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1.
Addiction ; 117(12): 3069-3078, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152576

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Government alcohol sales data were used to examine whether age 15+ per-capita alcohol consumption (PCAC) (i) changed during COVID-19 and (ii) predicted COVID-19 infections 2-5 weeks later. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series analyses were applied to panels of data before and after COVID-19 restrictions were introduced in Canada. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The populations, aged 15+, of the provinces of Ontario (ON), British Columbia (BC) and Nova Scotia (NS), Canada. INTERVENTION: Expansion of home delivery options and hours of trading for liquor stores while restrictions on travel, social and economic activities were imposed by governments during COVID-19 from 17 March 2020 until 29 March 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Weekly estimates of (i) age 15+ PCAC using sales data supplied by provincial government alcohol distributors for liquor stores, bars and restaurants, (ii) stringency of public health measures assessed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and (iii) new COVID-19 infections reported by PHAC. FINDINGS: PCAC increased by 7.10% (P = 0.013) during the pandemic versus previous years, with increased private liquor store sales partly offset by reduced bar/restaurant sales. Consumption was positively associated with stringency of public health measures. Weekly PCAC was positively associated with new COVID-19 infections 2 weeks later (+6.34% for a one drink/week increase, P < 0.001). Lagged associations with COVID-19 infections 2 or 3 weeks later were observed for PCAC from all sales channels, with larger effect sizes per standard drink/person/week increase for on-premise outlets (+77.27% week 2, P = 0.009) than government liquor stores (+6.49%, week 2, P < 0.001) or private liquor stores (+7.13%, week 4, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption increased in three Canadian provinces during COVID-19 to degrees corresponding to the extent of the strictness of measures imposed to prevent viral spread. Increased consumption of alcohol was associated with increased COVID-19 infection rates 2 weeks later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Alcoholic Beverages , Commerce , Alcohol Drinking , British Columbia
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 58(1): 6-15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144605

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic came along with several health and social unprecedented emergencies, among which handling people with substance use disorder issues. METHODS: In this work, data from a cross-sectional online survey conducted among more than 40,000 adults in 21 European countries during the spring of 2020 are analyzed. The survey recorded participants drinking habits during the year preceding the survey and the changes in alcohol consumption during lockdown. The analyses focused on alcohol consumers' type, investigating on the behavioral change in people who already had a problematic alcohol consumption attitude. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results show how subjects with risky or hazardous use of alcohol increased both drinking quantity and frequency in most European countries, underlining the urge to establish regulations on online and home delivered alcoholic beverages availability and reinforcing and restructuring health care services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Humans
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e42320, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first UK COVID-19 lockdown had a polarizing impact on drinking behavior and may have impacted engagement with digital interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of lockdown on engagement, alcohol reduction, and the sociodemographic characteristics of users of the popular and widely available alcohol reduction app Drink Less. METHODS: This was a natural experiment. The study period spanned 468 days between March 24, 2019, and July 3, 2020, with the introduction of UK lockdown measures beginning on March 24, 2020. Users were 18 years or older, based in the United Kingdom, and interested in drinking less. Interrupted time series analyses using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) were conducted for each outcome variable (ie, sociodemographic characteristics, app downloads and engagement levels, alcohol consumption, and extent of alcohol reduction) for existing (downloaded the app prelockdown) and new (downloaded the app during the lockdown) users of the app. RESULTS: Among existing users of the Drink Less app, there were increases in the time spent on the app per day (B=0.01, P=.01), mean units of alcohol recorded per day (B>0.00 P=.02), and mean heavy drinking (>6 units) days (B>0.00, P=.02) during the lockdown. Previous declines in new app downloads plateaued during the lockdown (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.00, P=.18). Among new app users, there was an increase in the proportion of female users (B>0.00, P=.04) and those at risk of alcohol dependence (B>0.00, P=.01) and a decrease in the proportion of nonmanual workers (B>-0.00, P=.04). Among new app users, there were step increases in the mean number of alcohol units per day (B=20.12, P=.03), heavy-drinking days (B=1.38, P=.01), and the number of days the app was used (B=2.05, P=.02), alongside a step decrease in the percentage of available screens viewed (B=-0.03, P=.04), indicating users were using less of the intervention components within the app. CONCLUSIONS: Following the first UK lockdown, there was evidence of increases in engagement and alcohol consumption among new and existing users of the Drink Less app.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , Female , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110086

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe changes in tobacco and alcohol consumption in France during the first COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020 and its gradual lifting in May. The associated factors and the reasons reported explaining those changes are also studied. Data came from five waves of the CoviPrev online cross-sectional survey (approximately n = 2000 per wave) and the ViQuoP qualitative survey (n = 60), which took place between April and June. Most people self-reported stable consumption compared to before the lockdown, but 27% to 32% of smokers and 10% to 16% of drinkers had increased their consumption, depending on the wave of the survey. Boredom, stress and the search for pleasure were the main reasons reported. While the sociodemographic factors associated with an increase in tobacco and alcohol use differed according to the product and month, poor mental health was associated with an increase in both products in April and May. Between 10% and 19% of smokers and 22% to 25% of drinkers reported having reduced their consumption for their health or through constraints. The measures taken to manage the spring 2020 epidemic appear to have had contrasting impacts on tobacco and alcohol consumption in France. People whose lifestyles and mental health was most affected appear to have modified their consumption more frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology
5.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): e412-e416, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consumption of high potency alcohol is associated with greater healthcare burden, yet little attention has been placed on the change in types of alcohol consumed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimate the change in alcohol consumption by beverage type attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism provided apparent alcohol consumption ("consumption") by beverage type for 10 states for January 2017 through November 2020 based on sales and tax data. The 38-month period to February 2020 was used to train quasi-Poisson regression models. The models then predicted the monthly consumption based on the historical trends in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic from March through November 2020. The difference between the observed and predicted is the change in consumption attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Beyond what was expected based on historical trends, spirits consumption increased significantly for 6 states (Colorado, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Tennessee) ranging from 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1%-6%) to 17% (95% CI 6%-28%) which is equivalent to 7 (95% CI 2-18) to 32 95% CI 12-48) excess standard spirits drinks per-capita; Alaska, Florida, Illinois, and Kentucky had no significant change. Wine consumption increased 10% (95% CI 3%-18%) in Colorado and 8% (95% CI 3%-12%) in Tennessee. Wine consumption in Alaska decreased 6% (95% CI, 3%-10%) and beer consumption decreased 8% (95% CI 4%-11%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, spirits consumption increased relative to wine and beer. Increased consumption of higher potency alcohol beverages could lead to higher alcohol-related healthcare and societal burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Alcoholic Beverages/analysis , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Beverages , Ethanol/analysis
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on how the COVID-19 pandemic changed patterns of alcohol consumption. While some studies have suggested that alcohol consumption decreased at the beginning of the pandemic, there are limited data for a longer period. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in alcohol consumption 1 year after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in France, and to identify vulnerable subgroups in a French adult population. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Self-reported changes in alcohol consumption were collected from 2491 respondents in a survey carried out in western Brittany from 18 January to 9 March 2021. RESULTS: Of respondents, 27.64% reported that they had increased their alcohol consumption, 14.7% had decreased, 3.94% had ceased, and 53.72% reported no change in their alcohol consumption. Increased alcohol use was associated with male gender, age 26 to 44 years, living with a family, not being a health professional, having had a physical or psychological health problem during lockdowns, smoking tobacco, and using cannabis. Reduced alcohol use or cessation was associated with male gender, age 18 to 25 years, living in Brest, living alone, and using cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that during the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant number of people increased their alcohol consumption in France, even outside lockdowns. These results should encourage health professionals and public authorities to implement more specific prevention measures to limit the risks associated with alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
7.
NCHS Data Brief ; (448): 1-8, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102673

ABSTRACT

Alcohol use is a known risk factor for mortality, and the rates of alcohol induced deaths have risen over the past several years (1). Alcohol use in the United States increased during the first year of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may have affected mortality rates, especially for alcohol-induced deaths (2). Understanding trends in alcohol-induced mortality, with a particular focus on differences from 2019 to 2020, may help identify groups particularly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. This report presents overall and sex-specific trends in alcohol-induced death rates from 2000 to 2020, and then focuses on the rates for 2019 and 2020 by sex, age group, and underlying cause of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Mortality
8.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 83(10): 1-3, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100431

ABSTRACT

In the UK, harm caused by alcohol has worsened since 2020. A recent report from the Institute of Alcohol Studies projecting future rates of major alcohol-related diseases highlights what this means for health and healthcare. The authors argue that this additional burden is not inevitable if effective policies are introduced.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology , Ethanol
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and clinical correlates of users of an Internet drug forum who changed their alcohol use during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in France. METHODS: An anonymous Internet-based cross-sectional survey during the COVID-19 lockdown was used via messages on a French Internet drug forum. Participants reported any increase in their alcohol consumption during the lockdown. Alcohol craving and depressive/anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking scale (OCDS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Of 1310 respondents, 974 (79% of 1270) participants reported alcohol use before lockdown. During the lockdown, 405 participants (41.6%; IC95 (38.5-44.7)) reported an increase. Odds of an increase in alcohol consumption was higher for those with HADS scores higher than 7 (aOR: 2.19; p = 0.00002), OCDS scores greater than 7 (aOR: 3.50; p < 0.001), and daily psychostimulant use (aOR: 1.85; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Users of an Internet drug forum who reported high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of alcohol craving, and the use of psychostimulants were more likely to increase alcohol consumption during a COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Humans , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Internet
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(10): ITC145-ITC160, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090814

ABSTRACT

Unhealthy alcohol use-the consumption of alcohol at a level that has caused or has the potential to cause adverse physical, psychological, or social consequences-is common, underrecognized, and undertreated. For example, data from the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that 7.0% of adults reported heavy alcohol use in the previous month, and only 4.2% of adults with alcohol use disorder received treatment. Primary care is an important setting for optimizing screening and treatment of unhealthy alcohol use to promote individual and public health.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/therapy , Ethanol , Humans , Mass Screening
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(8): 1539-1551, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research conducted during the COVID-19 Pandemic has identified two co-occurring public health concerns: loneliness and substance use. Findings from research conducted prior to the pandemic are inconclusive as to the links between loneliness and substance use. This study aimed to measure associations of loneliness with three different types of substance use during COVID-19: daily number of alcoholic drinks, cannabis use, and non-cannabis drug use. METHOD: Data were obtained between October 2020 and May 2021 from 2,648 US adults (Mage  = 38.76, 65.4% women) diverse with respect to race and ethnicity using online recruitment. Participants completed baseline surveys and daily assessments for 30 days. A daily loneliness measure was recoded into separate within- and between-person predictor variables. Daily outcome measures included the number of alcoholic drinks consumed and dichotomous cannabis and non-cannabis drug use variables. Generalized linear multilevel models (GLMLM) were used to examine within- and between-person associations between loneliness and substance use. RESULTS: The unconditional means model indicated that 59.0% of the variance in the daily number of alcoholic drinks was due to within-person variability. GLMLM analyses revealed that, overall, people drank more on days when they felt a particularly high or particularly low degree of loneliness (positive quadratic effect). There was a negative and significant within-person association between daily loneliness and the likelihood of cannabis use. There was also a positive and significant within-person association between daily loneliness and the likelihood of non-cannabis drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between loneliness and substance use vary with substance type and whether within- or between-person differences are assessed. These findings are relevant to the persistence of substance use disorders and thus of potential clinical importance. Individuals who do not experience severe loneliness at intake but who show daily increases in loneliness above baseline levels are at heightened risk of alcohol and non-cannabis drug use. Future research could profitably examine just-in-time adaptive interventions that assess fluctuations in loneliness to prevent the development or exacerbation of substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Slovenia ranks amongst the countries with the highest recorded alcohol consumption. The mortality rate attributed to alcohol-related causes of death in Slovenia also exceeds the EU average. The aim of our research was to confirm the changes in alcohol consumption in Slovenia during the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic on a representative sample and to identify vulnerable groups at higher risk of increasing alcohol consumption. METHODS: Two consecutive data collections of the National Survey on the Impact of the Pandemic on Life, each in different epidemiological situations, were conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to monitor the number of alcoholic beverages consumed during the pandemic, compared to the time before the pandemic. RESULTS: The majority of the population did not change the number of alcoholic beverages consumed, and among those with changes, there were significantly more of those who drank less than those who drank more. Among respondents who drank a greater number of alcoholic beverages, statistically significantly higher proportions were found in younger age groups, people with post-secondary vocational education or higher, and people with a higher probability of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic crisis, we need to pay special attention to vulnerable groups that are at higher risk of increasing alcohol use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082075

ABSTRACT

The final year of high school is a challenging phase of adolescents' lives and substance use can play an important role. We examined changes in the frequency and quantity of alcohol and cannabis use, and demographic correlates among Grade 12 students of 2020. Students (N = 844) from nine schools retrospectively self-reported changes in substance use after the easing of COVID-19 lockdowns (back to school), compared to before the pandemic. Changes in use were examined with age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Islander, parental and family characteristics, and truancy. Thirty-one percent of students reported that they used alcohol less frequently, and 24% reported that they used it more frequently compared to pre-COVID-19. Most students (46%) reported that they used cannabis less, while a subset reported using more frequently (22%). A history of truancy was associated with an increased frequency (OR = 2.13 [1.18-3.83]) of cannabis use. A substantial minority of adolescents used more alcohol and cannabis after the initial COVID-19 lockdown period. Students in their final year who reported increased use may benefit from increased support to manage their substance use.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Self Report , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking
14.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(10): 815-821, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to provide insights into the working Welsh adult population's perceptions of the health impacts of working from home (WFH), their ability to WFH, and their WFH preferences. METHODS: Data were collected from 615 working adults in Wales between November 2020 and January 2021 in a household survey. RESULTS: More than 45% of those able to WFH reported worsened mental well-being and loneliness. Working from home worsened the diets, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use of those in poorer health. Approximately 50% were able to WFH, although individuals living in more deprived areas, in atypical employment or with precarious income, were less able to WFH. Nearly 60% wanted to WFH to some capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The new way of working introduces new challenges to preserving workforce mental well-being, regulating health behaviors, and tackling inequalities. Hybrid models and targeted health support could make WFH healthier and more equitable.


Subject(s)
Employment , Mental Health , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study of a sample of Italian healthcare (HCWs) and office workers (OWs) carried out during the pandemic period was to understand alcohol consumption patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey based on Google Forms was developed. Harmful alcohol use was assessed through a validated questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Three multivariate logistic regression models were implemented for the overall sample of HCWs and OWs. The presence of harmful alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C score) was considered as a dependent variable. RESULTS: A total of 1745 workers answered the survey. A lower risk of harmful drinking behavior among men overall and in both working groups was found (aOR 0.42, CI 95% 0.33-0.53), but also for both HCWs (aOR 0.62, CI 95% 0.46-0.84) and OWs (aOR 0.17, CI 95% 0.11-0.27). Comparing OWs and HCWs, we found a higher risk of harmful drinking in the first group (aOR 1.62, CI 95% 1.20-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the survey indicate that unhealthy behaviors were elevated during the pandemic. It is urgent to implement company policies managed by an occupational doctor to raise workers' awareness of alcohol-related dangers and provide educational tools that have the task of preventing the damage caused by alcohol.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065920

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine the association between loneliness and developing alcohol dependence or hazardous alcohol use. A cohort study was conducted utilizing data from a nationwide internet survey in 2021 and 2022 in Japan. A total of 15,854 follow-up participants (55% men, with a mean age of 52.8 years) were divided based on AUDIT scores: nondrinkers (AUDIT: 0), low-risk drinkers (AUDIT: 1-7), medium-risk drinkers (AUD: 8-14), high-risk drinkers (AUDIT: 15-19), and probable alcohol dependence (AUDIT: 20-40). The University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (Version 3), a short-form three-item scale, was used to assess loneliness (high loneliness score of ≥6). The prevalence of high loneliness was higher in nondrinkers than that in low- and medium-risk drinkers, i.e., 22%, 18%, and 17%, respectively, as well as in high-risk drinkers (32%) and those with probable alcohol dependence (43%) compared to non-high-risk drinkers (19%). After adjusting for various factors (sociodemographic, social isolation, psychological distress, and smoking), non-high-risk drinkers (AUDIT: 0-14) with high loneliness were more likely to become high-or-over-risk drinkers (AUDIT: 15-40) than those without high loneliness, with adjusted risk ratios of 1.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.96) through multivariable binary logistic regression. Among non-high-risk drinkers, people with high loneliness scores at baseline were associated with increased high-risk drinking patterns with probable alcohol dependence.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Internet , Loneliness , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alcohol expectancies, i.e., the perceived consequences of drinking, have been reported to be important factor in predicting drinking behaviors. However, studies in the Asia region were largely limited to school-based samples. This study aimed to be the first to explore drinking expectancies among urban Chinese young adults. METHODS: In 2020, eight focus group discussions were conducted with Hong Kong Chinese young adults aged 18-34 (n = 53). The participants included heavy drinkers, light drinkers, and non-drinkers from a wide range of occupations and educational backgrounds. Thematic analysis was conducted to uncover common alcohol expectancies. RESULTS: Six themes emerged from this study. Four themes that were commonly reported in the literature were the negative consequences of drinking, social bonding, confidence enhancement, and tension reduction. The study also uncovered two culturally relevant alcohol expectancies: health benefits and business drinking expectancies. In contrast to Western samples, Chinese young adults did not report drinking expectancies related to cognitive enhancement or increased sexual interest. CONCLUSION: Alcohol harm reduction strategies will need to address the positive drinking expectancies uncovered in this study. Future policy discussions in this emerging alcohol market region should consider greater scrutiny of the role of alcohol marketing in the propagation of positive drinking expectancies.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Asians , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Ethanol , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Young Adult
18.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(5): 16-20, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056588

ABSTRACT

The presents an analysis of the trend of the postmortem ethanol tests in biological samples obtained from the deceased in Moscow in April-May 2019 and 2020. In total, 7110 reports of forensic chemistry studies were examined; all cases were classified by the age of the deceased, following the modern generational theory to study patterns of alcohol consumption in these age groups and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stable patterns of alcoholic behavior were revealed in the groups of the deceased. It was shown that, on average, every 3rd representative of Generations «X¼ and «Y¼ consumes alcohol shortly before death; the highest average blood ethanol levels were found in representatives of Generations «Y¼ and «X¼. The number of positive ethanol test results increased in April-May 2020 among males of the baby boom and Generation «X¼ compared to the same period in 2019. The patterns identified can be used to further study the contribution of alcohol consumption to mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethanol , Forensic Medicine , Humans , Male , Moscow/epidemiology , Pandemics
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1822, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We looked at changes in the prevalence of increasing and higher risk drinkers reporting a reduction attempt motivated by temporary abstinence and changes in prevalence of use of the official app accompanying Dry January between 2020 vs 2021, following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored potential shifts in the sociodemographic composition of both groups. METHODS: We analysed data from: i) 1863 increasing and higher risk drinkers (defined as ≥ 8 on the AUDIT) responding to a nationally representative survey of adults in England in January and February 2020 and 2021, and ii) 104,598 users of the 'Try Dry' app, the official aid to those participating in Dry January 2020 and 2021 in the UK. We used logistic regression to examine shifts in the prevalence of increasing and higher risk drinkers reporting a reduction attempt motivated by temporary abstinence and explored whether there were shifts in the characteristics of this group in terms of AUDIT score, number of last year reduction attempts, smoking status, living alone, living with children, reducing alcohol consumption due to future health motives, age, sex, and occupational social grade between 2020 and 2021. We used t-tests and chi-squared tests to compare the prevalence of users of the 'Try Dry' app in 2020 and 2021 and examine whether the two groups differed in terms of age and sex. RESULTS: The proportion of increasing and higher risk drinkers reporting a reduction attempt motivated by temporary abstinence increased from 4% in 2020 to 8% in 2021 (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.38-3.11, p < .001) with no changes detected in sociodemographic composition. The number of Try Dry app users in 2021 increased by 34.8% relative to 2020. App users in 2021 were two years older on average [p < .001, d = .02], with a 2% increase in the proportion of female app users [p < .001, vs. < .01]. CONCLUSIONS: Higher participation in Dry January 2021 relative to 2020 indicates increased engagement with a period of temporary abstinence following the COVID-19 related lockdowns in England and the UK, which is positive in the wider context of increasing alcohol consumption throughout the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics
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