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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(5): 1367-1377, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with worse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, but circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is largely bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) or albumin, both of which tend to fall in illness, making the 25(OH)D status hard to interpret. Because of this, measurements of unbound ("free") and albumin-bound ("bioavailable") 25(OH)D have been proposed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between vitamin D status and mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: In this observational study conducted in Liverpool, UK, hospitalized COVID-19 patients with surplus sera available for 25(OH)D analysis were studied. Clinical data, including age, ethnicity, and comorbidities, were extracted from case notes. Serum 25(OH)D, DBP, and albumin concentrations were measured. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated. Relationships between total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D and 28-day mortality were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 472 patients with COVID-19 included, of whom 112 (23.7%) died within 28 days. Nonsurvivors were older (mean age, 73 years; range, 34-98 years) than survivors (mean age, 65 years; range, 19-95 years; P = 0.003) and were more likely to be male (67%; P = 0.02). The frequency of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] was similar between nonsurvivors (71/112; 63.4%) and survivors (204/360; 56.7%; P = 0.15) but, after adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities, increased odds for mortality were present in those with severe deficiency [25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L: OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.17-4.78] or a high 25(OH)D (≥100 nmol/L; OR, 4.65; 95% CI, 1.51-14.34) compared with a 25(OH)D value of 50-74 nmol/L (reference). Serum DBP levels were not associated with mortality after adjustments for 25(OH)D, age, sex, and comorbidities. Neither free nor bioavailable 25(OH)D values were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency, as commonly defined by serum 25(OH)D levels (<50 nmol/L), is not associated with increased mortality from COVID-19, but extremely low (<25 nmol/L) and high (>100 nmol/L) levels may be associated with mortality risks. Neither free nor bioavailable 25(OH)D values are associated with mortality risk. The study protocol was approved by the London-Surrey Research Ethics Committee (20/HRA/2282).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Albumins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D-Binding Protein , Vitamins
2.
Biomark Med ; 15(13): 1167-1175, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379920

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate whether C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has an association with new onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) in SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: This study included 782 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were hospitalized in Turkey. The end point of the study was an occurrence of NOAF. Results: NOAF was identified in 41 patients (5.2%). Subjects who developed NOAF had a higher CAR compared with those who did not develop NOAF (p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the CAR (odds ratio = 2.879; 95% CI: 1.063-7.793; p = 0.037) was an independent predictor of NOAF. Conclusion: A high level of CAR in blood samples is associated with an increased risk of developing NOAF in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey
3.
Biomark Med ; 15(13): 1167-1175, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362210

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate whether C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has an association with new onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) in SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: This study included 782 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were hospitalized in Turkey. The end point of the study was an occurrence of NOAF. Results: NOAF was identified in 41 patients (5.2%). Subjects who developed NOAF had a higher CAR compared with those who did not develop NOAF (p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the CAR (odds ratio = 2.879; 95% CI: 1.063-7.793; p = 0.037) was an independent predictor of NOAF. Conclusion: A high level of CAR in blood samples is associated with an increased risk of developing NOAF in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey
4.
Biomark Med ; 15(11): 807-820, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319562

ABSTRACT

Aim: We aimed to determine the prognostic values of the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and laboratory parameters during the first week of COVID-19. Materials & methods: All adult patients who were hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19 between 11 March and 11 May 2020 were retrospectively included. Results: Overall, 611 patients were included. Our results showed that NEWS2, procalcitonin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and albumin at D0, D3, D5 and D7 were the best predictors for clinical deterioration defined as a composite of ICU admission during hospitalization or in-hospital death. Procalcitonin had the highest odds ratio for clinical deterioration on all days. Conclusion: This study provides a list of several laboratory parameters correlated with NEWS2 and potential predictors for clinical deterioration in patients with COVID-19.


Lay abstract The COVID-19 pandemic is a grueling problem worldwide. There is a lack of knowledge about the predictive value of National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for severe COVID-19 illness. We analyzed the prognostic value of NEWS2 and laboratory parameters during the clinical course of COVID-19. This study provides a list of several laboratory parameters correlated with NEWS2 and potential predictors for intensive care unit admission during hospitalization or in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Albumins/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Odds Ratio
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 223-229, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several factors that worsen the prognosis of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have been identified, such as obesity or diabetes. However, despite that nutrition may change in a lockdown situation, little is known about the influence of malnutrition among subjects hospitalized due to COVID-19. Our study aimed to assess whether the presence of malnutrition among patients admitted due to COVID-19 had any impact on clinical outcomes compared with patients with the same condition but well nourished. METHODS: 75 patients admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 were analyzed cross-sectionally. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was completed by phone interview. Clinical parameters included were extracted from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: According to the SGA, 27 admitted due to a COVID-19 infection had malnutrition. Patients not well nourished were older than patients with a SGA grade A (65 ± 14.1 vs 49 ± 15.1 years; p < 0.0001). Length of hospital stay among poorly nourished patients was significantly higher (18.4 ± 15.6 vs 8.5 ± 7.7 days; p = 0.001). Mortality rates and admission to ICU were greater among subjects with any degree of malnutrition compared with well-nourished patients (7.4% vs 0%; p = 0.05 and 44.4% vs 6.3%; p < 0.0001). CRP (120.9 ± 106.2 vs 60.8 ± 62.9 mg/l; p = 0.03), D-dimer (1516.9 ± 1466.9 vs 461.1 ± 353.7 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) and ferritin (847.8 ± 741.1 vs 617.8 ± 598.7mcg/l; p = 0.03) were higher in the group with malnutrition. Haemoglobin (11.6 ± 2.1 vs 13.6 ± 1.5 g/dl; p < 0.0001) and albumin 3.2 ± 0.7 vs 4.1 ± 0.5 g/dl; p < 0.0001) were lower in patients with any degree of malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a poor nutritional status is related to a longer stay in hospital, a greater admission in the ICU and a higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Adult , Albumins/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/mortality , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(4): 1030-1033, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064339

ABSTRACT

Boffito et al. recalled the critical importance to correctly interpret protein binding. Changes of lopinavir pharmacokinetics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are a perfect illustration. Indeed, several studies described that total lopinavir plasma concentrations were considerably higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than those reported in patients with HIV. These findings have led to a reduction of the dose of lopinavir in some patients, hypothesizing an inhibitory effect of inflammation on lopinavir metabolism. Unfortunately, changes in plasma protein binding were never investigated. We performed a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir in intensive care units or infectious disease departments of Toulouse University Hospital (France). Total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir, C reactive protein, albumin, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were measured during routine care on the same samples. In patients with COVID-19, increased total lopinavir concentration is the result of an increased AAG-bound lopinavir concentration, whereas the unbound concentration remains constant, and insufficient to reduce the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load. Although international guidelines have recently recommended against using lopinavir/ritonavir to treat severe COVID-19, the description of lopinavir pharmacokinetics changes in COVID-19 is a textbook case of the high risk of misinterpretation of a total drug exposure when changes in protein binding are not taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Plasma/physiology , Protein Binding/physiology , Aged , Albumins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Female , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107285, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972211

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) has been used as an indicator of prognosis in various diseases. Here, we intended to assess the CAR's diagnostic power in early differentiation of hospitalized severe COVID-19 cases. In this retrospectively designed study, we evaluated 197 patients in total. They were divided into two groups based on their severity of COVID-19 as non-severe (n = 113) and severe (n = 84). The comparison of groups' demographic data, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results were done. Laboratory data of the patients within the first 24 h after admission to the hospital were evaluated. The calculation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the diagnostic power of CAR in differentiating severity of COVID-19. Independent risk factors predictive of COVID-19 severity were determined by using logistic regression analysis. Although lymphocyte count levels were lower, severe COVID-19 patients had higher mean age, higher levels of neutrophil count, CRP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ferritin, and prothrombin time (P < 0.05). Compared with non-severe patients (median, 0.23 [IQR = 0.07-1.56]), patients with severe COVID-19 had higher CAR levels (median, 1.66 [IQR = 0.50-3.35]; P < 0.001). Age (OR = 1.046, P = 0.003), CAR (OR = 1.264, P = 0.037), and AST (OR = 1.029, P = 0.037) were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19 based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis. ROC curve analysis assigned 0.9 as the cut-off value for CAR for differentiation of severe COVID-19 (area under the curve = 0.718, 69.1% sensitivity, 70.8% specificity, P < 0.001). CAR is a useful marker in early differentiation of severity in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 that have longer hospital stay and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count/methods , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(10): 673-675, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835513

ABSTRACT

Prompt identification of the clinical status and severity of COVID-19 can be a challenge in the emergency department (ED), as the clinical severity of the disease is variable, real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results may not be immediately available, and imaging findings appear approximately 10 days after the onset of symptoms. There is currently no set of simple, readily available and fast battery of tests that can be used in the ED as prognostic factors. The purpose was to study laboratory test results in patients with COVID-19 at hospital emergency admission and to evaluate the results in non-survivors and their potential prognostic value. A profile of laboratory markers was agreed with the ED providers based on the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendation of its usefulness, which was made in 218 patients with COVID-19. Non-survivors were significantly older, and the percentage of patients with pathological values of creatinine, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein, prothrombin time, D-dimer, and arterial blood gas, PaO2/FIO2 and satO2/FIO2 indices were significantly higher among the patients with COVID-19 who died than those who survived. Patients who died also presented higher neutrophil counts. Among all studied tests, albumin and LDH were independent prognostic factors for death. The results of the study show pathology in nine laboratory markers in patients with COVID-19 admitted in the ED, valuable findings to take into consideration for its prompt identification when there is no immediate availability of RT-PCR results.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): 463-467, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study hospitalised COVID-19 patients' mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission with covariates of interest (age, gender, ethnicity, clinical presentation, comorbidities and admission laboratory findings). METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were performed for patients admitted to University Hospital, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, between 24 January 2020 - 13 April 2020. RESULTS: There were 321 patients hospitalised. Median age was 73 years and 189 (59%) were male. Ethnicity was divided between Caucasian (77%), and black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) groups (23%). Commonest symptoms were dyspnoea (62.9%), fever (59.1%) and cough (56%). Gastrointestinal symptoms amounted to 11.8%.Forty-four patients (13.7%) received ICU care. ICU male to female ratio was 3:1 (p=0.027; odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.9), BAME (p=0.008; OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.9), age >65 years (p=0.026; OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.93), heart disease (p=0.009; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.6) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; p<0.001; OR 1.004; 95% CI 1.002-1.008) were associated with ICU admission.One-hundred and four patients (32.4%) died. Age >65 years (p=0.011; OR 5; 95% CI 1.6-21.9), neutrophils (p=0.047), neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p=0.028), CRP (p<0.001) and albumin (p=0.002) were associated with mortality. When analysis adjusted for age, CRP (p<0.001; OR 1.006; 95% CI 1.004-1.008) and albumin (p=0.005; OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.98) remained associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has high mortality. BAME and male patients were associated with ICU admission. High CRP and low albumin (after correcting for age) were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers , United Kingdom
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