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2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(4): 714-724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794645

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It is well known that healthy lifestyles measured at one time-point are inversely associated with diabetes risk. The impact of transitions in combined lifestyles in real settings remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trajectory patterns of combined lifestyles over three years were identified using group-based trajectory modeling in 26,647 adults in Japan. Two types of indices (not having the unhealthy lifestyle [easy goal] and having healthiest lifestyles [challenging goal]) were developed using five lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, sleep duration, and body weight control. This index was calculated using the yearly total score (0-5; higher score indicated healthier lifestyles). Diabetes was defined by high plasma glucose level, high hemoglobin A1c level, and self-report. RESULTS: Five trajectory patterns were identified for each index and it was shown that healthier patterns are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes during 6.6 years of average follow-up. For example, with a challenging-goal, compared with a persistently very unhealthy pattern, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.65 (0.59, 0.73), 0.50 (0.39, 0.64), 0.43 (0.38, 0.48), and 0.33 (0.27, 0.41) for 'persistently unhealthy', 'improved from unhealthy to moderately healthy', 'persistently moderately healthy', and 'persistently mostly healthy' patterns, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce the importance of improving and maintaining health-related lifestyles to prevent diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Life Style , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic exposure on changes in alcohol use and mood from years 1 to 2 after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) study design to analyze data from 1,059 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI enrolled in the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database. We defined COVID-19 pandemic exposure as participants who received their year 1 post-injury interviews prior to January 1, 2020, and their year 2 interview between April 1, 2020 and January 15, 2021. Pandemic-unexposed participants had both year 1 and 2 follow-up interviews before January 1, 2020. We measured current alcohol use as any past month alcohol use, average number of drinks per drinking occasion, and past month binge drinking. We measured depression symptoms using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and anxiety symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. RESULTS: We found persons with TBI exposed to the pandemic had greater increases in the average number of drinks per occasion from year 1 to 2 post-injury compared to pandemic-unexposed individuals (ß = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.57, p = 0.001), with males, adults <65 years old, and Black and Hispanic subgroups showing the greatest increases in consumption. Though average consumption was elevated, changes in rates of any alcohol use or binge drinking by pandemic exposure were not observed. Overall, there were no significant changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms over time between pandemic exposed and unexposed groups; however, pandemic-exposed Hispanics with TBI reported significant increases in anxiety symptoms from year-1 to year-2 post-injury compared to pandemic-unexposed Hispanics (ß = 2.35, 95% CI: 0.25, 4.47, p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Among persons living with TBI, those exposed to the pandemic had significant increases in average alcohol consumption. Pandemic-exposed Hispanics with TBI had large elevations in anxiety symptoms, perhaps reflecting health inequities exacerbated by the pandemic, and suggesting a need for targeted monitoring of psychosocial distress.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 692, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The closing of bars, restaurants and international borders during the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in alcohol availability. This study provides a first systematic overview of the monthly development of alcohol sales in Europe during the pandemic in order to determine the effect of closed borders on the sales and consumption of alcohol. METHODS: The study covers 72 months from January 2015 to December 2020 in 14 countries from northern, central and western Europe with excise revenue data for beer, spirits, wine separately and summed, converted into litres of pure alcohol per capita 15+ as a proxy for alcohol sales. March-December 2020 is seen as the pandemic period. The analyses consist of (1) descriptive trends of sales before and during the pandemic, (2) assessment of the pandemic impact on sales by time-series analyses and (3) case studies of countries and a region with substantial cross-border inflow or outflow of alcohol. RESULTS: The result shows an overall reduction in alcohol sales with 3.6% during the pandemic. Nevertheless, the results differ based on the level of cross-border purchasing flows pre-pandemic, as countries with high cross-border inflow saw an increase in domestic sales as the pandemic hit. Norway, for example, saw a 23% increase in domestic sales during the pandemic period March-December 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. CONCLUSION: The closing of intra-European borders had a significant redistributing effect on alcohol sales. While noting sales increases, cross-border inflow countries generally saw a decrease in total amount of alcohol consumed per capita as not all cross-border purchases were replaced by domestic sales. This has important policy implications as large volumes of cross-border inflow of alcohol can negatively affect excise revenue as well as public health outcomes. The methodology can be used to further explore the reliance of different purchasing streams in a domestic alcohol market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776225

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol consumption between the heaviest drinking occasion in the period before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown (15 January-14 March 2020) and the first COVID-19 lockdown period (15 March-11 May 2020) in the Netherlands, including the presence and severity of associated hangovers. The analysis included a sub-sample from the "Corona Lockdown: how fit are you?" (CLOFIT) study, comprising N = 761 participants who reported consuming alcohol in 2020. Overall, on the heaviest drinking occasion during the first COVID-19 lockdown period a significant reduction in number of alcoholic drinks consumed on the heaviest drinking occasion, drinking duration, and estimated BAC was observed. A significant reduction was also observed for subjective intoxication and next-day hangover severity. During the lockdown period, a significant reduction in the frequency of alcohol hangovers was reported. Several age and sex differences were observed. Specifically, men consumed significantly more alcohol than women and experienced hangovers significantly more frequently, both before and during the lockdown. With regard to age, young adults (18-35 years old) significantly reduced their alcohol intake on the heaviest drinking occasion during the lockdown and also reported lower ratings of subjective intoxication and hangover severity. No significant changes were seen for individuals above 35 years old. In conclusion, the first COVID-19 lockdown in the Netherlands was associated with reduced alcohol intake on the heaviest drinking occasion and a reduction in the severity of hangovers, particularly among young male adults.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771700

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase of heavy alcohol use has been reported in several high-income countries. We examined changes in alcohol use during the pandemic among primary health care (PHC) patients in two middle income countries, Colombia and Mexico. Methods: Data were collected during routine consultations in 34 PHC centres as part of a large-scale implementation study. Providers measured patients' alcohol consumption with the three item 'Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test' (AUDIT-C). Generalized linear mixed models were performed to examine changes in two dependent variables over time (pre-pandemic and during pandemic): 1) the AUDIT-C score and 2) the proportion of heavy drinking patients (8+ on AUDIT-C). Results: Over a period of more than 600 days, data from N = 17 273 patients were collected. During the pandemic, the number of patients with their alcohol consumption measured decreased in Colombia and Mexico. Each month into the pandemic was associated with a 1.5% and 1.9% reduction in the mean AUDIT-C score in Colombia and Mexico, respectively. The proportion of heavy drinking patients declined during the pandemic in Colombia (pre-pandemic: 5.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.8% to 6.0%; during the pandemic: 0.8%, 95% CI = 0.6% to 1.1%) but did not change in Mexico. Conclusions: Average consumption levels declined and the prevalence of heavy drinking patterns did not increase. In addition to reduced opportunities for social drinking during the pandemic, changes in the population seeking PHC and restrictions in alcohol availability and affordability are likely drivers for lower levels of alcohol use by patients in this study.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759950

ABSTRACT

Two theoretical perspectives have been proffered to explain changes in alcohol use during the pandemic: the 'affordability-availability' mechanism (i.e., drinking decreases due to changes in physical availability and/or reduced disposable income) and the 'psychological-coping' mechanism (i.e., drinking increases as adults attempt to cope with pandemic-related distress). We tested these alternative perspectives via longitudinal analyses of the COVID-19 Psychological Consortium (C19PRC) Study data (spanning three timepoints during March to July 2020). Respondents provided data on psychological measures (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, paranoia, extraversion, neuroticism, death anxiety, COVID-19 anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, resilience), changes in socio-economic circumstances (e.g., income loss, reduced working hours), drinking motives, solitary drinking, and 'at-risk' drinking (assessed using a modified version of the AUDIT-C). Structural equation modelling was used to determine (i) whether 'at-risk' drinking during the pandemic differed from that recalled before the pandemic, (ii) dimensions of drinking motives and the psychosocial correlates of these dimensions, (iii) if increased alcohol consumption was predicted by drinking motives, solitary drinking, and socio-economic changes. The proportion of adults who recalled engaging in 'at-risk' drinking decreased significantly from 35.9% pre-pandemic to 32.0% during the pandemic. Drinking to cope was uniquely predicted by experiences of anxiety and/or depression and low resilience levels. Income loss or reduced working hours were not associated with coping, social enhancement, or conformity drinking motives, nor changes in drinking during lockdown. In the earliest stage of the pandemic, psychological-coping mechanisms may have been a stronger driver to changes in adults' alcohol use than 'affordability-availability' alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935567, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic affected drinking behaviors among adolescents. This remote questionnaire-based study aimed to compare alcohol use in 1030 final-year high school students in Split-Dalmatia County (SDC), Croatia before and during the national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS An online self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted among 1030 final-year high school students (57.96% female; mean age 17.71 years, SD=0.66) in SDC. The data were collected from June 6 to July 20, 2020 and from October 12 to December 28, 2020. Differences in drinking habits between groups were detected with the chi-squared (χ²) test and before and during the COVID-19 lockdown using the Z test. RESULTS Before the lockdown, 84.66% of students were consuming alcohol, most frequently with friends (78.64%) and "to feel better" (29.51%), while during the lockdown, 44.76% of them were drinking, most frequently with friends (34.37%) and due to boredom (17.48%). Drinking alone (P=0.005) and with family members (P=0.003) significantly increased during the lockdown. No difference in drinking between girls and boys was found before the lockdown, but boys were drinking more during the lockdown (P<0.001). There was no difference in drinking prevalence in different schools before the lockdown, but during the lockdown, more students from vocational schools were drinking (P<0.001) and with higher frequency (P=0.002). Among 53.98% of students during the lockdown, a reduction in frequency of drinking was found (P<0.001), most significantly on islands (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS During the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption by final-year high school students in SDC significantly decreased, particularly in girls and in gymnasium/private school students.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Adolescent , Boredom , COVID-19/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Schools , Self Report
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(3): 434-446, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a longitudinal study to examine person-centered heterogeneity in problem drinking risk during the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to differentiate high- from low-risk subgroups of drinkers during the pandemic, to report on the longitudinal follow-up of the baseline sample reported in Wardell et al. (Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 44, 2020, 2073), and to examine how subgroups of drinkers differed on coping-related and pre-pandemic alcohol vulnerability factors. METHODS: Canadian alcohol users (N = 364) were recruited for the study. Participants completed surveys at four waves (spaced 3 months apart), with the first being 7 to 8 weeks after the COVID-19 state of emergency began in Canada. The data were analyzed using a parallel process latent growth class analysis followed by general linear mixed models analysis. RESULTS: We found evidence for three latent classes: individuals who increased drinking (class 1; n = 23), low-risk drinkers (class 2; n = 311), and individuals who decreased drinking (class 3; n = 30). Participants who increased (vs. those who decreased) problem drinking during the pandemic struggled with increasing levels of social disconnection and were also increasingly more likely to report drinking to cope with these issues. Those in the increasing class (relative to low-risk drinkers) reported increasing levels of depression during the study. Relative to low-risk drinkers, participants in the increasing class had higher pre-pandemic AUDIT scores, greater frequency of solitary drinking, and higher alcohol demand. Interestingly, participants in the decreasing class had the highest pre-pandemic AUDIT scores. CONCLUSIONS: We examined longitudinal data to identify subgroups of drinkers during the pandemic and to identify factors that may have contributed to increased problem drinking. Findings suggest that while most of the sample did not change their alcohol use, a small portion of individuals escalated use, while a small portion decreased their drinking. Identifying the vulnerability factors associated with increased drinking could aid in the development of preventative strategies and intervention approaches.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Risk Factors
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(2): 108-113, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743177

ABSTRACT

Background: High alcohol consumption is an important public health problem, and understanding factors associated with such consumption is essential. Aims: This study aimed to assess individual and social factors associated with alcohol consumption during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, purposive sampling was used to select study participants by sharing the survey link on the Telegram application channels with an Iranian audience during COVID-19. The study was conducted from March to June 2020 and reached all Iranian provinces. We used qualitative content analysis to investigate specific concepts in the responses. Results: Of the 116 participants who responded to the survey, 34 (29.3%) were females, and 82 (70.7%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 34.8 years (standard deviation 9.9; range 17-71 years). Most of the participants (75.9%) reported having consumed alcohol, and 56.9% reported having self-medicated for an illness without a doctor's prescription before the COVID-19 pandemic. The most common reason given for alcohol consumption was to relieve stress during home quarantining (32.3%). Based on analysis of the responses, two themes emerged: coping motivations and coping skills, with five subthemes and 14 basic codes. Coping motivations were more powerful than coping skills in relation to high alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Poor coping skills and strong motivations, combined with misinformation on social media and the internet, appear to have led to new or higher alcohol consumption among survey respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Young Adult
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 233: 109349, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown have a strong impact on health and health behaviours, such as alcohol consumption. Although there is some evidence of an overall decline in alcohol consumption during the lockdown, studies also show an increase in risky drinking patterns, e.g. solitary drinking, and differences between subgroups of individuals, e.g. depending on their living arrangement. Yet most studies rely on cross-sectional designs with retrospective questions, and small samples. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted using 13 waves of the COVID-Questionnaire within the Lifelines cohort from the northern Netherlands (n = 63,194). The outcome was alcohol consumption (glasses per week) between April 2020 and July 2021. Linear fixed-effects models were fitted to analyse trends in alcohol consumption, and these were compared with pre-COVID drinking levels. Moreover, the role of living arrangement and feelings of social isolation as potential moderators was tested. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption during the pandemic was lower than in previous years, and the seasonal pattern differed from the pre-COVID one, with levels being lower when lockdown measures were stricter. Moreover, the seasonal pattern differed by living arrangement: those living alone saw a relative increase in drinking throughout tight lockdown periods, whereas those living with children showed the strongest increase during the summer. Social isolation showed a weaker moderation effect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall alcohol levels were down in the pandemic, and in particular during strict lockdowns. Those living on their own and those who felt more isolated reacted more strongly to the lockdown, the longer it lasted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
14.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 46, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724549

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Only several empirical studies have examined substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic in general populations. Most of these studies compared self-reported substances use before the pandemic and during the pandemic's early stages. This study aims to identify the changes in substance use between the early and later waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey recruited 750 participants (ages 18-65) in two waves: (1) 427 during and following the first lockdown (April-mid-May, 2020); and (2) 323 following the second lockdown (from October to mid-November, 2020). RESULTS: Participants who experienced two lockdowns reported more frequent consumption of all alcoholic beverages and cannabis in the last 30 days than those who experienced one lockdown. After controlling for demographic variables, significant differences were found between participants who experienced one lockdown and those who experienced two lockdowns in the consumption of alcoholic beverages (F(1, 742) = 6.90, p = .01, η2 = .01). However, there was no significant association between pandemic duration and other illegal drug consumption. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between pandemic duration and alcohol consumption. Policymakers and practitioners should develop national alcohol and cannabis use prevention and harm reduction interventions during pandemics with a focus on men, singles and youth.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715363

ABSTRACT

The societal disruptions resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have caused changes in smoking and alcohol consumption. Using data from the Koreans' Happiness Survey, a nationally representative survey in South Korea, we (1) described population-level smoking and drinking behaviors; (2) assessed changes in smoking and drinking behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (3) identified employment, economic, and sociodemographic factors associated with these changes using multinomial logistic regression. The overall amount of smoking and drinking decreased during the pandemic, but the changes were heterogeneous across subgroups. Male gender, receipt of the basic living allowance, self-employment, unemployment, and chronic disease status were associated with increased smoking, while higher household income, temporary worker status, living with someone (versus alone), and having fewer offline friends were associated with decreased smoking. Male gender, self-employment, living alone, having more offline friends, and chronic disease status were associated with increased drinking, while younger age, male gender, low and high household income (i.e., a U-shaped relationship), long-term rent with a deposit, temporary worker status, and chronic disease status were associated with decreased drinking. Our findings provide evidence on changes in smoking and drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea and differential changes across subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
17.
J Affect Disord ; 305: 144-150, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationship between the perceived decline in family income due to COVID-19 and alcohol consumption among Korean adolescents. METHODS: Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey 2020 data were used. The study included 42,922 participants (20,672 males; 22,250 females). Multiple logistic regression estimated the relationship between the decline in family income due to COVID-19 and drinking (yes or no) and alcohol-induced blackout (yes or no) status among Korean adolescents. RESULTS: Adolescent males who perceived worsened family income due to COVID-19 had a higher OR for drinking status and alcohol-induced blackout within 30 days (drinking status: OR 1.27, CI 1.15-1.42, alcohol-induced blackout: OR 1.60, CI 1.19-2.15). Females had a higher OR for current drinking (OR 1.22, CI 1.09-1.38). 7th grade females and 10th grade males were more likely to drink alcohol when their household income decline, compared to high school students (10th grade male: OR 1.54 CI 1.18-2.00; 7th grade female: OR 1.57 CI 1.08-2.27). The male group perceiving family financial loss were likely to have an increased frequency of drinking within 30 days (1-9 days: OR 1.26 CI 1.11-1.42, 10-19 days; OR 1.70 CI 1.22-2.36 over 20 days; OR 1.74 CI 1.15-3.09). LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design and self-reported data are the main limitation of our study. And the cut-off points for drinking status and heavy drinking factors may be difficult to generalize our findings to different population. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly positive association of perceived decline in family income due to COVID-19 with increased risks of alcohol consumption was observed among Korean adolescents of both sexes. 7th grade females and 10th grade males were more likely to drink alcohol when their household income changed, compared to high school students. Further, adolescents who perceived family financial loss had an increased frequency of drinking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Men , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Africa has a high prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Due to the high levels of alcohol misuse and violence, public hospital intensive care units were often overrun during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research investigated alcohol intake behaviour change during differing levels of lockdown restrictions, which included bans on alcohol sales. METHODS: A self-reported Facebook survey ran from July to November 2020. The questions included socio-demographics, income, alcohol intake, purchasing behaviour, and reasoning. Chi-square tests/Fisher's exact test for categorical data, Student's t-test for normal continuous data, and the Mann-Whitney U test for non-normal data were applied. Multiple logistic regression was run for HED versus moderate drinkers. RESULTS: A total of 798 participants took part in the survey, of which 68.4% were female. Nearly 50% of participants fell into the HED category and the majority bought alcohol illegally during restrictions. HED respondents who drank more alcohol than usual during restrictions reported that they felt stressed, needed to relax, and were bored. CONCLUSIONS: Policies intended to increase the pricing of alcohol may have the potential to reduce alcohol intake. Reducing stress and anxiety may be key to curtailing HED during emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690262

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis disturbed different life domains of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and assessed the associations between these disturbances and the risk of short-term alcohol drinking. All patients aged >18 years receiving outpatient care at three addiction treatment facilities from 15 April to 30 May 2021 were eligible for inclusion in the study. A trained resident assessed the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis affected their professional activity, social life, access to healthcare, and drinking problems, together with craving, drinking behavior, psychological distress, physical/mental health, and sociodemographic and clinical data. The same investigator assessed alcohol drinking 1 month after their visit. Nearly half of the patients felt that the COVID-19 crisis had a serious impact on their drinking problems, despite minor disruptions in access to healthcare. These disturbances significantly influenced short-term alcohol drinking in univariate analysis, together with psychological distress, craving, and drinking problems. Only craving predicted alcohol drinking in multivariate analyses, suggesting that psychological and drinking problems, as well as COVID-19 disturbances, increased the risk of alcohol drinking by increasing craving. Craving should be systematically investigated in patients with AUD to establish adapted social support systems during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Craving , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2022279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684419

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed fundamental challenges on nearly every area of life. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to expand on the literature on the impact of the pandemic on college students by a) examining domains of impact of the pandemic on psychiatric and alcohol outcomes and b) controlling for pre-pandemic outcomes. Method: Participants included 897 college students (78.6% female) from a larger longitudinal study on college student mental health. Structural equation models were fit to examine how COVID-19 impact (exposure, worry, food/housing insecurity, change in social media use, change in substance use) were associated with PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol phenotypes. Models were fit to adjust for pre-pandemic symptoms. Results: No effects of COVID-19 exposure remained after adjusting for earlier outcomes. COVID-19 worry predicted PTSD, depression, and anxiety, even after adjusting for earlier levels of outcomes (ß's: .091-.180, p's < .05). Housing/food concerns predicted PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms as well as suicidal ideation (ß's: .085-.551, p's < .05) after adjusting for earlier levels of symptoms. Change in media use predicted alcohol consumption (ß's: ± .116-.197, p's < .05). Change in substance use affected all outcomes except suicidality (ß's: .112-.591, p's < .05). Conclusions: Domains of COVID-19 impact had differential effects on mental health and substance outcomes in college students during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic. Future studies should examine the trajectory of these factors on college student mental health across waves of the pandemic.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha impuesto desafíos fundamentales en prácticamente todas las áreas de la vida.Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue ampliar la literatura sobre el impacto de la pandemia en estudiantes universitarios, a) examinando dominios de impacto de la pandemia sobre resultados psiquiátricos y de alcohol, y b) controlando por resultados pre-pandemia.Método: Los participantes incluyeron 897 estudiantes universitarios (78,6% mujeres) de un estudio longitudinal más grande sobre salud mental de estudiantes universitarios. Se ajustaron modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar cómo se asociaba el impacto del COVID-19 (exposición, preocupación, inseguridad de alimentos/habitación, cambio en el uso de medios sociales, cambio en uso de sustancias) con los fenotipos TEPT, ansiedad, depresión, ideación suicida y alcohol. Los modelos se ajustaron por síntomas pre-pandémicos.Resultados: No permanecieron efectos de la exposición al COVID-19 luego de ajustar por resultados previos. La preocupación por el COVID-19 predijo TEPT, depresión y ansiedad incluso luego de ajustar por niveles previos de resultados (ß's: .091­.180, p's < .05). Los problemas de habitación/alimentación predijeron síntomas de TEPT, ansiedad y depresión así como también ideación suicida (ß's: .085­.551, p's < .05) después de ajustar por niveles sintomáticos previos. El cambio en el uso de medios predijo el consumo de alcohol (ß's: ±.116­.197, p's < .05). El cambio en el uso de sustancias afectó a todos los resultados excepto suicidalidad (ß's: .112­.591, p's < .05).Conclusiones: Los dominios de impacto del COVID-19 tuvieron diferentes efectos sobre los resultados de salud mental y uso de sustancias en estudiantes universitarios durante la primera ola de la pandemia de coronavirus. Futuros estudios deberían examinar la trayectoria de esos factores en la salud mental de estudiantes universitarios a través de las olas de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Universities , Virginia/epidemiology
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