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Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224082


BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse has adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B, ADH1B), rs1260326 (Glucokinase Regulator, GCKR), and rs13107325 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 8, SLC39A8)) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participants with and without obesity. RESULTS: Of the 12,937 participants, 4496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8441 were frequent drinkers. Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with or without obesity (All q > 0.10). However, frequent drinking, especially heavy drinking (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.24-3.47; q = 0.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (All q < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associated with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alcohol Dehydrogenase/genetics , Alcohol Drinking , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Obesity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS Virus , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/mortality , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
J Addict Dis ; 39(2): 215-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975146


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nationwide lockdown during the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on an average volume of alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 4072 people. The authors found a significant influence of the pandemic period on alcohol consumption compared to the pre-pandemic period. The vast majority of respondents reduced the frequency of consumption of all types of alcohol. However, when the population was divided into subgroups, this differentiation demonstrated that particular groups are more vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Higher frequency of alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown was most often found in the group of men, people aged 18-24 years, inhabitants of big cities, and remote workers. Besides, significant differences were observed in subpopulations concerning different types of alcohol. Results emphasized the importance of monitoring and implementation of actions aimed at reducing the potential psychosocial impact of COVID-19, including alcohol-related disorders.

Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Social Isolation , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/enzymology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Sampling Studies , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed