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1.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(9): 254-263, 2021 09 22.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Restrictions to do with the COVID-19 pandemic have had substantial unintended consequences on Canadians' alcohol consumption patterns, including increased emotional distress and its potential impact on alcohol use. This study examines 1) changes in adults' alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; 2) whether drinking more frequently during the pandemic is associated with increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness; and 3) whether gender moderates this relationship. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 2000 adults. Adjusted multinomial regression models were used to assess the association between drinking frequency and increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness. Additional analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: About 12% of respondents reported drinking more frequently after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 25%-40% reported increased emotional distress. Increased feelings of stress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-2.93), loneliness (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.22-2.61) and hopelessness (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.21-3.23) were all associated with drinking more frequently during the pandemic. While women respondents reported higher rates of emotional distress, significant associations with increased drinking frequency were only observed among men in gender-stratified analyses. CONCLUSION: Individuals who report increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to report increased drinking frequency; however, these associations were only significant for men in stratified analyses. Understanding how the pandemic is associated with mental health and drinking may inform alcohol control policies and public health interventions to minimize alcohol-related harm.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hope , Loneliness , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0255757, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633355

ABSTRACT

As many U.S. states implemented stay-at-home orders beginning in March 2020, anecdotes reported a surge in alcohol sales, raising concerns about increased alcohol use and associated ills. The surveillance report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism provides monthly U.S. alcohol sales data from a subset of states, allowing an investigation of this potential increase in alcohol use. Meanwhile, anonymized human mobility data released by companies such as SafeGraph enables an examination of the visiting behavior of people to various alcohol outlets such as bars and liquor stores. This study examines changes to alcohol sales and alcohol outlet visits during COVID-19 and their geographic differences across states. We find major increases in the sales of spirits and wine since March 2020, while the sales of beer decreased. We also find moderate increases in people's visits to liquor stores, while their visits to bars and pubs substantially decreased. Noticing a significant correlation between alcohol sales and outlet visits, we use machine learning models to examine their relationship and find evidence in some states for likely panic buying of spirits and wine. Large geographic differences exist across states, with both major increases and decreases in alcohol sales and alcohol outlet visits.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , United States
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054706, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Asking Questions about Alcohol in Pregnancy (AQUA) study, established in 2011, is a prebirth cohort of 1570 mother and child pairs designed to assess the effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and sporadic binge drinking on long-term child development. Women attending general antenatal clinics in public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited in their first trimester, followed up three times during pregnancy and at 12 and 24 months postpartum. The current follow-up of the 6-8-year-old children aims to strengthen our understanding of the relationship between these levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and neuropsychological functioning, facial dysmorphology, brain structure and function. PARTICIPANTS: Between June 2018 and April 2021, 802 of the 1342 eligible AQUA study families completed a parent-report questionnaire (60%). Restrictions associated with COVID-19 pandemic disrupted recruitment, but early school-age neuropsychological assessments were undertaken with 696 children (52%), and 482 (36%) craniofacial images were collected. A preplanned, exposure-representative subset of 146 children completed a brain MRI. An existing biobank was extended through collection of 427 (32%) child buccal swabs. FINDINGS TO DATE: Over half (59%) of mothers consumed some alcohol during pregnancy, with one in five reporting at least one binge-drinking episode prior to pregnancy recognition. Children's craniofacial shape was examined at 12 months of age, and low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with subtle midface changes. At 2 years of age, formal developmental assessments showed no evidence that cognitive, language or motor outcome was associated with any of exposure level. FUTURE PLANS: We will investigate the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and specific aspects of neurodevelopment at 6-8 years, including craniofacial shape, brain structure and function. The contribution of genetics and epigenetics to individual variation in outcomes will be examined in conjunction with national and international collaborations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Australia , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
4.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(12): 840-841, 2021 12.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599873
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597023

ABSTRACT

The sleep-wake cycle plays a fundamental role in maintaining the physiological balance of our body. Its alteration favours the genesis of several organic alterations and diseases including sleep disorders and the consumption of several substances of abuse. It has been reported that the work activity, especially that carried out during the night, is able to influence the sleep-wake cycle, promoting the development of insomnia, which, in turn, would subject the worker to a stressful condition such as to encourage adverse behaviour such as the use/abuse of psychotropic substances. Based on the above premises, the aim of our research was to evaluate, in night workers: (i) the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages; (ii) the presence of insomnia; and (iii) the possible correlation between alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder. We used the AUDIT-C test (the abbreviated version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and the Insomnia Severity Index to assess alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder, respectively. All questionnaires were completed by workers of both sexes belonging to different types of work activities, exclusively day or night. The results of our research show a higher propensity of night workers to consume alcoholic beverages than those who work during daytime hours, often in binge-drinking mode. In addition, an increase in the amount of alcohol consumed was found to be related to insomnia disorder, especially in night workers. This study provides further awareness of the importance of the negative impact of alcohol consumption on sleep quality in night workers.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580799

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly limited social contacts, thus contributing to deepening isolation. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 exerted on humanity not only a physical impact but also a psychological one, often increasing the feeling of stress. The long-term effects of such a state could include the management of depression, so our study aimed to analyze groups of medical students in different periods of the pandemic (at the beginning of the pandemic, after half a year of the pandemic, after one year of the pandemic) in order to assess the impact of this situation on coping with stress. The impact of the pandemic on the development of stress factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking was also studied. The level of physical activity in the context of coping with an uncertain situation was also assessed. The impact of the above-mentioned factors on the behavior of students, including the Mini-COPE questionnaire, AUDIT test, the Fagerström test and the IPAQ questionnaire was analyzed. It has been shown that as the pandemic and the lockdown progressed, patients consumed more often or larger amounts of alcohol, smoked more cigarettes, and levels of physical activity decreased. All these factors may have had some impact on the deterioration of coping with stress among the respondents, which would indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly contributed to an increase in the sense of stress among the students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking , Students, Medical , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580783

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many changes in the education sector worldwide, and school curricula have had to adapt to a non-face-to-face modality. However, international studies have concluded that this modality has affected the academic performance of students. The present study aimed to compare the academic performance of a sample of college students from before the start of quarantine with their current performance, and to test whether various demographic factors influenced these changes in conjunction with alcohol consumption. With a non-experimental, comparative and longitudinal design, we applied an ad hoc questionnaire, in conjunction with the AUDIT questionnaire, in a sample of college students (n = 341), and we also obtained data of academic average and failed subjects. The demographic factors that influenced academic performance were sex (p < 0.01), age (p < 0.01) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.001). Most students showed an improvement in their academic average during the quarantine period. Women without failed subjects and low-risk alcohol consumption obtained a better average in this period. In conclusion sex, age and alcohol consumption level were factors associated with academic performance during the quarantine period due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and women had a higher academic average than men did.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572454

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption was largely confined to drinking in the home. There has been little research examining variables associated with risk in home drinking. The study employed an online survey of (n = 1128) individuals who had been recruited for their face recognition skills (n = 838, 70.9% females, mean age 45.05 (12.3 SD)). The main dependent variables were three different AUDIT-C cut-off scores for at-risk drinking: (a) 5 for both genders as recommended by Public Health England, (b) 7 for females and 8 for males (cut-off for students and young people) and (c) 8 for both genders (individuals seeking online help for their drinking). Among the independent variables were gender and age, motivations for home drinking using the Home Drinking Assessment Scale (HDAS), purchasing patterns, context of drinking and health and wellbeing. The predictors following hierarchical logistic regressions were for (a) purchasing alcohol online or at a supermarket and emotional HDAS scores, (b) purchasing alcohol online or at a supermarket and for parties, drinking alone and with other members of the household and emotional and practical reason HDAS scores, (c) as for b with the addition that men were more likely to be at-risk drinkers. At-risk drinking in the pandemic was explained by motivational reasons, purchasing patterns and situational factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed to understand the links between social media use and alcohol consumption during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Data were from the national Understanding American Study, a probability-based Internet panel weighted to represent the U.S. population. Subjects (N = 5874; 51% female) were adults, 18 years and older, who completed a March survey (wave 1) and a follow-up survey one month later (wave 3). Analyses assessed the relationships of social media use at wave 1 with wave 3 alcohol use frequency, accounting for wave 1 alcohol use frequency and the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample. Two alcohol use change variables were also assessed as outcomes-increased and decreased alcohol use between waves. We considered the effect of work status changes (working/studying from home and job loss) as potential moderators. RESULTS: Twitter and Instagram users and users of multiple social media platforms, but not Facebook users, drank more frequently at wave 3. The results were similar when assessing relationships between social media use and increased alcohol use between waves. For Instagram users, more frequent alcohol use at wave 3 was at least partially attributed to drinking frequency at wave 1. Additionally, working/studying from home at wave 3 and employment (rather than job loss) were associated with greater consumption. The interaction effect between Twitter use and working/studying from home was statistically significant in association with alcohol use frequency at wave 3, as was the interaction effect between using multiple platforms and working/studying from home in association with decreased alcohol use between waves. DISCUSSION: Exposure to content about COVID-19 and increased alcohol consumption during the pandemic may have contributed to more frequent alcohol use for some social media users. The study of public health messaging via social media to change alcohol use behaviors during traumatic events is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Social Media , United States
11.
Addiction ; 116(12): 3369-3380, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504189

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Addiction ; 116(12): 3398-3407, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503763

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To estimate change in young people's alcohol consumption during COVID-19 restrictions in Australia in early-mid 2020, and test whether those changes were consistent by gender and level of consumption prior to the pandemic. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort. SETTING: Secondary schools in New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Subsample of a cohort (n = 443) recruited in the first year of secondary school in 2010-11. Analysis data included three waves collected in September 2017-July 2018, September 2018-May 2019 and August 2019-January 2020), and in May-June 2020. MEASUREMENTS: The primary predictors were time, gender and level of consumption prior to the pandemic. Outcome variables, analysed by mixed-effects models, included frequency and typical quantity of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, peak consumption, alcohol-related harm and drinking contexts. FINDINGS: Overall consumption (frequency × quantity) during the restrictions declined by 17% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73, 0.95] compared to February 2020, and there was a 35% decline in the rate of alcohol-related harms in the same period (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.54, 0.79). Changes in alcohol consumption were largely consistent by gender. CONCLUSIONS: From a survey of secondary school students in Australia, there is evidence for a reduction in overall consumption and related harms during the COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502429

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the research was to examine the associations between problematic alcohol use, tobacco use and cannabis use among Czech and Slovak university students during the early COVID-19 pandemic. The research sample consisted of 1422 participants from the Czech Republic (CZ) and 1677 from the Slovak Republic (SK). The analyses included university students who drank alcohol in the past year (CZ: 1323 (93%); SK: 1526 (91%)). Regarding the analysed measures, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its subscales, the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ) and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) were selected to identify substance-related behaviour. Age, gender and residence were included in the analyses as socio-demographic variables. Correlation and regression analyses were used to achieve the main objective of the research. The main results revealed that the use of tobacco and cannabis were positively associated with alcohol use disorders among Czech and Slovak university students. Additionally, males were more likely to report alcohol use disorders. In the Czech Republic, it was found that students living in dormitories were characterized by a lower AUDIT score. The opposite situation was found in the Slovak Republic. Czech and Slovak policy-makers are encouraged to develop alcohol use prevention programs for university students in line with these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Universities
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488599

ABSTRACT

(1) The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize changes in alcohol use during the COVID-19 confinement in a sample of Spanish adults, analyzing their age and living situation as defining life cycle variables. (2) Method: Data from 3779 individuals were collected through a set of online surveys. AUDIT-C was used to measure the frequency of consumption, the average daily consumption, intensive consumption, risky consumption, and Standard Drink Units. (3) Results: Although alcohol consumption during confinement showed a significant general decline, age revealed important differences, with the decline being more pronounced in adults from 18 to 29 years old. The living situation also showed significant differences. The largest decreases in alcohol consumption were found in those who lived with their parents or other relatives, whereas those who lived alone or with a partner even increased their level of consumption. In addition, the data show a significant interaction between these two variables and gender. (4) Conclusions: Age and cohabitation processes are key factors in understanding the life situation of each individual during confinement and, consequently, in explaining consumption patterns. The results obtained provide interesting recommendations for designing prevention policies in both normal and crisis circumstances, emphasizing the need to understand alcohol use from a psychosocial perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174143, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487708

ABSTRACT

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Concomitant use of DSF and central nervous system stimulants usually leads to harmful, undesirable effects. To date, there is still limited data regarding the detailed safety profile of DSF as a concomitant drug. In this review article, we outline the current state of knowledge about DSF, its broad pharmacological action, as well as therapeutic effects, with a particular emphasis on the molecular understanding of its potential pharmacodynamic interactions with common addictive substances (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, cannabinoids, opioids) supported by relevant examples.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Animals , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans
17.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 1084-1089, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 public health social measures (PHSM) on health behaviours is poorly understood. We aimed to identify factors associated with changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption during the strictest period of PHSM 'lockdown'. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was conducted using secondary data from the Central Statistics Office Social Impact Survey collected during the first lockdown in Ireland (23 April- 1 May 2020). RESULTS: Of the 1362 (33.8%) individuals that responded to the survey, 80.6% were current drinkers and 26.0% were smokers. The majority of smokers (60.9%) and drinkers (60.6%) reported no change in consumption. However, 30.5% of smokers and 22.2% of drinkers reported increased consumption. Being concerned about household stress from confinement [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.9, P = 0.002], working from home (aOR 2.1, 95 CI 1.4-3.3, P < 0.001) and urban living (aOR 2.0, 95 CI 1.5-2.9, P < 0.001) were associated with increases in alcohol consumption. Feeling very nervous (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0, P = 0.009), feeling downhearted/depressed (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, P = 0.004), being concerned about someone else's health (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9, P = 0.031), working from home (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.3, P = 0.046) and increases in alcohol consumption (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.7, P = 0.023) were associated with increases in tobacco consumption. CONCLUSION: A mixed picture was evident in terms of changes in consumption among current smokers and drinkers. Increased consumption was more commonly reported than reductions. Increased consumption was associated with psychological distress and socio-economic factors. Policies and services should consider a response to widening inequalities in harmful consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smokers , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Prev Med ; 153: 106854, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475147

ABSTRACT

Physical distancing measures to curb COVID-19 transmission introduced mental health and economic stressors, possibly impacting problematic drinking. This cross-sectional study examines mental health and economic stressors early in the COVID-19 pandemic which may be associated with heavy alcohol use and increased alcohol use. We administered an online survey of U.S. adults via social media April 5 to May 5, 2020. High-risk drinking was defined by WHO risk drinking levels, a daily average of ≥4 drinks for men and ≥3 drinks for women. Participants reported retrospective assessments of increased alcohol use if their past-week alcohol consumption exceeded their past-year average weekly alcohol consumption. We used logistic regression to assess possible covariates of high-risk drinking and increased alcohol use. Among 2175 participants, 10% (n = 222) reported high-risk drinking, and 36% (n = 775) reported increased alcohol consumption. In multivariable analysis, high-risk drinking was significantly associated with household job loss (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = (1.06, 1.88)) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = (1.02, 1.07)), and women had higher odds of high-risk drinking than men (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = (1.32, 4.69)). Previous mental health diagnosis was not significantly associated with high-risk drinking during the pandemic (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = (0.98, 1.76)) in univariable analysis. High-risk drinkers were almost six times as likely to report retrospective assessments of increased alcohol consumption, controlling for mental health and economic stressors (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = (4.35, 8.32)). Findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to address the complex mental health and economic stressors that may increase alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463667

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic were unevenly distributed over consumer groups. We investigated possible inter-country differences in how changes in alcohol consumption are contingent on initial consumption (before or at the start of the pandemic), and how changes in consumption translate into possible changes in the prevalence of heavy drinking. We used data from the European Survey on Alcohol use and COVID-19 (ESAC) conducted in Czechia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK (N = 31921). Past-year alcohol consumption and changes in consumption were measured by AUDIT-C. Drinking habits were compared according to percentiles of pre-pandemic consumption levels, below versus above the 90th percentile. Across countries, drinkers in the highest 10% for pre-pandemic consumption increased their drinking during the pandemic, whereas absolute changes among those initially drinking below this level were modest. The percentage of people reporting >28 alcohol units/week increased significantly in seven of eight countries. During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption in the upper decile of the drinkers increased as did the prevalence of heavy drinkers, in contrast with a declining consumption in other groups in the sample.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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