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1.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105246, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639070

ABSTRACT

The utility of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients is currently limited by the necessity to administer this antiviral intravenously, which has generally limited its use to hospitalized patients. Here, we tested a novel, subcutaneous formulation of remdesivir in the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was previously used to establish the efficacy of remdesivir against this virus in vivo. Compared to vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with subcutaneous remdesivir from 12 h through 6 days post inoculation showed reduced signs of respiratory disease, a reduction of virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, and an absence of interstitial pneumonia. Thus, early subcutaneous administration of remdesivir can protect from lower respiratory tract disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Cutaneous , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613825

ABSTRACT

(1R,5S)-1-Hydroxy-3,6-dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2-one, available by an efficient catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose, has been applied as a chiral building block in the synthesis of seven new nucleoside analogues, with structural modifications on the nucleobase moiety and on the carboxyl- derived unit. The inverted configuration by Mitsunobu reaction used in their synthesis was verified by 2D-NOESY correlations, supported by the optimized structure employing the DFT methods. An in silico screening of these compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been carried out in comparison with both remdesivir, a mono-phosphoramidate prodrug recently approved for COVID-19 treatment, and its ribonucleoside metabolite GS-441524. Drug-likeness prediction and data by docking calculation indicated compound 6 [=(3S,5S)-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylate] as the best candidate. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation showed a stable interaction of structure 6 in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex and a lower average atomic fluctuation than GS-441524, suggesting a well accommodation in the RdRp binding pocket.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Computational Biology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleosides/chemistry , Nucleosides/pharmacokinetics , Pyrolysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 11(1): 94-103, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520276

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, a prodrug of the nucleoside analog GS-441524, plays a key role in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, owing to limited information on clinical trials and inexperienced clinical use, there is a lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data in patients with COVID-19 with special characteristics. In this study, we aimed to measure serum GS-441524 concentrations and develop a population PK (PopPK) model. Remdesivir was administered at a 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 100 mg from day 2, based on the package insert, in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) greater than or equal to 30 ml/min. In total, 190 concentrations from 37 Japanese patients were used in the analysis. The GS-441524 trough concentrations were significantly higher in the eGFR less than 60 ml/min group than in the eGFR greater than or equal to 60 ml/min group. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in four patients hardly affected the total body clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vd ) of GS-441524. A one-compartment model described serum GS-441524 concentration data. The CL and Vd of GS-441524 were significantly affected by eGFR readjusted by individual body surface area and age, respectively. Simulations proposed a dose regimen of 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg once every 2 days from day 2 in patients with an eGFR of 30 ml/min or less. In conclusion, we successfully established a PopPK model of GS-441524 using retrospectively obtained serum GS-441524 concentrations in Japanese patients with COVID-19, which would be helpful for optimal individualized therapy of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/blood , Adenosine/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Body Surface Area , COVID-19/blood , Drug Administration Schedule , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Precision Medicine , Retrospective Studies
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6055, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a global pandemic. 3CL protease is a virally encoded protein that is essential across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses with no close human analogs. PF-00835231, a 3CL protease inhibitor, has exhibited potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 as a single agent. Here we report, the design and characterization of a phosphate prodrug PF-07304814 to enable the delivery and projected sustained systemic exposure in human of PF-00835231 to inhibit coronavirus family 3CL protease activity with selectivity over human host protease targets. Furthermore, we show that PF-00835231 has additive/synergistic activity in combination with remdesivir. We present the ADME, safety, in vitro, and in vivo antiviral activity data that supports the clinical evaluation of PF-07304814 as a potential COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Indoles/administration & dosage , Leucine/administration & dosage , Pyrrolidinones/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , HeLa Cells , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Leucine/adverse effects , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Pyrrolidinones/adverse effects , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacokinetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(3): 624-634, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469444

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the first drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in certain patients requiring hospitalization. As a nucleoside analogue prodrug, RDV undergoes intracellular multistep activation to form its pharmacologically active species, GS-443902, which is not detectable in the plasma. A question arises that whether the observed plasma exposure of RDV and its metabolites would correlate with or be informative about the exposure of GS-443902 in tissues. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation approach was utilized to elucidate the disposition mechanism of RDV and its metabolites in the lungs and liver and explore the relationship between plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics (PK) of RDV and its metabolites in healthy subjects. In addition, the potential alteration of plasma and tissue PK of RDV and its metabolites in patients with organ dysfunction was explored. Our simulation results indicated that intracellular exposure of GS-443902 was decreased in the liver and increased in the lungs in subjects with hepatic impairment relative to the subjects with normal liver function. In subjects with severe renal impairment, the exposure of GS-443902 in the liver was slightly increased, whereas the lung exposure of GS-443902 was not impacted. These predictions along with the organ impairment study results may be used to support decision making regarding the RDV dosage adjustment in these patient subgroups. The modeling exercise illustrated the potential of whole body PBPK modeling to aid in decision making for nucleotide analogue prodrugs, particularly when the active metabolite exposure in the target tissues is not available.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Liver/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Models, Biological , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/urine , Adult , Alanine/blood , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/urine , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Tissue Distribution
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(23): 5811-5820, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321733

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug that has received much attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019. GS-441524 (Nuc) is the active metabolite of remdesivir and plays a pivotal role in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Here, a robust HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine Nuc concentrations in rat plasma samples after a one-step protein precipitation process. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters XBrige C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) under gradient elution conditions. Multiple reaction monitoring transitions in electrospray positive ion mode were m/z 292.2 → 163.2 for Nuc and 237.1 → 194.1 for the internal standard (carbamazepine). The quantitative analysis method was fully validated in line with the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The linearity, accuracy and precision, matrix effect, recovery, and stability results met the requirements of the guidelines. Uncertainty of measurement and incurred sample reanalysis were analyzed to further ensure the robustness and reproducibility of the method. This optimized method was successfully applied in a rat pharmacokinetics study of remdesivir (intravenously administration, 5 mg kg-1). The method can act as a basis for further pharmacokinetic and clinical efficacy investigations in patients with COVID-19. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine/blood , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine/standards , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/standards , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/standards , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/standards , Limit of Detection , Male , Quality Control , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
8.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 277-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Remdesivir, a drug originally developed against Ebola virus, is currently recommended for patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). In spite of United States Food and Drug Administration's recent assent of remdesivir as the only approved agent for COVID-19, there is limited information available about the physicochemical, metabolism, transport, pharmacokinetic (PK), and drug-drug interaction (DDI) properties of this drug. The objective of this in silico simulation work was to simulate the biopharmaceutical and DDI behavior of remdesivir and characterize remdesivir PK properties in special populations which are highly affected by COVID-19. METHODS: The Spatial Data File format structures of remdesivir prodrug (GS-5734) and nucleoside core (GS-441524) were obtained from the PubChem database to upload into the GastroPlus software 9.8 version (Simulations Plus Inc., USA). The Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) Predictor and PKPlus modules of GastroPlus were used to simulate physicochemical and PK properties, respectively, in healthy and predisposed patients. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of GastroPlus was used to simulate different patient populations based on age, weight, liver function, and renal function status. Subsequently, these data were used in the Drug-Drug Interaction module to simulate drug interaction potential of remdesivir with other COVID-19 drug regimens and with agents used for comorbidities. RESULTS: Remdesivir nucleoside core (GS-441524) is more hydrophilic than the inactive prodrug (GS-5734) with nucleoside core demonstrating better water solubility. GS-5734, but not GS-441524, is predicted to be metabolized by CYP3A4. Remdesivir is bioavailable and its clearance is achieved through hepatic and renal routes. Differential effects of renal function, liver function, weight, or age were observed on the PK profile of remdesivir. DDI simulation study of remdesivir with perpetrator drugs for comorbidities indicate that carbamazepine, phenytoin, amiodarone, voriconazole, diltiazem, and verapamil have the potential for strong interactions with victim remdesivir, whereas agents used for COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine and ritonavir can cause weak and strong interactions, respectively, with remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: GS-5734 (inactive prodrug) appears to be a superior remdesivir derivative due to its hepatic stability, optimum hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, and disposition properties. Remdesivir disposition can potentially be affected by different physiological and pathological conditions, and by drug interactions from COVID-19 drug regimens and agents used for comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Chemical , Drug Interactions , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Prodrugs/administration & dosage , Prodrugs/adverse effects , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
9.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(11): 3771-3776, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rising number of infections due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (popularly known as COVID-19) has brought to the fore new antiviral drugs as possible treatments, including favipiravir. However, there is currently no data regarding the safety of this drug in patients with kidney impairment. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to share our experience of the use of favipiravir in pediatric patients affected by COVID-19 with any degree of kidney impairment. METHODS: The study enrolled pediatric patients aged under 18 years and confirmed as suffering from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with any degree of kidney injury, who were treated with favipiravir at the time of admission. RESULTS: Out of a total of 11 patients, 7 were diagnosed with MIS-C and 4 with severe COVID-19. The median age of the cases was 15.45 (9-17.8) years and the male/female ratio was 7/4. At the time of admission, the median serum creatinine level was 1.1 mg/dl. Nine patients were treated with favipiravir for 5 days, and 2 patients for 5 days followed by remdesivir for 5-10 days despite kidney injury at the time of admission. Seven patients underwent plasma exchange for MIS-C while 2 severely affected cases underwent continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) as well. One severe COVID-19 patient received plasma exchange as well as CKRT. Serum creatinine values returned to normal in mean 3.07 days. CONCLUSIONS: Favipiravir seems a suitable therapeutic option in patients affected by COVID-19 with kidney injury without a need for dose adjustment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Amides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Renal Elimination , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Amides/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Creatinine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
10.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 60(5): 569-583, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157031

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is a once-daily, nucleoside ribonucleic acid polymerase inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication. Remdesivir has been granted approvals in several countries for use in adults and children hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Inside the cell, remdesivir undergoes metabolic activation to form the intracellular active triphosphate metabolite, GS-443902 (detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells), and ultimately, the renally eliminated plasma metabolite GS-441524. This review discusses the pre-clinical pharmacology of RDV, clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/concentration-QT analysis, rationale for dose selection for treatment of patients with COVID-19, and drug-drug interaction potential based on available in vitro and clinical data in healthy volunteers. Following single-dose intravenous administration over 2 h of an RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg in healthy participants, RDV and its metabolites (GS-704277and GS-441524) exhibit linear pharmacokinetics. Following multiple doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, major metabolite GS-441524 accumulates approximately 1.9-fold in plasma. Based on pharmacokinetic bridging from animal data and available human data in healthy volunteers, the RDV clinical dose regimen of a 200-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 100-mg maintenance doses for 4 or 9 days was selected for further evaluation of pharmacokinetics and safety. Results showed high intracellular concentrations of GS-443902 suggestive of efficient conversion from RDV into the triphosphate form, and further supporting this clinical dosing regimen for the treatment of COVID-19. Mathematical drug-drug interaction liability predictions, based on in vitro and phase I data, suggest RDV has low potential for drug-drug interactions, as the impact of inducers or inhibitors on RDV disposition is minimized by the parenteral route of administration and extensive extraction. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, RDV is not predicted to be a clinically significant inhibitor of drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters in patients infected with COVID-19 at therapeutic RDV doses.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Furans/metabolism , Half-Life , Humans , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Pyrroles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazines/metabolism
11.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(2): e00743, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130677

ABSTRACT

Both antiviral treatment with remdesivir and hemoadsorption using a CytoSorb® adsorption device are applied in the treatment of severe COVID-19. The CytoSorb® adsorber consists of porous polymer beads that adsorb a broad range of molecules, including cytokines but also several therapeutic drugs. In this study, we evaluated whether remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 would be adsorbed by CytoSorb® . Serum containing remdesivir or GS-441524 was circulated in a custom-made system containing a CytoSorb® device. Concentrations of remdesivir and GS-441524 before and after the adsorber were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Measurements of remdesivir in the outgoing tube after the adsorber indicated almost complete removal of remdesivir by the device. In the reservoir, concentration of remdesivir showed an exponential decay and was not longer detectable after 60 mins. GS-441524 showed a similar exponential decay but, unlike remdesivir, it reached an adsorption-desorption equilibrium at ~48 µg/L. Remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 are rapidly eliminated from the perfusate by the CytoSorb® adsorber device in vitro. This should be considered in patients for whom both therapies are indicated, and simultaneous application should be avoided. In general, plasma levels of therapeutic drugs should be closely monitored under concurrent CytoSorb® therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, Liquid , Combined Modality Therapy , Furans/blood , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Humans , Pyrroles/blood , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
12.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(4): 1116-1124, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049589

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome, has been reported in children. This report summarizes development of a remdesivir physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that accurately describes observed adult remdesivir and metabolites exposure and predicts pediatric remdesivir and metabolites exposure. The adult PBPK model was applied to predict pediatric remdesivir and metabolites steady-state exposures using the Pediatric Population Model in SimCYP and incorporated the relevant physiologic and mechanistic information. Model development was based on adult phase I exposure data in healthy volunteers who were administered a 200-mg loading dose of remdesivir intravenous (IV) over 0.5 hours on Day 1, then 100-mg daily maintenance doses of IV over 0.5 hours starting on Day 2 and continuing through Days 5 or 10. Simulations indicated that use of the adult therapeutic remdesivir dosage regimen (200-mg loading dose on Day 1 then 100-mg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients ≥ 40 kg and a weight-based remdesivir dosage regimen (5-mg/kg loading dose on Day 1 then 2.5-mg/kg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients weighing 2.5 to < 40 kg is predicted to maintain therapeutic exposures of remdesivir and its metabolites. The comprehensive PBPK model described in this report supported remdesivir dosing in planned pediatric clinical studies and dosing in the emergency use authorization and pediatric compassionate use programs that were initiated to support remdesivir as a treatment option during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Drug Dosage Calculations , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(3): 1082-1091, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010762

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a pandemic that continues to cause catastrophic health and economic carnage and has escalated the identification and development of antiviral agents. Remdesivir (RDV), a prodrug and requires intracellular conversions to the active triphosphate nucleoside (TN) has surfaced as an active anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug. To properly design therapeutic treatment regimens, it is imperative to determine if adequate intracellular TN concentrations are achieved in target tissues, such as the lungs. Because measurement of such concentrations is unrealistic in patients, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to characterize RDV and TN disposition. Specifically, a hybrid PBPK model was developed based on previously reported data in humans. The model represented each tissue as a two-compartment model-both extracellular and intracellular compartment wherein each intracellular compartment contained a comprehensive metabolic model to the ultimate active metabolite TN. Global sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to assess which parameters and how highly sensitive ones impacted peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intracellular lung TN profiles. Finally, clinical multiple-dose regimens indicated that minimum lung intracellular TN concentrations ranged from ~ 9 uM to 4 uM, which suggest current regimens are effective based on in vitro half-maximal effective concentration values. The model can be used to explore tissue drug disposition under various conditions and regimens, and expanded to pharmacodynamic models.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Humans , Models, Biological
15.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 273-281, 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006068

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is undoubtedly the most challenging pandemic in the current century. A total of 73,953,702 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 1,644,416 deaths were reported globally up to December 17, 2020. Therefore, in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine, it is urgent to identify a novel antiviral drug to effectively treat patients with COVID-19. On October 22, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity, for adults and children (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 40 kg) who need to be admitted to hospital for covid-19 treatment. In order to monitor the optimization of patient clinical response profile, as well as address the challenges associated with remdesivir metabolism, highly sensitive, selective and accurate analytical methods are necessary. This review clearly covers all the analytical methods developed for the identification and quantitative determination of remdesivir and its metabolites in biological matrices, which helps the researchers in developing new methods for the analysis of remdesivir by considering the pros and cons of the previously reported methods.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(1)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991744

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir is the prodrug of an adenosine analogue that inhibits viral replication of several RNA virus families, including Coronaviridae Preclinical data in animal models of coronavirus diseases, including COVID-19, have demonstrated that early treatment with remdesivir leads to improved survival, decreased lung injury, and decreased levels of viral RNA. Recent clinical data have demonstrated the clinical activity of remdesivir in terms of faster time to recovery in patients with severe COVID-19 and higher odds of improved clinical status in patients with moderate COVID-19. Here, clinical trials published to date are presented and appraised. Remdesivir's potential benefits and its favorable adverse-event profile make it an option for the treatment of COVID-19. This article examines the available literature describing remdesivir's pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and preclinical and clinical data.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Breast Feeding , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(2): 89-99, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966959

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak initiated the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulting in 42.9 million confirmed infections and > 1.1 million deaths worldwide as of October 26, 2020. Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum nucleotide prodrug shown to be effective against enzootic coronaviruses. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of remdesivir in plasma have recently been described. However, the distribution of its active metabolite nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to the site of pulmonary infection is unknown in humans. Our objective was to use existing in vivo mouse PK data for remdesivir and its metabolites to develop a mechanism-based model to allometrically scale and simulate the human PK of remdesivir in plasma and NTP in lung homogenate. Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations in plasma and total phosphorylated nucleoside concentrations in lung homogenate from Ces1c-/- mice administered 25 or 50 mg/kg of remdesivir subcutaneously were simultaneously fit to estimate PK parameters. The mouse PK model was allometrically scaled to predict human PK parameters to simulate the clinically recommended 200 mg loading dose followed by 100 mg daily maintenance doses administered as 30-minute intravenous infusions. Simulations of unbound remdesivir concentrations in human plasma were below 2.48 µM, the 90% maximal inhibitory concentration for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition in vitro. Simulations of NTP in the lungs were below high efficacy in vitro thresholds. We have identified a need for alternative dosing strategies to achieve more efficacious concentrations of NTP in human lungs, perhaps by reformulating remdesivir for direct pulmonary delivery.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Models, Animal , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Species Specificity
18.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(1)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962931

ABSTRACT

Patients and physicians worldwide are facing tremendous health care hazards that are caused by the ongoing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is the first approved treatment for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is a novel nucleoside analog with a broad antiviral activity spectrum among RNA viruses, including ebolavirus (EBOV) and the respiratory pathogens Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. First described in 2016, the drug was derived from an antiviral library of small molecules intended to target emerging pathogenic RNA viruses. In vivo, remdesivir showed therapeutic and prophylactic effects in animal models of EBOV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the substance failed in a clinical trial on ebolavirus disease (EVD), where it was inferior to investigational monoclonal antibodies in an interim analysis. As there was no placebo control in this study, no conclusions on its efficacy in EVD can be made. In contrast, data from a placebo-controlled trial show beneficial effects for patients with COVID-19. Remdesivir reduces the time to recovery of hospitalized patients who require supplemental oxygen and may have a positive impact on mortality outcomes while having a favorable safety profile. Although this is an important milestone in the fight against COVID-19, approval of this drug will not be sufficient to solve the public health issues caused by the ongoing pandemic. Further scientific efforts are needed to evaluate the full potential of nucleoside analogs as treatment or prophylaxis of viral respiratory infections and to develop effective antivirals that are orally bioavailable.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Compassionate Use Trials/methods , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/growth & development , Ebolavirus/pathogenicity , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/mortality , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/pathology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/growth & development , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/growth & development , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(12): 1346-1356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its initial start in December 2019 at Wuhan, China, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading and labelled as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The rate of human to human transmission of COVID-19 is far higher than severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS). With no drugs or vaccines approved for the treatment of the disease, physicians have been using pre-existing drugs to curb the disease. One potential anti-viral agent currently undergoing numerous clinical trials is remdesivir, a nucleotide analog that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVE: In this mini-review, we provide an overview of remdesivir's journey, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, used in patients with COVID-19 under compassionate use principle and clinical trials to understand the effect of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Initially, remdesivir was granted an emergency use authorization (EUA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID-19 with severe disease. But now, remdesivir has been granted for use under EUA to treat all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, irrespective of their severity of disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Compassionate Use Trials , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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