubation.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Adult , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Cannula , Respiration, Artificial , Intubation, Intratracheal
4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 2, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coughing caused by tracheal extubation is common following general anaesthesia. Heavy aerosol production by coughing during recovery from general anaesthesia in patients with respiratory infections (especially COVID-19) may be one of the highest risk factors for infection in healthcare workers. The application of local anaesthetics to the endotracheal tube is an effective method to reduce coughing. The most commonly used anaesthetics are compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream and tetracaine spray. However, coughing still occurs when the two anaesthetics are used alone. We speculated that the application of compound lidocaine/prilocaine combined with tetracaine spray would better prevent coughing caused by tracheal extubation. METHODS: Patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy or cholecystectomy combined with common bile duct exploration under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to Group C (saline spray), Group L (2 g compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream contains 5 mg of lidocaine and 5 mg prilocaine)), Group T (tetracaine) and Group F (compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine). The incidence of coughing, the endotracheal tube tolerance assessment, the incidence of agitation, the active extubation rate, the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were recorded and analysed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and the plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were measured immediately before extubation and 1 min after extubation. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were randomly assigned to Group C (53 cases), Group L (52 cases), Group T (52 cases) and Group F (54 cases). The primary result is assessment of the incidence of cough. The patients emerged from general anaesthesia, 96% of Group C had cough, which was significantly reduced in Group L (61.5%, P < 0.001), Group T (75%, P < 0.05) and Group F (22.2%, P < 0.001). Group F had a significantly reduced incidence of cough compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, respectively). The secondary results were assessed. The endotracheal tube tolerance score in Group C ((1, 3) 4, P < 0.001) was higher than Group L ((0, 1) 2), Group T ((0, 1.25) 3) and Group F ((0, 0) 1). Group F had a significantly lower score than Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence of agitation and the active extubation rate were also higher in Group C (96.2% and 71.7%, respectively, P < 0.001) than Group L (48.1% and 15.4%, respectively), Group T (61.5% and 26.9%, respectively) and Group F (17.3% and 7.7%, respectively). Blood pressure, HR and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in Group C than in all other groups at the time of extubation and 1 min after extubation (P < 0.001). Group F exhibited significantly reduced blood pressure, heart rate and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were not significantly different among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine may be a more effective approach for preventing coughing and stabilising circulation during extubation following general anaesthesia. This may play an important role in preventing medical staff from contracting respiratory infectious diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200058429 (registration date: 09-04-2022) "retrospectively registered".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Humans , Tetracaine , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Cough/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination , Anesthetics, Local , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Prilocaine/therapeutic use , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Norepinephrine , Epinephrine , Double-Blind Method , Pain/etiology
5.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 21, 2023 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We established 1-h and 1-day survival models after terminal extubation to optimize ventilator use and achieve a balance between critical care for COVID-19 and hospice medicine. METHODS: Data were obtained from patients with end-of-life status at terminal extubation from 2015 to 2020. The associations between APACHE II scores and parameters with survival time were analyzed. Parameters with a p-value ≤ 0.2 in univariate analysis were included in multivariate models. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for the multivariate analysis of survival time at 1 h and 1 day. RESULTS: Of the 140 enrolled patients, 76 (54.3%) died within 1 h and 35 (25%) survived beyond 24 h. No spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) within the past 24 h, minute ventilation (MV) ≥ 12 L/min, and APACHE II score ≥ 25 were associated with shorter survival in the 1 h regression model. Lower MV, SpO2 ≥ 96% and SBT were related to longer survival in the 1-day model. Hospice medications did not influence survival time. CONCLUSION: An APACHE II score of ≥ 25 at 1 h and SpO2 ≥ 96% at 1 day were strong predictors of disposition of patients to intensivists. These factors can help to objectively tailor pathways for post-extubation transition and rapidly allocate intensive care unit resources without sacrificing the quality of palliative care in the era of COVID-19. Trial registration They study was retrospectively registered. IRB No.: 202101929B0.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospices , Humans , Airway Extubation , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Respiration, Artificial
6.
J Perioper Pract ; 33(7-8): 248-252, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Given the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, coughing at the time of extubation is at risk of creating aerosolisation. This may place health care workers at risk of nosocomial infection during the perioperative period. This study aims to summarise the current pharmacologic methods to minimise cough at the time of extubation, and to determine whether some strategies could be more beneficial than others. METHODS: This is a summary of systematic reviews. A comprehensive search through MEDLINE was performed. Thirty-three publications were screened for eligibility. Only the manuscripts discussing pharmacologic methods to minimise coughing on extubation were included in this review. FINDINGS: Many pharmacological agents have been proposed to decrease the incidence of cough at the time of extubation. Of these, intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine (relative risk 0.4; 95% CI: 0.4-0.5) or remifentanil (RR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.4-0.5) seems to have the largest effect to reduce cough on extubation. CONCLUSION: The available data in the current literature is sparse. Yet, dexmedetomidine and remifentanil seem to be the most efficient agents to decrease the incidence of emergence coughing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dexmedetomidine , Humans , Cough/prevention & control , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Remifentanil , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Airway Extubation , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
7.
Respir Care ; 67(10): 1282-1290, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postextubation monitoring helps identify patients at risk of developing respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of our standard respiratory therapist (RT) assessment tool versus an automated continuous monitoring alert to initiate postextubation RT-driven care on the re-intubation rate. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized clinical trial from March 2020 to September 2021 of adult subjects who received mechanical ventilation for > 24 h and underwent planned extubation in the ICU. The subjects were assigned to the standard RT assessment tool or an automated monitoring alert to identify the need for postextubation RT-driven care. The primary outcome was the need for re-intubation due to respiratory failure within 72 h. Secondary outcomes included re-intubation within 7 d, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, hospital mortality, ICU cost, and RT time associated with patient assessment and therapy provision. RESULTS: Of 234 randomized subjects, 32 were excluded from the primary analysis due to disruption in RT-driven care during the surge of patients with COVID-19, and 1 subject was excluded due to delay in the automated monitoring initiation. Analysis of the primary outcome included 85 subjects assigned to the standard RT assessment group and 116 assigned to the automated monitoring alert group to initiate RT-driven care. There was no significant difference between the study groups in re-intubation rate, median length of stay, mortality, or ICU costs. The RT time associated with patient assessment (P < .001) and therapy provided (P = .031) were significantly lower in the automated continuous monitoring alert group. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects who received mechanical ventilation for > 24 h, there were no significant outcome or cost differences between our standard RT assessment tool or an automated monitoring alert to initiate postextubation RT-driven care. Using an automated continuous monitoring alert to initiate RT-driven care saved RT time. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT04231890).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Ventilator Weaning
8.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am ; 34(1): 67-78, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628517

ABSTRACT

End of life (EOL) can be an extremely stressful experience for patients, their families, and health care staff. Critical care nurses are trained to help patients survive acute episodes and assist in restoring their health. Unfortunately, not all ICU patients are able to fully recover or obtain previous quality of life before hospitalization. In these situations, the focus moves to transitioning patients from restorative care to palliative care. This article will explain EOL care guidelines for critical care nurses using the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale to ensure patient comfort during compassionate extubation.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Terminal Care , Airway Extubation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Palliative Care , Quality of Life
9.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): e238, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383714
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 304, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been widely used in critically ill patients after extubation. However, NIV failure is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to determine early predictors of NIV failure and to construct an accurate machine-learning model to identify patients at risks of NIV failure after extubation in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: Patients who underwent NIV after extubation in the eICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD) were included. NIV failure was defined as need for invasive ventilatory support (reintubation or tracheotomy) or death after NIV initiation. A total of 93 clinical and laboratory variables were assessed, and the recursive feature elimination algorithm was used to select key features. Hyperparameter optimization was conducted with an automated machine-learning toolkit called Neural Network Intelligence. A machine-learning model called Categorical Boosting (CatBoost) was developed and compared with nine other models. The model was then prospectively validated among patients enrolled in the Cardiac Surgical ICU of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. RESULTS: Of 929 patients included in the eICU-CRD cohort, 248 (26.7%) had NIV failure. The time from extubation to NIV, age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean blood pressure (MBP), saturation of pulse oxygen (SpO2), temperature, glucose, pH, pressure of oxygen in blood (PaO2), urine output, input volume, ventilation duration, and mean airway pressure were selected. After hyperparameter optimization, our model showed the greatest accuracy in predicting NIV failure (AUROC: 0.872 [95% CI 0.82-0.92]) among all predictive methods in an internal validation. In the prospective validation cohort, our model was also superior (AUROC: 0.846 [95% CI 0.80-0.89]). The sensitivity and specificity in the prediction group is 89% and 75%, while in the validation group they are 90% and 70%. MV duration and respiratory rate were the most important features. Additionally, we developed a web-based tool to help clinicians use our model. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed and prospectively validated the CatBoost model, which can be used to identify patients who are at risk of NIV failure. Thus, those patients might benefit from early triage and more intensive monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03704324. Registered 1 September 2018, https://register. CLINICALTRIALS: gov .


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Airway Extubation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
11.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 21(1): 1-10, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1975227

ABSTRACT

Estudios previos han caracterizado la disfagia en pacientes críticos hospitalizados que requieren intubación y ventilación mecánica invasiva. A raíz de la pandemia COVID-19 es necesario conocer las características deglutorias de pacientes diagnosticados con la enfermedad para su manejo. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características deglutorias de pacientes críticos extubados con y sin diagnóstico de COVID-19. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo con una muestra a conveniencia de 43 sujetos mayores de 15 años, ingresados al Hospital San Juan de Dios (Santiago, Chile) entre el 01 de junio y el 31 de agosto de 2020, intubados con o sin diagnóstico de COVID-19. Del total de sujetos, 22 padecieron de COVID-19 quienes estuvieron significativamente más días intubados que aquellos sin la patología (p=0,002). Inmediatamente posterior a la extubación orotraqueal, más del 90% de la muestra presentó disfagia. No hubo diferencia significativa en el nivel FILS ni asociación significativa en el grado de severidad de la disfagia entre sujetos con y sin COVID-19. Tampoco hubo diferencia significativa en el nivel FILS entre los grupos a los 10 días post-extubación. El nivel FILS a los 10 días aumentó significativamente en aquellos sujetos con COVID-19 (p=0,016) y sin COVID-19 (p=0,004). En la muestra, el nivel FILS y grado de severidad de la disfagia de los pacientes con y sin COVID-19 no mostraron diferencias estadísticas, siendo alto el porcentaje de disfagia en ambos grupos, lo que se podría asociar a la intubación orotraqueal y al tubo orotraqueal. Es necesaria la incorporación del fonoaudiólogo dentro de los equipos de Unidades de Pacientes Críticos para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 y disfagia. Además, se recomienda continuar con más estudios en el área.


Previous research have described the deglutition disorders in critical hospitalised patients who required intubation and mechanical ventilation. In the pandemic context, it is mandatory to study both level and grade of dysphagia in patients suffering from COVID-19. The aim of this study is to analyse the deglutition features of extubated critical patients with and without COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study was performed, considering a convenience sample of 43 patients from 15 years old hospitalised at 'Hospital San Juan de Dios' between June 1st and August 31th 2020, who were intubated, with and without the diagnosis of COVID-19. 22of out 43 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 who were intubated for significantly more days in comparison with those without COVID-19 (p=.002). After the intratracheal extubation, 90% of the sample was diagnosed with dysphagia. There was no significant difference in the FILS score nor significant association in dysphagia severity between patients with and without COVID-19. After 10 days post extubation, there was no significant difference in the FILS score between both groups. The FILS score increased significantly in the COVID-19 (p=.016) and non-COVID-19 (p=.004) patients after 10 days post extubation. Post extubation, there are no statistical differences in the FILS score and dysphagia severity in critical ill patients with and without COVID-19, with a high percentage of dysphagia in both groups which could be associated with intratracheal intubation and endotracheal tubes. The incorporation of speech and language therapists in Critical Care Units is mandatory. Furthermore, it is recommended to perform extra research in the area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Deglutition , COVID-19/therapy , Intubation/adverse effects
12.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(4): 852-860, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many hospitals have been using nutrition support guidelines for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as outlined in the April 2020 article released by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM). Currently, there are insufficient data on the outcomes of following these guidelines. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of 131 adult inpatients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) at Banner Health to observe differences in length of stay, mortality, and number of days intubated based on the timing of nutrition support start relative to hours intubated and hours in the ICU. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between length of stay, mortality, or number of days intubated between patients who started nutrition support within <12 h of intubation, >12 h of intubation and <36 h in the ICU, or >36 h of intubation and those who were not intubated. Patients who started nutrition support after >36 h in the ICU had the longest lengths of stay (median [25th, 75th percentile] = 25.5 [19.25, 35.25] days; P > 0.05) and number of days intubated (16.5 [10.0, 24.75] days; P > 0.050); however, it was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference between the three intubated groups and the nonintubated group on Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Prospective, multicenter trials are needed; however, following the SCCM/ASPEN guidelines for nutrition support in patients with COVID-19 may be found to decrease length of stay and number of days intubated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Length of Stay , Nutritional Support , Adult , Airway Extubation , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
13.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1894-1905, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia is one of the main causes of extubation failure and mortality. Understanding clinical characteristics, laboratory profiles and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) immunopathology may help improve outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics, laboratory profiles and BALF immunopathology based on lung severity in critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty critically ill severe pneumonia patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in Cipto Mangunkusumo General (National Tertiary Referral Hospital), Indonesia within November 2020-January 2021 were enrolled in this study. Early BALF collection was performed after patients' intubation. Clinical characteristics, laboratory profiles and BALF biomarkers (sTREM-1, alveolar macrophage amount and function, IL-6, IL-17, CD4 T-cells, Tregs, SP-A and Caspase-3) were observed and analysed. Outcomes were measured based on extubation failure (within 19 days) and 28-days mortality. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Early bronchoscopy was performed in an average of 4 h (SD = 0.82) after patients' intubation. Twenty-three and twenty-two patients had extubation failure (within 19 days) and 28-days mortality, respectively. In the baseline clinical characteristics of critically ill COVID-19 patients, we found no significant differences in the extubation and mortality status groups. In the laboratory profiles of critically ill COVID-19 patients, we found no significant differences in the extubation status groups. In critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients, there was a significant high D-dimer levels in survived group (p = .027), a significant low BALF CD4 T-cells count in the right lung (p = .001) and a significant low BALF CD4 T-cells count (p = .010 and p = .018) in severely affected lung with extubation failure and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: BALF CD4 T-cells count evaluation of severely affected lung is associated with early extubation failure and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. KEY MESSAGEFew studies have been conducted during the peak COVID-19 period analysing combined bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) immunopathology biomarkers within four hours of intubation to assess extubation failure and mortality. In this study, we reported eight BALF immunopathology biomarkers (sTREM-1, alveolar macrophage, IL-6, IL-17, CD4 T-cells, Tregs, SP-A and Caspase-3).We found significantly low BALF CD4 T-cells count in the right lung, and low BALF CD4 T-cells count in severely affected lung of critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients in extubation failure and mortality.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Caspase 3 , Critical Illness , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6
14.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (146): 95-104, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903534

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In ICUs, many patients are intubated. UE is an indicator of the quality of care.Isolation associated with "air" precautions may increase the number of UEs in mechanically ventilated (MV) COVID patients.The main aim of the study was to compare the rate of UE between a COVID-19 period and a control period. The secondary aims were to identify UE risk factors and to study the experience of caregivers during the COVID-19 period. METHOD: The method of choice was a retrospective single center case-control study. MV patients aged ≥ 18 years were eligible in two periods: the control period from 01/02/2020 to 29/02/2020, and the COVID-19 period from 01/03/2020 to 31/03/2020. An anonymous survey was given to ICU caregivers in Vannes Hospital. RESULTS: The UE rate was 17% (n=7) vs. 20% (n=9) control period vs. COVID-19 period (p=0.58), with nocturnal preponderance (75%). A quarter (n=4) of patients fulfill MV weaning criteria at the time of UE. A 71% (n=49) survey response rate was obtained. The COVID-19 period had a higher estimated UE risk for 76% (n=37) of caregivers, who felt that they had a greater workload, difficulties with monitoring, and decreased regular visits to patients' rooms. CONCLUSION: Contrary to the caregiver experience, we reported a similar UE rate over both the COVID-19 period and the control period.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19 , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Hosp Infect ; 124: 13-21, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open respiratory suctioning is defined as an aerosol generating procedure (AGP). Laryngopharyngeal suctioning, used to clear secretions during anaesthesia, is widely managed as an AGP. However, it is uncertain whether upper airway suctioning should be designated as an AGP due to the lack of both aerosol and epidemiological evidence. AIM: To assess the relative risk of aerosol generation by upper airway suctioning during tracheal intubation and extubation in anaesthetized patients. METHODS: This prospective environmental monitoring study was undertaken in an ultraclean operating theatre setting to assay aerosol concentrations during intubation and extubation sequences, including upper airway suctioning, for patients undergoing surgery (N=19). An optical particle sizer (particle size 0.3-10 µm) sampled aerosol 20 cm above the patient's mouth. Baseline recordings (background, tidal breathing and volitional coughs) were followed by intravenous induction of anaesthesia with neuromuscular blockade. Four periods of laryngopharyngeal suctioning were performed with a Yankauer sucker: pre-laryngoscopy, post-intubation, pre-extubation and post-extubation. FINDINGS: Aerosol was reliably detected {median 65 [interquartile range (IQR) 39-259] particles/L} above background [median 4.8 (IQR 1-7) particles/L, P<0.0001] when sampling in close proximity to the patient's mouth during tidal breathing. Upper airway suctioning was associated with a much lower average aerosol concentration than breathing [median 6.0 (IQR 0-12) particles/L, P=0.0007], and was indistinguishable from background (P>0.99). Peak aerosol concentrations recorded during suctioning [median 45 (IQR 30-75) particles/L] were much lower than during volitional coughs [median 1520 (IQR 600-4363) particles/L, P<0.0001] and tidal breathing [median 540 (IQR 300-1826) particles/L, P<0.0001]. CONCLUSION: Upper airway suctioning during airway management was not associated with a higher aerosol concentration compared with background, and was associated with a much lower aerosol concentration compared with breathing and coughing. Upper airway suctioning should not be designated as a high-risk AGP.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , Cough , Aerosols , Airway Extubation/methods , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Prospective Studies
16.
Heart Lung ; 56: 24-28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoxemic respiratory failure is a serious complication that can occur at any stage after cardiac surgery. Prone positioning (PP) is safe and effective for patients receiving invasive ventilation after hypoxemic respiratory failure; however, few related studies have focused on its use with extubated cardiac surgery patients. Researchers recently reported beneficial effects of PP for hypoxemic patients with COVID-19 and those with moderate ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS). PP may also improve oxygenation in extubated cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of PP in extubated cardiac surgery patients to determine whether PP can improve oxygenation and respiratory status or reduce secondary intubation. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional database between August 2018 and August 2020 and identified 22 cardiac surgery patients who had undergone PP for hypoxemic respiratory failure after extubation. From the medical and nursing records, we extracted the following data recorded before PP, during PP, and after PP for each patient, arterial blood gas analyses, hemodynamic records, laboratory reports, and respiratory function training records. RESULTS: Twenty-two extubated patients underwent 74 PP. Each patient underwent a median of 3.5 (2-5) procedures, and the median duration of each PP was 10 h. PP was implemented on the 4.5th postoperative day (median). All patients were discharged from the hospital, and none died. No complications were observed. PP improved the P/F ratio (182.65 ± 60.17, 301.53 ± 61.31, and 246.76 ± 65.68, before PP, during PP, and after PP, respectively, p < 0.001). Additionally, the respiratory rate, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and PaCO2 also improved, and hemodynamics showed no significant change. CONCLUSION: PP may be effective and safe for treating patients who are extubated following cardiac surgery with hypoxemic respiratory failure. For these patients, PP is associated with oxygenation and respiratory condition improvements and low secondary intubation rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Prone Position , Retrospective Studies , Airway Extubation , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
17.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(9): 1250-1255, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794147

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We investigated whether COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) had a different extubation outcome compared to non-COVID-19 patients while identifying predictive factors of extubation failure in the former. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, and observational study was done on 216 COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between March 2020 and March 2021, aged ≥ 18 years, in use of invasive MV for more than 24 h, which progressed to weaning. The primary outcome that was evaluated was extubation failure during ICU stay. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association of patient characteristics with extubation outcome, and a Poisson regression model determined the predictive value. Results: Seventy-seven patients were extubated; the mean age was 57.2 years, 52.5% were male, and their mean APACHE II score at admission was 17.8. On average, MV duration until extubation was 8.7 ± 3.7 days, with 14.9 ± 10.1 days of ICU stay and 24.6 ± 14.0 days with COVID-19 symptoms. The rate of extubation failure (ie, the patient had to be reintubated during their ICU stay) was 22.1% (n = 17), while extubation was successful in 77.9% (n = 60) of cases. Failure was observed in only 7.8% of cases when evaluated 48 hours after extubation. The mean reintubation time was 4.28 days. After adjusting the analysis for age, sex, during of symptoms, days under MV, dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, some parameters independently predicted extubation failure: age ≥ 66 years (APR = 5.12 [1.35-19.46]; p = 0.016), ≥ 31 days of symptoms (APR = 5.45 [0.48-62.19]; p = 0.016), and need for dialysis (APR = 5.10 [2.00-13.00]; p = 0.001), while a PaO2/FiO2 ratio >300 decreased the probability of extubation failure (APR = 0.14 [0.04-0.55]; p = 0.005). The presence of three predictors (ie, age ≥ 66 years, time of symptoms ≥ 31 days, need of dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200) increased the risk of extubation failure by a factor of 23.0 (95% CI, 3.34-158.5). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients had an extubation failure risk that was almost three times higher than non-COVID-19 patients, with the extubation of the former being delayed compared to the latter. Furthermore, an age ≥ 66 years, time of symptoms ≥ 31 days, need of dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 200 were independent predictors for extubation failure, and the presence of three of these characteristics increased the risk of failure by a factor of 23.0.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Airway Extubation , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Ventilator Weaning/adverse effects
18.
ASAIO J ; 68(4): 478-485, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764692

ABSTRACT

Cessation of continuous analgesia and sedation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitates early extubation, family, patient and provider engagement, and mobility. Outcomes associated with an awake ECMO strategy have not been well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in patients receiving this strategy. This was a retrospective review of ARDS patients receiving awake VV ECMO. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included days requiring ECMO, time from cannulation to extubation, complications, patients requiring tracheostomy, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition. In a subgroup analysis, outcomes were compared between non-COVID and COVID ECMO patients. Sixty-two patients were included with a survival to hospital discharge of 85.5%. Days requiring ECMO was 33.0 (0.0-75.0) and cannulation to extubation was 6.0 (4.0-11.0). Three patients received a tracheostomy (4.8%). Bleeding and infection were reported in 80.6% and 82.3% of patients, respectively. Intensive care unit length of stay was 46.0 days (29.0-90.0) and hospital LOS was 51.0 days (32.0-91.0). Over half of the patients (51.6%) were discharged to an acute rehabilitation facility and 27.4% were discharged home. There was similar survival to hospital discharge between the COVID and non-COVID awake ECMO patients (85% in both groups, p = 1.000). This study highlights the impact of an awake ECMO approach on survival to hospital discharge. Future studies are needed to evaluate this approach as compared to current practice to determine if this should become the standard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Wakefulness
20.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(7): 3272-3287, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666292

ABSTRACT

There is significant interest in the potential for nebulised unfractionated heparin (UFH), as a novel therapy for patients with COVID-19 induced acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilation. The scientific and biological rationale for nebulised heparin stems from the evidence for extensive activation of coagulation resulting in pulmonary microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 pneumonia. Nebulised delivery of heparin to the lung may limit alveolar fibrin deposition and thereby limit progression of lung injury. Importantly, laboratory studies show that heparin can directly inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby prevent its entry into and infection of mammalian cells. UFH has additional anti-inflammatory and mucolytic properties that may be useful in this context. METHODS AND INTERVENTION: The Can nebulised HepArin Reduce morTality and time to Extubation in Patients with COVID-19 Requiring invasive ventilation Meta-Trial (CHARTER-MT) is a collaborative prospective individual patient data analysis of on-going randomised controlled clinical trials across several countries in five continents, examining the effects of inhaled heparin in patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation on various endpoints. Each constituent study will randomise patients with COVID-19 induced respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilation. Patients are randomised to receive nebulised heparin or standard care (open label studies) or placebo (blinded placebo-controlled studies) while under invasive ventilation. Each participating study collect a pre-defined minimum dataset. The primary outcome for the meta-trial is the number of ventilator-free days up to day 28 day, defined as days alive and free from invasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Airway Extubation , Heparin , Humans , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL