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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(1): e31058, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Personalized prevention tools such as mobile apps designed to reduce alcohol consumption are widespread in mobile app stores accessible in Russia. However, the quality and content of these mobile apps have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify Russian-language mobile apps for reducing alcohol use and to evaluate their quality and potential to change alcohol-related health behavior. It further aimed to identify apps that could facilitate screening and brief interventions in primary health care in Russia. METHODS: A systematic search for mobile apps available in Russia was carried out between April 1 and 15, 2020, December 1 and 15, 2020, and in March 2021 in the iPhone App Store, Google Play Store, and the 4PDA forum. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), and structured searches in electronic libraries and bibliographic databases were used to evaluate the apps' evidence base. The number of features facilitating changes in lifestyle behavior was assessed using the App Behavior Change Scale (ABACUS). RESULTS: We identified 63 mobile apps for reducing alcohol use. The mean MARS quality ratings were high for the subscales of functionality (3.92 out of 5, SD 0.58) and aesthetics (2.96, SD 0.76) and low for engagement (2.42, SD 0.76) and information (1.65, SD 0.60). Additional searches in electronic libraries and bibliographic databases (eLibrary, CyberLeninka, Google Scholar) yielded no studies involving the identified apps. ABACUS scores ranged from 1 to 15 out of 25, with a mean of 5 (SD 3.24). Two of the identified apps might be useful for screening and brief interventions in Russian primary health care after improvements in content and scientific testing. CONCLUSIONS: Russian-language mobile apps for reducing alcohol use are accessible in the app stores. Many of them are aesthetically pleasing, functional, and easy to use. However, information about their scientific trialing or testing is lacking. Most apps contain a low number of features that facilitate changes in lifestyle behavior. Further research should examine the context of Russian-language mobile apps for reducing alcohol use. Our findings underline the need to develop evidence-based apps to mitigate alcohol consumption in Russia and elsewhere. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42020167458; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=167458.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Language , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174143, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487708

ABSTRACT

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Concomitant use of DSF and central nervous system stimulants usually leads to harmful, undesirable effects. To date, there is still limited data regarding the detailed safety profile of DSF as a concomitant drug. In this review article, we outline the current state of knowledge about DSF, its broad pharmacological action, as well as therapeutic effects, with a particular emphasis on the molecular understanding of its potential pharmacodynamic interactions with common addictive substances (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, cannabinoids, opioids) supported by relevant examples.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Animals , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463630

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol for the design, implementation, and evaluation of an animation- versus text-based computer tailoring game intervention aimed at preventing alcohol consumption and binge drinking (BD) in adolescents. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRCT) is carried out in students aged 14-19 enrolled in 24 high schools from Andalusia (Spain), which are randomized either to experimental (EC-1, EC-2) or waiting-list control conditions (CC). EC-1 receives an online intervention (Alerta Alcohol) with personalized health advice, using textual feedback and several gamification techniques. EC-2 receives an improved version (Alerta Alcohol 2.0) using animated videos and new gamification strategies. Both programs consist of nine sessions (seven taking place at high school and two at home): session 1 or baseline, sessions 2 and 3 that provide tailored advice based on the I-Change Model; sessions 4, 5, 7, and 8 are booster sessions, and sessions 6 and 9 are follow-up questionnaires at six and twelve months. The CC completes the baseline and the evaluation questionnaires. The primary outcome is BD within 30 days before post-test evaluations, and as secondary outcomes we assess other patterns of alcohol use. The findings should help the development of future alcohol drinking prevention interventions in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Computers , Ethanol , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Depression/therapy , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e557-e565, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a policy option to reduce consumption of alcohol and the harm it does, on May 1, 2018, Scotland introduced a minimum price of 50 British pence (p) per unit of alcohol (8 g) sold; Wales followed suit on March 2, 2020, with the same minimum unit price (MUP). We analysed household purchase data based on bar codes to assess the impact of these policy options in the medium term for Scotland and in the immediate term for Wales. METHODS: For these location-controlled, interrupted time series regression analyses, the data source was Kantar WorldPanel's household shopping panel, which, at the time of our analysis, included 35 242 British households providing detailed information on 1·24 million separate alcohol purchases in 2015-18 and the first half of 2020. With no data exclusions, we analysed the impact of introducing MUP in Scotland, using purchases in northern England as control, and in Wales, using western England as control. The studied changes associated with MUP were price paid per gram of alcohol purchased, grams of alcohol purchased, and amount of money spent on alcohol. FINDINGS: In Scotland, price increases and purchase decreases following the introduction of MUP in 2018 were maintained during the first half of 2020. The difference between Scotland and northern England in 2020 was a price increase of 0·741 p per gram (95% CI 0·724-0·759), a 7·6% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·063 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·656-7·470), a 7·7% decrease. In Wales, the introduction of MUP led to similar results. The difference between Wales and western England was a price increase 0·841 of 0·841 p per gram (0·732-0·951), an 8·2% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·052 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·463-7·640), an 8·6% decrease. For both Scotland and Wales, reductions in overall purchases of alcohol were largely restricted to households that bought the most alcohol. The introduction of MUP was not associated with an increased expenditure on alcohol by households that generally bought small amounts of alcohol and, in particular, those with low incomes. The changes were not affected by the introduction of COVID-19 confinement in the UK on March 26, 2020. INTERPRETATION: The evidence base supporting the positive, targeted impact of MUP is strengthened by the comparable results for Scotland and Wales. The short-term impact of MUP in Scotland during 2018 is maintained during the first half of 2020. MUP is an effective alcohol policy option to reduce off-trade purchases of alcohol and should be widely considered. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Scotland , Wales
7.
J Med Life ; 13(4): 499-509, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068253

ABSTRACT

Abuse of legal substances in India includes alcohol and tobacco, which are the major risk factors for various non-communicable diseases and deaths. The current pandemic has identified tobacco consumption as a risk factor for COVID-19, highlighting the need to control substance abuse. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse in India and discuss the cost-effective public health strategies (such as yoga) to alleviate COVID-related anxiety in order to prevent substance abuse and its associated co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study reports the data on tobacco and alcohol abuse from a nationwide randomized two-arm diabetes control trial (Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata, 2017) conducted by the Indian Yoga Association (IYA) through Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA), Bengaluru. Data of 30,354 participants who abuse tobacco and 30,159 participants who abuse alcohol were collected all over India. The prevalence is estimated at around 8.7% for alcohol abuse and 7.9% for tobacco abuse, Arunachal Pradesh state ranking the highest regarding both alcohol and tobacco abuse, while the Tripura state ranked the lowest. School and college-based mandatory yoga programs need to be implemented to prevent the increase of substance abuse in India to alleviate the psychosocial stress of adolescents and college-going students, besides the installation of the mindfulness-based diabetes yoga protocol (DYP) in the wellness centers of Ayushman Bharat.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Yoga , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Ethanol , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Universities
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245546, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042182

ABSTRACT

Amidst the rapid global spread of Covid-19, many governments enforced country-wide lockdowns, with likely severe well-being consequences. In this regard, South Africa is an extreme case suffering from low levels of well-being, but at the same time enforcing very strict lockdown regulations. In this study, we analyse the causal effect of a lockdown and consequently, the determinants of happiness during the aforementioned. A difference-in-difference approach is used to make causal inferences on the lockdown effect on happiness, and an OLS estimation investigates the determinants of happiness after lockdown. The results show that the lockdown had a significant and negative impact on happiness. In analysing the determinants of happiness after lockdown, we found that stay-at-home orders have positively impacted happiness during this period. On the other hand, other lockdown regulations such as a ban on alcohol sales, a fear of becoming unemployed and a greater reliance on social media have negative effects, culminating in a net loss in happiness. Interestingly, Covid-19, proxied by new deaths per day, had an inverted U-shape relationship with happiness. Seemingly people were, at the onset of Covid-19 positive and optimistic about the low fatality rates and the high recovery rates. However, as the pandemic progressed, they became more concerned, and this relationship changed and became negative, with peoples' happiness decreasing as the number of new deaths increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Female , Happiness , Humans , Male , South Africa/epidemiology
9.
Can J Public Health ; 111(3): 392-396, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000692

ABSTRACT

Evidence indicates associations between exposure to mass traumatic events and increased alcohol consumption and related harms following the crises. However, there is limited evidence available to inform alcohol policies during such events. In this commentary, we present the range of government actions to control public access to alcohol during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in provinces and territories across Canada. Liquor retailers, including both private and government-run retailers, have been designated as essential services in all jurisdictions, operating under an evolving set of rules. From a public health perspective, keeping liquor retailers open during pandemic-related lockdown restrictions is a delicate decision which poses new risks and considerations about the best strategy for minimizing alcohol-related harms. We discuss the need to strike a balance between supplying public access to alcohol, particularly to those living with dependence, and unintentionally sending the message that alcohol is essential in our lives and encouraging consumption. Given the far-reaching effects of alcohol on health, social, psychological, economic, and work safety outcomes, we describe international guidance for minimizing alcohol-related harms and suggest that a nuanced and evidence-informed discussion about the considerations and impacts of alcohol control measures during a public health emergency should be undertaken.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol-Related Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy
10.
Int J Drug Policy ; 88: 103025, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959724

ABSTRACT

The global 'lockdowns' and social distancing measures triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic have brought about unprecedented social changes, including the sudden, temporary closure of licensed venues and significant modifications to leisure and drinking practices. In this piece, we argue that these changes invite researchers to consider the short and longer-term consequences in terms of continuities and changes to the practices and symbolism of alcohol consumption both within and beyond domestic spaces. We do this by drawing on illustrations from our emergent qualitative research involving internet-mediated semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 20 participants from the UK (aged 26-65) concerning experiences of drinking in and beyond 'lockdown'. In sharing these early findings, we hope to highlight themes relevant to understanding drinking behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic and to stimulate dialogue for immediate research priorities in this area. Key topic areas in our data appear to concern; variability in heavy/moderate/light/non-drinking practices while drinking at home, lockdown as an opportunity to reassess relationships with alcohol, and the symbolic role of alcohol in internet-mediated communications and interactions. Longstanding policymaker and practitioner concerns with managing public drinking and public order may have been unsettled by a growth in home-based drinking, although, as we argue, such changes were in motion before the global pandemic. We propose that a greater understanding of the challenges and opportunities the pandemic presents for (re)negotiating relationships with alcohol may offer wider lessons around how individuals and communities might be supported via innovative policy measures to change their relationships with alcohol both during and beyond lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Internet , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Middle Aged , Social Behavior , Time Factors , United Kingdom
13.
Can J Public Health ; 111(4): 466-468, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696056

ABSTRACT

In Canada, and elsewhere, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has resulted in a social, economic, and alcohol policy environment that is likely to contribute to a rise in intentional injuries, whether interpersonal or self-directed violence. Heavy drinking has been identified as an important risk factor for intentional injuries, and with the erosion of alcohol control policies on alcohol availability, heavy drinking is likely to increase. During a time of social isolation, economic loss, psychological distress, and reduced access to health services and support networks, all of which are catalytic factors for both intentional injuries and heavy alcohol use, what is needed is individualized and population-based preventive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, rather than decisions to increase certain forms of alcohol availability.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Policy , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Wounds and Injuries/psychology
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