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1.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1941-1953, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Solidarity trial among COVID-19 inpatients has previously reported interim mortality analyses for four repurposed antiviral drugs. Lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon (IFN)-ß1a were discontinued for futility but randomisation to remdesivir continued. Here, we report the final results of Solidarity and meta-analyses of mortality in all relevant trials to date. METHODS: Solidarity enrolled consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) recently hospitalised with, in the view of their doctor, definite COVID-19 and no contraindication to any of the study drugs, regardless of any other patient characteristics. Participants were randomly allocated, in equal proportions between the locally available options, to receive whichever of the four study drugs (lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-ß1a, or remdesivir) were locally available at that time or no study drug (controls). All patients also received the local standard of care. No placebos were given. The protocol-specified primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, subdivided by disease severity. Secondary endpoints were progression to ventilation if not already ventilated, and time-to-discharge from hospital. Final log-rank and Kaplan-Meier analyses are presented for remdesivir, and are appended for all four study drugs. Meta-analyses give weighted averages of the mortality findings in this and all other randomised trials of these drugs among hospital inpatients. Solidarity is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN83971151, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021, 14 304 potentially eligible patients were recruited from 454 hospitals in 35 countries in all six WHO regions. After the exclusion of 83 (0·6%) patients with a refuted COVID-19 diagnosis or encrypted consent not entered into the database, Solidarity enrolled 14 221 patients, including 8275 randomly allocated (1:1) either to remdesivir (ten daily infusions, unless discharged earlier) or to its control (allocated no study drug although remdesivir was locally available). Compliance was high in both groups. Overall, 602 (14·5%) of 4146 patients assigned to remdesivir died versus 643 (15·6%) of 4129 assigned to control (mortality rate ratio [RR] 0·91 [95% CI 0·82-1·02], p=0·12). Of those already ventilated, 151 (42·1%) of 359 assigned to remdesivir died versus 134 (38·6%) of 347 assigned to control (RR 1·13 [0·89-1·42], p=0·32). Of those not ventilated but on oxygen, 14·6% assigned to remdesivir died versus 16·3% assigned to control (RR 0·87 [0·76-0·99], p=0·03). Of 1730 not on oxygen initially, 2·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 3·8% assigned to control (RR 0·76 [0·46-1·28], p=0·30). Combining all those not ventilated initially, 11·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 13·5% assigned to control (RR 0·86 [0·76-0·98], p=0·02) and 14·1% versus 15·7% progressed to ventilation (RR 0·88 [0·77-1·00], p=0·04). The non-prespecified composite outcome of death or progression to ventilation occurred in 19·6% assigned to remdesivir versus 22·5% assigned to control (RR 0·84 [0·75-0·93], p=0·001). Allocation to daily remdesivir infusions (vs open-label control) delayed discharge by about 1 day during the 10-day treatment period. A meta-analysis of mortality in all randomised trials of remdesivir versus no remdesivir yielded similar findings. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir has no significant effect on patients with COVID-19 who are already being ventilated. Among other hospitalised patients, it has a small effect against death or progression to ventilation (or both). FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
2.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(1): 1-14, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130977

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 has impacted many children, severe disease is rare and most recover with supportive care. Manifestations are diverse and often nonrespiratory. Adolescents/children with medical comorbidities are at risk for severe respiratory compromise. The most serious manifestation in previously healthy children is a delayed multisystem inflammatory syndrome with cardiac compromise in severe cases. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies are available for adolescents at risk of progression and not hospitalized. Therapeutic options for severe respiratory disease with hypoxia include remdesivir and glucocorticoids. Therapies for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children include intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids. Refractory cases may benefit from additional immunomodulators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116658

ABSTRACT

Despite new antivirals are being approved against SARS-CoV-2 they suffer from significant constraints and are not indicated for hospitalized patients, who are left with few antiviral options. Repurposed drugs have previously shown controversial clinical results and it remains difficult to understand why certain trials delivered positive results and other trials failed. Our manuscript contributes to explaining the puzzle: this might have been caused by a suboptimal drug exposure and, consequently, an incomplete virus suppression, also because the drugs have mostly been used as add-on monotherapies. As with other viruses (e.g., HIV and HCV) identifying synergistic combinations among such drugs could overcome monotherapy-related limitations. In a cell culture model for SARS-CoV-2 infection the following stringent criteria were adopted to assess drug combinations: 1) identify robust, synergistic antiviral activity with no increase in cytotoxicity, 2) identify the lowest drug concentration inhibiting the virus by 100% (LIC100) and 3) understand whether the LIC100 could be reached in the lung at clinically indicated drug doses. Among several combinations tested, remdesivir with either azithromycin or ivermectin synergistically increased the antiviral activity with no increase in cytotoxicity, improving the therapeutic index and lowering the LIC100 of every one of the drugs to levels that are expected to be achievable and maintained in the lung for a therapeutically relevant period of time. These results are consistent with recent clinical observations showing that intensive care unit admission was significantly delayed by the combination of AZI and RDV, but not by RDV alone, and could have immediate implications for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 as the proposed "drug cocktails" should have antiviral activity against present and future SARS-CoV-2 variants without significant overlapping toxicity, while minimizing the onset of drug resistance. Our results also provide a validated methodology to help sort out which combination of drugs are most likely to be efficacious in vivo, based on their in vitro activity, potential synergy and PK profiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Lung , Drug Combinations
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6152, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077052

ABSTRACT

We report the first long-term follow-up of a randomized trial (NCT04978259) addressing the effects of remdesivir on recovery (primary outcome) and other patient-important outcomes one year after hospitalization resulting from COVID-19. Of the 208 patients recruited from 11 Finnish hospitals, 198 survived, of whom 181 (92%) completed follow-up. At one year, self-reported recovery occurred in 85% in remdesivir and 86% in standard of care (SoC) (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.47-1.90). We infer no convincing difference between remdesivir and SoC in quality of life or symptom outcomes (p > 0.05). Of the 21 potential long-COVID symptoms, patients reported moderate/major bother from fatigue (26%), joint pain (22%), and problems with memory (19%) and attention/concentration (18%). In conclusion, after a one-year follow-up of hospitalized patients, one in six reported they had not recovered well from COVID-19. Our results provide no convincing evidence of remdesivir benefit, but wide confidence intervals included possible benefit and harm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Finland/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(8): e1010443, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021468

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a logical-based mathematical model of the cellular pathways involved in the COVID-19 infection has been developed to study various drug treatments (single or in combination), in different illness scenarios, providing insights into their mechanisms of action. Drug simulations suggest that the effects of single drugs are limited, or depending on the scenario counterproductive, whereas better results appear combining different treatments. Specifically, the combination of the anti-inflammatory Baricitinib and the anti-viral Remdesivir showed significant benefits while a stronger efficacy emerged from the triple combination of Baricitinib, Remdesivir, and the corticosteroid Dexamethasone. Together with a sensitivity analysis, we performed an analysis of the mechanisms of the drugs to reveal their impact on molecular pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Chem ; 65(18): 12044-12054, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016519

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms still lack antiviral treatment options. Although remdesivir is the only FDA-approved drug for those patients, its efficacy is limited by premature hydrolysis to nucleoside (NUC), low accumulation in the disease-targeted tissue (lungs), and low antiviral potency. In this study, we synthesized a new series of remdesivir analogues by modifying the ProTide moiety. In comparison with remdesivir, the lead compound MMT5-14 showed 2- to 7-fold higher antiviral activity in four variants of SARS-CoV-2. By reducing premature hydrolysis in hamsters, MMT5-14 increased the prodrug concentration by 200- to 300-fold in the plasma and lungs but also enhanced lung accumulation of the active metabolite triphosphate nucleosides (NTP) by 5-fold. Compared to remdesivir, MMT5-14 also increased the intracellular uptake and activation in lung epithelial cells by 4- to 25-fold. These data suggest that MMT5-14 could be a potential antiviral drug to treat COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prodrugs , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lung , Nucleosides , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 102: 17-23, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944876

ABSTRACT

The clinical progression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to critical illness is associated with a systemic and uncontrolled inflammatory response of the innate and adaptive immunity with the release of a plethora of proinflammatory cytokines termed "cytokine storm". In the absence of an effective treatment, many off-label agents from the armamentarium of rheumatology are used. Here, from the perspective of a rheumatologist, we will discuss the current therapeutic strategies in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Thus, we will discuss the agents that aim to target viral entry and its replication into the host cell and those focusing and targeting the inflammatory response. In this setting, many agents have been used with promising results but, not all have been approved by the International Authorities and Institutions. In the first step (viral entry), SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and remdesivir have been approved to be used and, in the second step, corticosteroids along with interleukin-6 inhibitors, or Janus Kinase inhibitors are currently used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9622, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947488

ABSTRACT

This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed the efficacy of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen. Randomized controlled trials of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, where patients were receiving supplemental oxygen at baseline and at least one arm received treatment with remdesivir, were identified. Outcomes included mortality, recovery, and no longer requiring supplemental oxygen. NMAs were performed for low-flow oxygen (LFO2); high-flow oxygen (HFO2), including NIV (non-invasive ventilation); or oxygen at any flow (AnyO2) at early (day 14/15) and late (day 28/29) time points. Six studies were included (N = 5245 patients) in the NMA. Remdesivir lowered early and late mortality among AnyO2 patients (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.34-0.79; RR 0.81, 95%CrI 0.69-0.95) and LFO2 patients (RR 0.21, 95%CrI 0.09-0.46; RR 0.24, 95%CrI 0.11-0.48); no improvement was observed among HFO2 patients. Improved early and late recovery was observed among LFO2 patients (RR 1.22, 95%CrI 1.09-1.38; RR 1.17, 95%CrI 1.09-1.28). Remdesivir also lowered the requirement for oxygen support among all patient subgroups. Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen at baseline, use of remdesivir compared to best supportive care is likely to improve the risk of mortality, recovery and need for oxygen support in AnyO2 and LFO2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 163, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently constitutes the leading and overwhelming health issue worldwide. In comparison with adults, children present milder symptoms, with most having an asymptomatic course. We hypothesized that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on the continuation of chemotherapy and increases nonrelapse mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed to assess the course of SARS-CoV-2 among children with hematological or oncological malignancies and its impact on cancer therapy. Records of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 155 children with malignancies from 14 Polish centers for pediatric hematology and oncology were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 replication was observed in 155 patients. Forty-nine patients were symptomatic, with the following being the most common manifestations: fever (31 patients), gastrointestinal symptoms (10), coryza (13), cough (13) and headache (8). In children who were retested, the median time of a positive PCR result was 16 days (range 1-70 days), but 12.7% of patients were positive beyond day + 20. The length of viral PCR positivity correlated with the absolute neutrophil count at diagnosis. Seventy-six patients did not undergo further SARS-CoV-2 testing and were considered convalescents after completion of isolation. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 15 children, remdesivir in 6, convalescent plasma in 4, oxygen therapy in 3 (1-mechanical ventilation), steroids in 2, intravenous immunoglobulins in 2, and heparin in 4. Eighty patients were treated with chemotherapy within 30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during 30 days of chemotherapy administration. Respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 and associated with oxygen therapy were present in 4 patients in the study population, and four deaths were recorded (2 due to COVID-19 and 2 due to progressive malignancy). The probability of 100-day overall survival was 97.3% (95% CI 92.9-99%). Delay in the next chemotherapy cycle occurred in 91 of 156 cases, with a median of 14 days (range 2-105 days). CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of pediatric cancer patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in a severe, life-threatening course. Our data show that interruptions in therapy are common and can result in suboptimal therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(8): 2257-2264, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving combined immunomodulatory therapy (CIT) with dexamethasone and tocilizumab. METHODS: This was a cohort study of microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The primary outcome was all-cause 28 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and IMV/death. Subgroup analyses according to SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold (Ct) values and inflammation biomarkers were performed. Multivariable marginal structural Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyse the association between remdesivir therapy and the risk of outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Of 1368 hospitalized patients treated with corticosteroids, 1014 (74%) also received tocilizumab, 866 (63%) remdesivir and 767 (56%) tocilizumab + remdesivir. The 28 day mortality was 9% in the overall cohort, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 0.32 (95% CI = 0.17-0.59) for patients receiving CIT. In the latter group, the 28 day mortality was 6.5%, with an aHR of 1.11 (95% CI = 0.57-2.16) for remdesivir use and there were no differences in secondary outcomes. The risk of primary and secondary outcomes with remdesivir differed by Ct and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients receiving CIT: for 28 day mortality, the aHR was 0.48 (95% CI = 0.21-1.11) for Ct <25, 0.12 (95% CI = 0.02-0.66) for Ct <25 and <5 day symptom duration and 0.13 (95% CI = 0.03-0.50) for CRP <38 mg/L; for IMV and IMV/death, the aHR was 0.32 (95% CI = 0.13-0.77) and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.17-0.63), respectively, in patients with Ct <25. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of remdesivir administered with dexamethasone and tocilizumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients differ depending on Ct and CRP. Remdesivir decreases the risk of mortality and need for IMV in patients with high viral loads and low-grade systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Viral Load
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD014962, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an antiviral medicine with properties to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. Positive results from early studies attracted media attention and led to emergency use authorisation of remdesivir in COVID-19.  A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effects of remdesivir as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of remdesivir compared to placebo or standard care alone on clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to maintain the currency of the evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (which comprises the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and medRxiv) as well as Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Index) and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions. We conducted the searches on 16 April 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included RCTs evaluating remdesivir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised adults compared to placebo or standard care alone irrespective of disease severity, gender, ethnicity, or setting.  We excluded studies that evaluated remdesivir for the treatment of other coronavirus diseases. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess risk of bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool for RCTs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for outcomes that were reported according to our prioritised categories: all-cause mortality at up to day 28, duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation, duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen, new need for mechanical ventilation (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation), new need for invasive mechanical ventilation, new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen, new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs, quality of life, adverse events (any grade), and serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included five RCTs with 7452 participants diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a mean age of 59 years, of whom 3886 participants were randomised to receive remdesivir. Most participants required low-flow oxygen (n=4409) or mechanical ventilation (n=1025) at baseline. We identified two ongoing studies, one was suspended due to a lack of COVID-19 patients to recruit. Risk of bias was considered to be of some concerns or high risk for clinical status and safety outcomes because participants who had died did not contribute information to these outcomes. Without adjustment, this leads to an uncertain amount of missing values and the potential for bias due to missing data. Effects of remdesivir in hospitalised individuals  Remdesivir probably makes little or no difference to all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.06; risk difference (RD) 8 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 21 fewer to 7 more; 4 studies, 7142 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Considering the initial severity of condition, only one study showed a beneficial effect of remdesivir in patients who received low-flow oxygen at baseline (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.66, 435 participants), but conflicting results exists from another study, and we were unable to validly assess this observations due to limited availability of comparable data. Remdesivir may have little or no effect on the duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation (2 studies, 1298 participants, data not pooled, low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases the chance of clinical improvement in terms of duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen at up to day 28 (3 studies, 1691 participants, data not pooled, very low-certainty evidence).   We are very uncertain whether remdesivir decreases or increases the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for mechanical ventilation at up to day 28 (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.24; RD 29 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 68 fewer to 32 more; 3 studies, 6696 participants; very low-certainty evidence); new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.98; RD 72 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 118 fewer to 5 fewer; 1 study, 573 participants; very low-certainty evidence); and new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.22; RD 84 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 204 fewer to 98 more; 1 study, 138 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that remdesivir may decrease the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for invasive mechanical ventilation (67 fewer participants amongst 1000 participants; RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.77; 2 studies, 1159 participants; low-certainty evidence).  None of the included studies reported quality of life. Remdesivir probably decreases the serious adverse events rate at up to 28 days (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.90; RD 63 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 94 fewer to 25 fewer; 3 studies, 1674 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases adverse events rate (any grade) (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.27; RD 29 more per 1000, 95% CI 82 fewer to 158 more; 3 studies, 1674 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the currently available evidence, we are moderately certain that remdesivir probably has little or no effect on all-cause mortality at up to day 28 in hospitalised adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We are uncertain about the effects of remdesivir on clinical improvement and worsening. There were insufficient data available to validly examine the effect of remdesivir on mortality in subgroups depending on the extent of respiratory support at baseline.  Future studies should provide additional data on efficacy and safety of remdesivir for defined core outcomes in COVID-19 research, especially for different population subgroups. This could allow us to draw more reliable conclusions on the potential benefits and harms of remdesivir in future updates of this review. Due to the living approach of this work, we will update the review periodically.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Bias , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Confidence Intervals , Disease Progression , Humans , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilator Weaning
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3653-3660, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782623

ABSTRACT

To date the optimal antiviral treatment against severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been proven; remdesivir is a promising drug with in vitro activity against several viruses, but in COVID-19 the clinical results are currently not definitive. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed the clinical outcomes (survival analysis, efficacy, and safety) in a group of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir in comparison with a control group of patients treated with other antiviral or supportive therapies. We included 163 patients treated with remdesivir and 403 subjects in the control group; the baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups; the mortality rate was higher in the control group (24.8% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001), the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission was higher in the control group (17.8% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.008); hospitalization time was significantly lower in patients treated with remdesivir (9.5 vs. 12.5 days, p < 0.001). The safety of remdesivir was good and no significant adverse events were reported. In multivariate analysis, the remdesivir treatment was independently associated with a 34% lower mortality rate (odds ratio = 0.669; p = 0.014). In this analysis, the treatment with remdesivir was associated with lower mortality, lower rate of ICU admission, and shorter time of hospitalization. No adverse events were observed. This promising antiviral treatment should also be confirmed by other studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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