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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963996

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is still challenging healthcare systems and societies worldwide. While vaccines are available, therapeutic strategies are developing and need to be adapted to each patient. Many clinical approaches focus on the repurposing of approved therapeutics against other diseases. However, the efficacy of these compounds on viral infection or even harmful secondary effects in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection are sparsely investigated. Similarly, adverse effects of commonly used therapeutics against lifestyle diseases have not been studied in detail. Using mono cell culture systems and a more complex chip model, we investigated the effects of the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) salt D,L-lysine-acetylsalicylate + glycine (LASAG) on SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. ASA is commonly known as Aspirin® and is one of the most frequently used medications worldwide. Our data indicate an inhibitory effect of LASAG on SARS-CoV-2 replication and SARS-CoV-2-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and coagulation factors. Remarkably, our data point to an additive effect of the combination of LASAG and the antiviral acting drug remdesivir on SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/pharmacology , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycine/pharmacology , Glycine/therapeutic use , Humans , Lysine
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 830990, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952319

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus needs multiple copies for its multiplication using an enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Remdesivir inhibits viral RdRp, controls the multiplication of the virus, and protects patients. However, treatment of COVID-19 with remdesivir involves adverse effects. Many ongoing clinical trials are exploring the potential of the combination of remdesivir with repurposed drugs by targeting multiple targets of virus and host human simultaneously. Better results were obtained with the remdesivir-baricitinib combination treatment for COVID-19 compared to the treatment with remdesivir alone. Notably, recovery from COVID-19 was found to be 8 days less via the remdesivir-baricitinib combination treatment as compared to remdesivir treatment alone. Furthermore, the mortality rate via the remdesivir-baricitinib combination treatment was lower compared to the remdesivir-only treatment. Remdesivir targets the SARS-CoV-2 enzyme while baricitinib targets the host human enzyme. Simultaneously, remdesivir and baricitinib as a combination inhibit their target viral RdRp and human Janus kinase, respectively. Ongoing trials for the combination of drugs will suggest in the future whether they may reduce the recovery time, reduce the mortality rate, and improve patient clinical status for noninvasive ventilation. In the future, simultaneously targeting virus replication enzymes and host human kinases may be the strategy for SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9622, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947488

ABSTRACT

This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed the efficacy of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen. Randomized controlled trials of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, where patients were receiving supplemental oxygen at baseline and at least one arm received treatment with remdesivir, were identified. Outcomes included mortality, recovery, and no longer requiring supplemental oxygen. NMAs were performed for low-flow oxygen (LFO2); high-flow oxygen (HFO2), including NIV (non-invasive ventilation); or oxygen at any flow (AnyO2) at early (day 14/15) and late (day 28/29) time points. Six studies were included (N = 5245 patients) in the NMA. Remdesivir lowered early and late mortality among AnyO2 patients (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.34-0.79; RR 0.81, 95%CrI 0.69-0.95) and LFO2 patients (RR 0.21, 95%CrI 0.09-0.46; RR 0.24, 95%CrI 0.11-0.48); no improvement was observed among HFO2 patients. Improved early and late recovery was observed among LFO2 patients (RR 1.22, 95%CrI 1.09-1.38; RR 1.17, 95%CrI 1.09-1.28). Remdesivir also lowered the requirement for oxygen support among all patient subgroups. Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen at baseline, use of remdesivir compared to best supportive care is likely to improve the risk of mortality, recovery and need for oxygen support in AnyO2 and LFO2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 102: 17-23, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944876

ABSTRACT

The clinical progression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to critical illness is associated with a systemic and uncontrolled inflammatory response of the innate and adaptive immunity with the release of a plethora of proinflammatory cytokines termed "cytokine storm". In the absence of an effective treatment, many off-label agents from the armamentarium of rheumatology are used. Here, from the perspective of a rheumatologist, we will discuss the current therapeutic strategies in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Thus, we will discuss the agents that aim to target viral entry and its replication into the host cell and those focusing and targeting the inflammatory response. In this setting, many agents have been used with promising results but, not all have been approved by the International Authorities and Institutions. In the first step (viral entry), SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and remdesivir have been approved to be used and, in the second step, corticosteroids along with interleukin-6 inhibitors, or Janus Kinase inhibitors are currently used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(8): 669-678, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide. Saudi Arabia was significantly impacted by COVID-19. In March 2021, 381,000 cases were reported with 6539 deaths. This study attempts to quantify the impact of remdesivir on healthcare costs in Saudi Arabia, in terms of intensive care unit admissions, mechanical ventilation, and death prevention. METHODS: A forecasting model was designed to estimate the impact of remdesivir on the capacity of intensive care units and healthcare costs with patients requiring low flow oxygen therapy. The forecasting model was applied in the Saudi context with a 20-week projection between 1 February and 14 June, 2021. Model inputs were collected from published global and Saudi literature, available forecasting resources, and expert opinions. Three scenarios were assumed: the effective pandemic infection rate (Rt) remains at 1, the Rt increases up to 1.2, and the Rt declines from 1 to 0.8 over the study period. RESULTS: The model estimated that the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients, in the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, could prevent between 1520 and 3549 patient transfers to intensive care units and mechanical ventilation, prevent between 815 and 1582 deaths, and make potential cost savings between $US154 million and $US377 million owing to the reduction in intensive care unit capacity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with remdesivir may improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden on healthcare resources during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Health Care Costs , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5323, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931439

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has been shown to reduce recovery time and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of remdesivir use are limited in Japan. We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study at Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia treated with remdesivir were included. The onset of acute pancreatitis and increased pancreatic enzyme levels and clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. A total of 201 patients were included. Among the 201 patients treated with remdesivir, 177 recovered from COVID-19. Increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher or acute pancreatitis developed in 23 of the 201 patients. The potential etiopathogenetic effects of remdesivir on increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher or acute pancreatitis were ascertained by reviewing the characteristics of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who did not receive remdesivir treatment. Only 3 of 159 patients had increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher during the treatment course. Multivariate analysis indicated remdesivir administration and severe COVID-19 infection by National Institute of Health standards as independent risk factors. Acute pancreatitis and severe increases in pancreatic enzyme levels were observed among patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Biol Chem ; 298(6): 102023, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930937

ABSTRACT

3C-like protease (3CLpro) processes and liberates functional viral proteins essential for the maturation and infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. It has been suggested that 3CLpro is catalytically active as a dimer, making the dimerization interface a target for antiviral development. Guided by structural analysis, here we introduced single amino acid substitutions at nine residues at three key sites of the dimer interface to assess their impact on dimerization and activity. We show that at site 1, alanine substitution of S1 or E166 increased by twofold or reduced relative activity, respectively. At site 2, alanine substitution of S10 or E14 eliminated activity, whereas K12A exhibited ∼60% relative activity. At site 3, alanine substitution of R4, E290, or Q299 eliminated activity, whereas S139A exhibited 46% relative activity. We further found that the oligomerization states of the dimer interface mutants varied; the inactive mutants R4A, R4Q, S10A/C, E14A/D/Q/S, E290A, and Q299A/E were present as dimers, demonstrating that dimerization is not an indication of catalytically active 3CLpro. In addition, present mostly as monomers, K12A displayed residual activity, which could be attributed to the conspicuous amount of dimer present. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry did not reveal a direct relationship between the thermodynamic stability of mutants with oligomerization or catalytic activity. These results provide insights on two allosteric sites, R4/E290 and S10/E14, that may promote the design of antiviral compounds that target the dimer interface rather than the active site of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Alanine/chemistry , Amino Acid Substitution , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(7): 1635-1641, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Remdesivir (GS-5734), an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase was early identified as a promising therapeutic candidate against COVID-19. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of several metabolic parameters on Remdesivir effectiveness among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted an observational study on patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia admitted between May 2020 and September 2021 to the COVID-19 Units of Internal Medicine, Pneumology and Intensive Care of Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy, and treated with Remdesivir. The "Ordinal Scale For Clinical Improvement" was used to assess patients' clinical improvement within 28 days of hospitalization. Short-term mortality rate was also evaluated. A total of 142 patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia were studied. The prevalence of obesity (20.7% vs. 41.9%, p = 0.03), the average BMI (27.1 ± 4.4 vs. 31.1 ± 6.1, p < 0.01) and the mean LDL-C levels (78 ± 19 mg/dl vs. 103 ± 18 mg/dl, p = 0.03) were significantly lower in early-improved (EI) compared to not-improved (NI) individuals. Obesity was negatively associated to clinical improvement after Remdesivir (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.17-0.97, p = 0.04). Both obesity (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.05-7.71, p = 0.04) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.17-7.16, p = 0.03) were significantly related to patients' mortality. Dyslipidemic subjects experienced a slower clinical improvement than non-dyslipidemic ones (Long-Rank p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that unfavorable metabolic conditions such as obesity and dyslipidemia could predict a worse clinical response to Remdesivir as well as the mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Further prospective and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104095, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir was the first prodrug approved to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has the potential to be used during pregnancy. However, it is not known whether remdesivir and its main metabolite, GS-441524 have the potential to cross the blood-placental barrier. We hypothesize that remdesivir and predominant metabolite GS-441524may cross the blood-placental barrier to reach the embryo tissues. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) coupled with multisite microdialysis was used to monitor the levels of remdesivir and the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 in the maternal blood, fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. The transplacental transfer was evaluated using the pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC and mother-to-fetus transfer ratio (AUCfetus/AUCmother). FINDINGS: Our in-vivo results show that remdesivir is rapidly biotransformed into GS-441524 in the maternal blood, which then readily crossed the placenta with a mother-to-fetus transfer ratio of 0.51 ± 0.18. The Cmax and AUClast values of GS-441524 followed the order: maternal blood > amniotic fluid > fetus > placenta in rats. INTERPRETATION: While remdesivir does not directly cross into the fetus, however, its main metabolite, GS-441524 readily crosses the placenta and can reside there for at least 4 hours as shown in the pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat model. These findings suggest that careful consideration should be taken for the use of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 in pregnancy. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biotransformation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fetus/metabolism , Furans/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pyrroles/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
13.
CMAJ ; 194(20): E713-E723, 2022 05 24.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910708

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: Le rôle du remdésivir dans le traitement des patients hospitalisés pour la COVID-19 reste imprécis dans un contexte international. L'essai randomisé et contrôlé (ERC) Solidarity de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a évalué le remdésivir chez des patients de nombreux pays; le Canada a inscrit des patients dans un protocole élargi de collecte de données: l'essai CATCO (Canadian Treatments for COVID-19). Nous faisons état des observations canadiennes, des données démographiques, des caractéristiques et des indicateurs cliniques qui témoignent de la variabilité des effets d'un système de santé à l'autre. MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à un ERC pragmatique à étiquetage en clair dans les hôpitaux canadiens, en collaboration avec l'essai Solidarity. Nous avons procédé à une attribution aléatoire des patients à 10 jours au remdésivir (200 mg par voie intraveineuse [IV] au jour 0, suivis de 100 mg IV par jour) en plus du traitement standard, ou au traitement standard seulement. L'indicateur principal était la mortalité perhospitalière. Les indicateurs secondaires incluaient les modifications de la gravité de l'état clinique, le nombre de jours sans oxygénothérapie et sans ventilation (à 28 jours), l'incidence d'un nouveau recours à l'oxygénothérapie et à la ventilation mécanique, la durée du séjour hospitalier et les taux d'effets indésirables. Nous avons effectué des analyses de sous-groupes préspécifiés selon la durée des symptômes avant le recrutement, l'âge, le sexe, et la gravité des symptômes à l'arrivée. RÉSULTATS: Parmi 52 hôpitaux canadiens, entre le 14 août 2020 et le 1er avril 2021, nous avons procédé à une attribution aléatoire de 1282 patients au remdésivir (n = 634) ou au traitement standard (n = 648). Parmi ces patients, 15 ont retiré leur consentement ou étaient encore hospitalisés, pour un échantillon total de 1267 patients. Parmi les patients auxquels on a attribué le remdésivir, la mortalité perhospitalière a été de 18,7 %, contre 22,6 % chez les patients sous traitement standard (risque relatif [RR] 0,83, intervalle de confiance [IC] de 95 % 0,67­1,03 et la mortalité à 60 jours a été de 24,8 % et 28,2 %, respectivement (IC de 95 % 0,72­1,07). Pour les patients non ventilés mécaniquement au départ; le recours à la ventilation mécanique a été de 8,0 % chez les patients qui recevaient le remdésivir et de 15,0 % chez ceux sous traitement standard (RR 0,53, IC de 95 % 0,38­0,75). Le nombre moyen de jours sans oxygénothérapie ni ventilation au jour 28 étaient de 15,9 (± écart-type [É.T.] 10,5) et 21,4 (± É.-T. 11,3) chez les patients sous remdésivir et de 14,2 (± É.-T. 11) et 19,5 (± É.-T. 12,3) chez les patients sous traitement standard (p = 0,006 et 0,007, respectivement). On n'a noté aucune différence quant à l'innocuité (p. ex., recours à la dialyse, changement du taux de créatinine, ou nouveaux cas d'insuffisance hépatique) entre les 2 groupes. INTERPRÉTATION: Comparativement au traitement standard, le remdésivir a eu un effet modeste, mais significatif sur certains indicateurs importants pour les patients et pour les systèmes de santé, tels que le recours à la ventilation mécanique. NUMÉRO D'ENREGISTREMENT DE LA RECHERCHE: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04330690.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(7): e0019822, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901915

ABSTRACT

In vitro selection of remdesivir-resistant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed the emergence of a V166L substitution, located outside of the polymerase active site of the Nsp12 protein, after 9 passages of a single lineage. V166L remained the only Nsp12 substitution after 17 passages (10 µM remdesivir), conferring a 2.3-fold increase in 50% effective concentration (EC50). When V166L was introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 virus, a 1.5-fold increase in EC50 was observed, indicating a high in vitro barrier to remdesivir resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
15.
Biochemistry ; 61(13): 1392-1403, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900399

ABSTRACT

The two RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors remdesivir and favipiravir were originally developed and approved as broad-spectrum antiviral drugs for the treatment of harmful viral infections such as Ebola and influenza. With the outbreak of the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the two drugs were repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Clinical studies suggested that the efficacy of the drugs is enhanced in the case of an early or even prophylactic application. Because the contact between drug molecules and the plasma membrane is essential for a successful permeation process of the substances and therefore for their intracellular efficiency, drug-induced effects on the membrane structure are likely and have already been shown for other substances. We investigated the impact of remdesivir and favipiravir on lipid bilayers in model and cell membranes via several biophysical approaches. The measurements revealed that the embedding of remdesivir molecules in the lipid bilayer results in a disturbance of the membrane structure of the tested phospholipid vesicles. Nevertheless, in a cell-based assay, the presence of remdesivir induced only weak hemolysis of the treated erythrocytes. In contrast, no experimental indication for an effect on the structure and integrity of the membrane was detected in the case of favipiravir. Regarding potential prophylactic or accompanying use of the drugs in the therapy of COVID-19, the physiologically relevant impacts associated with the drug-induced structural modifications of the membrane might be important to understand side effects and/or low effectivities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipid Bilayers , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pyrazines , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 41(3): 163-169, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878746

ABSTRACT

Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) are important animal models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, which affect several organs, including respiratory tract, lung, and kidney. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a marker of lung type I alveolar cells, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. The development of anti-PDPN monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for these animals is essential to evaluate the pathogenesis by SARS-CoV-2 infections. Using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening method, we previously developed an anti-Chinese hamster PDPN (ChamPDPN) mAb, PMab-281 (mouse IgG3, kappa), and further changed its subclass into IgG2a (281-mG2a-f), both of which can recognize not only ChamPDPN but also golden hamster PDPN (GhamPDPN) by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we examined the critical epitope of 281-mG2a-f, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with synthesized peptides. First, we performed ELISA with peptides derived from ChamPDPN and GhamPDPN extracellular domain, and found that 281-mG2a-f reacted with the peptides, which commonly possess the KIPFEELxT sequence. Next, we analyzed the reaction with the alanine-substituted mutants, and revealed that 281-mG2a-f did not recognize the alanine-substituted peptides of I75A, F77A, and E79A of ChamPDPN. Furthermore, these peptides could not inhibit the recognition of 281-mG2a-f to ChamPDPN-expressing cells by flow cytometry. The results indicate that the binding epitope of 281-mG2a-f includes Ile75, Phe77, and Glu79 of ChamPDPN, which are shared with GhamPDPN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Alanine , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Specificity , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mesocricetus , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors
19.
Pharm Pat Anal ; 11(2): 57-73, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875949

ABSTRACT

By December 2021, the COVID-19 caused approximately 6.1 million deaths around the world. Several vaccines have been approved, but there is still a need for non-prophylactic treatments for COVID-19. Remdesivir is an antiviral drug approved for emergency use against COVID-19 in several countries, but one of the first clinical trials was inconclusive about the mortality reduction, although the drug showed a reduction in the recovery time of hospitalized patients. Thus, the present investigation revisits the clinical evidence of using remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment, patent status, pharmacology and chemistry. We found 184 families of patents in the Cortellis database, and concerning the clinical evidence, we retrieved 14 systematic reviews with meta-analysis involving remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19, discussing the reduction of adverse events, hospitalization days, mortality rate and the mechanical ventilation period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(6): e0025422, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874495

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A prospective observational pharmacokinetic study was performed in non-critically ill hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia. For evaluation of the plasma concentrations of remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524, samples were collected on the first day of therapy. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics and identify potential covariates that explain variability. Alternative dosing regimens were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Seventeen patients were included. Remdesivir and GS-441524 pharmacokinetics were best described by a one-compartment model. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on GS-441524 clearance was identified as a clinically relevant covariate. The interindividual variability in clearance and volume of distribution for both remdesivir and GS-441524 was high (remdesivir, 38.9% and 47.9%, respectively; GS-441525, 47.4% and 42.9%, respectively). The estimated elimination half-life for remdesivir was 0.48 h, and that for GS-441524 was 26.6 h. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of the in vitro 50% effective concentration (EC50) for GS-441524 in plasma can be improved by shortening the dose interval of remdesivir and thereby increasing the total daily dose (PTA, 51.4% versus 94.7%). In patients with reduced renal function, the metabolite GS-441524 accumulates. A population pharmacokinetic model for remdesivir and GS-441524 in COVID-19 patients was developed. Remdesivir showed highly variable pharmacokinetics. The elimination half-life of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients is short, and the clearance of GS-441524 is dependent on the eGFR. Alternative dosing regimens aimed at optimizing the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations may improve the effectiveness of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Furans , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Triazines
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