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1.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6813-6824, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to appraise the capacity of serum aminotransferases to discriminate between hepatic and other extra-pulmonary COVID-19-related manifestations and, potentially, to serve as predictors of poor clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight studies were identified (79% from China), including 43,554 patients (57% males), 9,983 (62% males) with poor outcomes and 33,571 (50% males) with favorable outcomes. After splitting studies depending on whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were statistically different between patients with poor vs. favorable outcomes, the 35 'hepatic involvement' articles (p<0.05) included 28,510 patients (51% males), 5,279 (66% males) and 23,231 subjects (48% males) with poor and favorable outcomes, respectively. The 63 'extra-hepatic involvement' studies (p>0.05) included 15,044 patients (54% males), 4,704 (60% males) with poor outcomes and 10,340 (51% males) with favorable outcomes. RESULTS: The meta-analysis shows that serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations were significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes than those with favorable outcomes (WMD 12.5 UI/L, 95% CI 10.9 to 14.1 p<0.001). Similarly, AST concentrations were significantly higher in the 'hepatic involvement' studies (WMD 16.3 UI/L, 95% CI 13.4 to 19.2 p<0.001) and in the 'extra-hepatic involvement' studies (WMD 10.3 UI/L, 95% CI 8.6 to 12.0 p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The different association of serum AST concentrations with some clinical, demographic, and biochemical factors in the two clusters suggests that in COVID-19 patients, serum AST elevation is not necessarily linked to real liver damage.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
3.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 3440714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484098

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been observed that COVID-19 may cause myocardial damage, but there are few detailed reports on myocardial enzyme abnormalities. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 157 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Wuhan. We collected information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. The association between myocardial enzyme abnormalities and the mortality was also investigated. Results: The mortality in abnormal myocardial enzyme group was obviously higher than the normal group (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (n = 72, 97.3%) with normal cardiac enzyme group were of the common novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) type, whereas half of the patients with cardiac enzyme abnormalities (n = 40, 48.2%) developed critical and severe NCP type. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with increasing age (P = 0.035), higher levels of CRP (P = 0.038), and TNI (P = 0.036) were associated with increased death than other patients. Conclusions: Myocardial enzyme abnormality and myocardial injury were associated with the severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Clinicians should pay attention to the markers of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients, especially those with older age, comorbidities, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzymes/blood , Myocardium/enzymology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 818, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injuries have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective study, the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 inpatients were compared between various time-points in reference to SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and 3 to 7 days before the first detection of viral shedding was regarded as the reference baseline. RESULTS: In total, 70 COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled. Twenty-two (31.4%) patients had a self-medication history after illness. At baseline, 10 (14.3%), 7 (10%), 9 (12.9%), 2 (2.9%), 15 (21.4%), and 4 (5.7%) patients already had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin (TBIL) values, respectively. ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not show any significant dynamic changes during the full period of viral shedding (all p > 0.05). The GGT abnormal rate (p = 0.008) and level (p = 0.033) significantly increased on day 10 of viral shedding. Meanwhile, no simultaneous significant increases in abnormal ALP rates and levels were observed. TBIL abnormal rates and levels significantly increased on days 1 and 5 of viral shedding (all p < 0.05). Albumin abnormal decrease rates increased, and levels decreased consistently from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 clearance day (all p < 0.05). Thirteen (18.6%) patients had chronic liver disease, two of whom died. The ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not increase in patients with chronic liver disease during SARS-CoV-2 shedding. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not directly lead to elevations in ALT and AST but may result in elevations in GGT and TBIL; albumin decreased extraordinarily even when SARS-CoV-2 shedding ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver/virology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430697

ABSTRACT

Background: Prediction of the severity of COVID-19 at its onset is important for providing adequate and timely management to reduce mortality. Objective: To study the prognostic value of damage parameters and cytokines as predictors of severity of COVID-19 using an extensive immunologic profiling and unbiased artificial intelligence methods. Methods: Sixty hospitalized COVID-19 patients (30 moderate and 30 severe) and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. The damage indicators high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), extensive biochemical analyses, a panel of 47 cytokines and chemokines were analyzed at weeks 1, 2 and 7 along with clinical complaints and CT scans of the lungs. Unbiased artificial intelligence (AI) methods (logistic regression and Support Vector Machine and Random Forest algorithms) were applied to investigate the contribution of each parameter to prediction of the severity of the disease. Results: On admission, the severely ill patients had significantly higher levels of LDH, IL-6, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), D-dimer, fibrinogen, glucose than the patients with moderate disease. The levels of macrophage derived cytokine (MDC) were lower in severely ill patients. Based on artificial intelligence analysis, eight parameters (creatinine, glucose, monocyte number, fibrinogen, MDC, MIG, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 have been identified that could predict with an accuracy of 83-87% whether the patient will develop severe disease. Conclusion: This study identifies the prognostic factors and provides a methodology for making prediction for COVID-19 patients based on widely accepted biomarkers that can be measured in most conventional clinical laboratories worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Support Vector Machine , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25988, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention are the key factors for improving outcomes in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this observational longitudinal study was to identify nonoverlapping severity subgroups (ie, clusters) among patients with COVID-19, based exclusively on clinical data and standard laboratory tests obtained during patient assessment in the emergency department. METHODS: We applied unsupervised machine learning to a data set of 853 patients with COVID-19 from the HM group of hospitals (HM Hospitales) in Madrid, Spain. Age and sex were not considered while building the clusters, as these variables could introduce biases in machine learning algorithms and raise ethical implications or enable discrimination in triage protocols. RESULTS: From 850 clinical and laboratory variables, four tests-the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the number of neutrophils-were enough to segregate the entire patient pool into three separate clusters. Further, the percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes and the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) distinguished cluster 3 patients from the other two clusters. The highest proportion of deceased patients; the highest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the highest number of neutrophils; and the lowest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 1. Cluster 2 included a lower proportion of deceased patients and intermediate levels of the previous laboratory tests. The lowest proportion of deceased patients; the lowest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the lowest number of neutrophils; and the highest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 3. CONCLUSIONS: A few standard laboratory tests, deemed available in all emergency departments, have shown good discriminative power for the characterization of severity subgroups among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Count , Cluster Analysis , Datasets as Topic , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Spain/epidemiology , Triage
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8864, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242039

ABSTRACT

Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is found in the endothelial glycocalyx and shed into the blood during systemic inflammatory conditions. We investigated organ dysfunction associated with changing serum SDC-1 levels for early detection of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. To evaluate the effect of SDC-1 on laboratory parameters measured the day after SDC-1 measurement with consideration for repeated measures, linear mixed effects models were constructed with each parameter as an outcome variable. A total of 94 patients were enrolled, and 831 samples were obtained. Analysis using mixed effects models for repeated measures with adjustment for age and sex showed that serum SDC-1 levels measured the day before significantly affected several outcomes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), antithrombin III, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer. Moreover, serum SDC-1 levels of the prior day significantly modified the effect between time and several outcomes, including AST, ALT, CRE, and BUN. Additionally, increasing serum SDC-1 level was a significant risk factor for mortality. Serum SDC-1 may be a useful biomarker for daily monitoring to detect early signs of kidney, liver and coagulation system dysfunction, and may be an important risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(7): 1414-1425, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229490

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, is a predominantly respiratory tract infection with the capacity to affect multiple organ systems. Abnormal liver tests, mainly transaminase elevations, have been reported in hospitalized patients. We describe a syndrome of cholangiopathy in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 characterized by marked elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) accompanied by evidence of bile duct injury on imaging. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients admitted to our institution from March 1, 2020, to August 15, 2020, on whom the hepatology service was consulted for abnormal liver tests. Bile duct injury was identified by abnormal liver tests with serum ALP > 3x upper limit of normal and abnormal findings on magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, and histological findings were recorded in a Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified, 11 men and 1 woman, with a mean age of 58 years. Mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to diagnosis of cholangiopathy was 118 days. Peak median serum alanine aminotransferase was 661 U/L and peak median serum ALP was 1855 U/L. Marked elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and D-dimers were common. Magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography findings included beading of intrahepatic ducts (11/12, 92%), bile duct wall thickening with enhancement (7/12, 58%), and peribiliary diffusion high signal (10/12, 83%). Liver biopsy in 4 patients showed acute and/or chronic large duct obstruction without clear bile duct loss. Progressive biliary tract damage has been demonstrated radiographically. Five patients were referred for consideration of liver transplantation after experiencing persistent jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, and/or recurrent bacterial cholangitis. One patient underwent successful living donor liver transplantation. DISCUSSION: Cholangiopathy is a late complication of severe COVID-19 with the potential for progressive biliary injury and liver failure. Further studies are required to understand pathogenesis, natural history, and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , Jaundice/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Bile Ducts/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts/immunology , Bile Ducts/pathology , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/immunology , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/therapy , Disease Progression , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , End Stage Liver Disease/immunology , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Female , Humans , Jaundice/diagnosis , Jaundice/immunology , Jaundice/therapy , Liver Function Tests , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10308, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228267

ABSTRACT

Prognostic markers are needed to understand the disease course and severity in patients with Covid-19. There is evidence that Covid-19 causes gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormalities in liver enzymes. We aimed to determine if hepatobiliary laboratory data could predict disease severity in patients with Covid-19. In this retrospective, single institution, cohort study that analyzed patients admitted to a community academic hospital with the diagnosis of Covid-19, we found that elevations of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) at any time during hospital admission increased the odds of ICU admission by 5.12 (95% CI: 1.55-16.89; p = 0.007), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.51-14.69; p = 0.01) and 4.12 (95% CI: 1.21-14.06, p = 0.02), respectively. Hypoalbuminemia found at the time of admission to the hospital was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.02), hypotension (p = 0.03), and need for vasopressors (p = 0.02), intubation (p = 0.01) and hemodialysis (p = 0.002). Additionally, there was evidence of liver injury: AST was significantly elevated above baseline in patients admitted to the ICU (54.2 ± 15.70 U/L) relative to those who were not (9.2 ± 4.89 U/L; p = 0.01). Taken together, this study found that hypoalbuminemia and abnormalities in hepatobiliary laboratory data may be prognostic factors for disease severity in patients admitted to the hospital with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 713-718, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225362

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed at providing evidence to consider sex differences in interpretations of laboratory parameters of severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: For 118 diabetic patients, laboratory measurements and clinical outcomes were compared between males and females. This study also compared inflammatory ratios obtained from combinations of six inflammatory markers between the two groups. The risk factors for mortality were identified through logistic regression. RESULTS: Males were 54 (45.8%) and females were 64 (54.2%). Males showed a significant increase in ALT (P = 0.003), CRP (P = 0.03), mean platelet volume (MPV)-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001), and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (P = 0.044), whereas females had a significant increase in lymphocytes (P < 0.005) and MPV (P = 0.01). In all participants, multivariate analysis illustrated that older age, male sex, increased serum total bilirubin, and decreased PO2 were significant independent predictors of mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes, there were significant sex differences in many laboratory characteristics with a higher risk of mortality among males.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Health Status Disparities , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(4): 490-500, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been defined as an individual's health condition. The relationship between the progression of COVID-19 and Nutritional status is still unclear. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of 342 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and analyzed the relationship between the progression of COVID-19 and Nutritional status. METHODOLOGY: 342 COVID-19 were enrolled from ten different hospitals in China. The clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The body mass index (BMI) of the mild patients (Group A) was higher than those in severe patients (Group B) and critical patients (Group C); The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level of Group A was lower than those of the other two groups; Sex, age, and BMI, was strongly correlated with Clinical classification (CT); Among the laboratory test results, Neutrophil (NEU%), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), LDH, and blood glucose (BG) were positively correlated with CT; Lymphocyte ( LYM%), Platelet (PLT), Albumin (ALB), and Creatinine (Cr) were negatively correlated with CT. BMI, NEU%, LYM%, ALB, Cr, and PLT are all protective factors that affect CT. CONCLUSION: People with poor nutritional status (lower BMI and ALB) have a higher risk of developing severe disease after infection with SARS-CoV-2. In the clinical treatment of COVID-19, individualized nutritional support is very important for the rehabilitation of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Nutritional Status , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
14.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 50(2): 383-402, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201631

ABSTRACT

Nonhepatotropic viruses such as adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, flaviviruses, filoviruses, and human herpes virus, and bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii, can cause liver injury mimicking acute hepatitis. Most of these organisms cause a self-limited infection. However, in immunocompromised patients, they can cause severe hepatitis or in some cases fulminant hepatic failure requiring an urgent liver transplant. Hepatic dysfunction is also commonly seen in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Patients with preexisting liver diseases are likely at risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis/diagnosis , Hepatitis/virology , Herpes Simplex/complications , Q Fever/complications , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Flavivirus Infections/complications , Hepatitis/pathology , Hepatitis/therapy , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107701, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, has rapidly spread over the world. The exact mechanism how this virus will affect the liver remained elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the liver function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and potential causes of hepatic enzymes disease in these patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were collected from patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the corona center in Erbil city/Kurdistan region of Iraq, from March 10 to July 10, 2020. Serum was collected from patients with COVID-19 and liver enzyme tests were measured. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were analyzed in these patients. Of the 74 patients, 25 (34.7%) had abnormal ALT activity, 28 (40%) had abnormal AST activity, 12 (20.3%) had abnormal ALP activity, and 39 (52.7%) had abnormal total bilirubin P-value < 0.05. The inflammatory biomarkers CRP and IL-6 in COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver function test (4.9 ± 1.0 mg/dl) and (231.2 ± 35.7 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of both biomarkers were statistically significantly higher than COVID-19 patients with normal liver function test (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) and (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) respectively, P-value < 0.05. However, CRP and IL-6 were not statistically significant different between male and female COVID-19 patients P-value < 0.05. In conclusion, we found that most of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 have abnormal hepatic enzyme activities and that is might related to virus replication in the liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Liver/enzymology , Liver/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Carrier State/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and in severe cases associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ARDS-COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 197 male Egyptian participants, among them111 COVID-19 patients presented with ARDS, 60 COVID-19 patients presented with non-ARDS, and 26 Non-COVID-19 patients. We reported the analysis results of clinical and laboratory information, including blood routine tests, blood biochemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and C-reactive protein (CRP)], thrombotic activity (D-dimer) and serum ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RESULTS: The levels of hemoglobin, AST, creatinine, monocyte count, monocyte %, RBC count, TLC, and platelet count were not significantly different among the groups. The lymphopenia and increased CRP, ALT, D-dimer, ferritin, and LDH were observed in patients with ARDS-COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with ARDS presented with lymphopenia, increased thrombotic activity, increased CRP, LDH, and ferritin levels. The results revealed that CRP, D-dimer, LDH levels, and lymphopenia have a significant association with the COVID-19 severity and can be used as biomarkers to predict the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/metabolism , Egypt/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174708

ABSTRACT

Millions of people infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been diagnosed with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence and severity of COVID-19 differ between sexes. To explain these differences, we analyzed clinical features and laboratory values in male and female COVID-19 patients. The present study included a cohort of 111 people, i.e. 36 COVID-19 patients, 54 sex- and age-matched common viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, and 21 healthy controls. Monocyte counts, lymphocyte subset counts, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the peripheral blood were analyzed. Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, monocyte counts, and CRP and ALT levels were found in male COVID-19 patients. Decreased lymphocyte subset counts and proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients, except for the CD3+ and CD8+ T cell proportions. The lower CD4+ T cell proportions and higher CD8+ T cell proportions were observed in male and severe COVID-19 patients and the differences were independent of estrogen level. The CD4+ T cell proportion was negatively associated with the CD8+ T cell proportion in male COVID-19 patients; this correlation was non-significant in females. Our work demonstrates differences between sexes in circulating monocyte counts and CD4+ T cell and CD8+ T cell proportions in COVID-19 patients, independent of estrogen levels, are associated with the clinical manifestations in COVID-19 patients with high specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/virology , Monocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections , Estradiol/blood , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 214-223, 2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a multicentre cross-sectional study done on COVID-19 patients tested positive by RT PCR in Bangladesh. Clinical features of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical admission day laboratory findings of moderate to severe degree hospitalized COVID-19 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat. But symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >100°F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients. 17.39% of the patients had leucocytosis and neutrophilia, 28.26% presented with lymphocytopenia, and 62.52% had mild erythrocytopenia. The difference between the decrease hemoglobin count (higher in the male) and increased SGPT (higher in female) against gender was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study had evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be assessments for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease. Decrease hemoglobin count (higher in the male) and increased SGPT (higher in female) establish these two markers as a good candidate for diagnostic value against gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bangladesh , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Ann Hepatol ; 24: 100338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108041

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: As of January 2021, over 88 million people have been infected with COVID-19. Almost two million people have died of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A high SOFA score and a D-Dimer >1 µg/mL identifies patients with high risk of mortality. High lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission are associated with severity and mortality. Different degrees of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) abnormalities have been reported in these patients, its association with a mortality risk remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between LDH and in-hospital mortality in Mexican patients admitted with COVID-19. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a retrospective multi-centre cohort study with 377 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in three centres in Mexico City, Mexico, who were ≥18 years old and died or were discharged between April 1 and May 31, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 377 patients were evaluated, 298 (79.1%) patients were discharged, and 79 (20.9%) patients died during hospitalization. Non-survivors were older, with a median age of 46.7 ± 25.7 years old, most patients were male. An ALT > 61 U/l (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.27-9.37; p = 0.015), C-reactive protein (CRP) > 231 mg/l (OR 4.71, 95% CI 2.35-9.46; p = 0.000), LDH > 561 U/l (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.40-6.55; p = 0.005) were associated with higher odds for in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that higher levels of LDH, CRP, and ALT are associated with higher in-hospital mortality risk in Mexican patients admitted with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
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