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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759950

ABSTRACT

Two theoretical perspectives have been proffered to explain changes in alcohol use during the pandemic: the 'affordability-availability' mechanism (i.e., drinking decreases due to changes in physical availability and/or reduced disposable income) and the 'psychological-coping' mechanism (i.e., drinking increases as adults attempt to cope with pandemic-related distress). We tested these alternative perspectives via longitudinal analyses of the COVID-19 Psychological Consortium (C19PRC) Study data (spanning three timepoints during March to July 2020). Respondents provided data on psychological measures (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, paranoia, extraversion, neuroticism, death anxiety, COVID-19 anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, resilience), changes in socio-economic circumstances (e.g., income loss, reduced working hours), drinking motives, solitary drinking, and 'at-risk' drinking (assessed using a modified version of the AUDIT-C). Structural equation modelling was used to determine (i) whether 'at-risk' drinking during the pandemic differed from that recalled before the pandemic, (ii) dimensions of drinking motives and the psychosocial correlates of these dimensions, (iii) if increased alcohol consumption was predicted by drinking motives, solitary drinking, and socio-economic changes. The proportion of adults who recalled engaging in 'at-risk' drinking decreased significantly from 35.9% pre-pandemic to 32.0% during the pandemic. Drinking to cope was uniquely predicted by experiences of anxiety and/or depression and low resilience levels. Income loss or reduced working hours were not associated with coping, social enhancement, or conformity drinking motives, nor changes in drinking during lockdown. In the earliest stage of the pandemic, psychological-coping mechanisms may have been a stronger driver to changes in adults' alcohol use than 'affordability-availability' alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4963, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758374

ABSTRACT

Problematic alcohol use is a major contributor to the global burden of death and disabilities, and it represents a public health concern that has grown substantially following the COVID-19 pandemic. The available treatment options remain limited and to develop better pharmacotherapies for alcohol misuse we need to identify suitable biological targets. Previous research has implicated the brain's endocannabinoid system (ECS) in psychiatric and stress-related outcomes, including substance use and habituation to repeated stress. Moreover, genetic variants in the cannabinoid-1 receptor gene (CNR1; CB1R) have been associated with personality traits, which are in turn predictors of substance use disorders. To date, however, no human genome-wide association study has provided evidence for an involvement of the ECS in substance use outcomes. One reason for this ECS-related "missing heritability" may be unexamined gene-environment interactions. To explore this possibility, we conducted cross-sectional analyses using DNA samples and stress-exposure data from a longitudinal Swedish population-based study (N = 2,915). Specifically, we genotyped rs2023239, a functional C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in CNR1, previously reported to be associated with CNR1 binding in the brain, subjective reward following alcohol intake, and alcohol cue-elicited brain activation. Our two outcomes of interest were (i) problematic alcohol use based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and (ii) personality trait scores based on the Five Factor Model. We found no baseline association between rs2023239 and problematic alcohol use or personality traits. However, there was a clear trend for interaction between rs2023239's risk allele (C) and stressful life events (SLEs) in both childhood and adulthood, which predicted problematic alcohol use. Although not significant, there was also some indication that the risk allele interacted with child SLEs to increase scores on neuroticism. Our study supports the notion that the ECS can affect alcohol intake behaviors by interacting with life adversities and is-to the best of our knowledge-the first to focus on the interaction between CNR1 and stressors in both childhood and adulthood in humans. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/genetics , Alcoholism/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Pandemics , Receptors, Cannabinoid
3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(3): 434-446, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a longitudinal study to examine person-centered heterogeneity in problem drinking risk during the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to differentiate high- from low-risk subgroups of drinkers during the pandemic, to report on the longitudinal follow-up of the baseline sample reported in Wardell et al. (Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 44, 2020, 2073), and to examine how subgroups of drinkers differed on coping-related and pre-pandemic alcohol vulnerability factors. METHODS: Canadian alcohol users (N = 364) were recruited for the study. Participants completed surveys at four waves (spaced 3 months apart), with the first being 7 to 8 weeks after the COVID-19 state of emergency began in Canada. The data were analyzed using a parallel process latent growth class analysis followed by general linear mixed models analysis. RESULTS: We found evidence for three latent classes: individuals who increased drinking (class 1; n = 23), low-risk drinkers (class 2; n = 311), and individuals who decreased drinking (class 3; n = 30). Participants who increased (vs. those who decreased) problem drinking during the pandemic struggled with increasing levels of social disconnection and were also increasingly more likely to report drinking to cope with these issues. Those in the increasing class (relative to low-risk drinkers) reported increasing levels of depression during the study. Relative to low-risk drinkers, participants in the increasing class had higher pre-pandemic AUDIT scores, greater frequency of solitary drinking, and higher alcohol demand. Interestingly, participants in the decreasing class had the highest pre-pandemic AUDIT scores. CONCLUSIONS: We examined longitudinal data to identify subgroups of drinkers during the pandemic and to identify factors that may have contributed to increased problem drinking. Findings suggest that while most of the sample did not change their alcohol use, a small portion of individuals escalated use, while a small portion decreased their drinking. Identifying the vulnerability factors associated with increased drinking could aid in the development of preventative strategies and intervention approaches.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Risk Factors
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Uganda confirmed its first COVID-19 case in March 2020, leading to country-wide closures and a stay-at-home order. Infectious disease pandemics can overwhelm adaptive coping capacity (e.g., general self-efficacy and resilience) and increase the risk for mental distress. For individuals experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and cohabitating with a perpetrator, stay-at-home orders can also increase risk of violence, which can further exacerbate mental distress. The present study explores women's perceived self-efficacy and resilient coping, mental health outcomes (depression and COVID-19 related anxiety), hazardous alcohol use and IPV in the context of Uganda's national 2020 lockdown. METHODS: A phone-based survey was undertaken from June-August of 2020 in Wakiso District, Uganda. The study sample consisted of Africa Medical and Behavioral Sciences Organization (AMBSO) Population Health Surveillance (APHS) study participants who agreed to be contacted for future research. The analytic sample was restricted to women aged 13-80 years. Bivariate analysis and multivariable models explored associations between experiences of IPV and measures of adaptive coping, mental health and alcohol use. RESULTS: A total of 556 women aged 13-79 years (mean age of 33.4 years) participated. Over half (55%) were currently married. The majority (60%) reported a decrease in alcohol use during the lockdown. Nearly half of the sample were experiencing physical or verbal IPV and reported an increase in violence during the lockdown. In adjusted analysis, alcohol use was associated with four times greater odds of recent physical IPV (aOR 4.06, 95% CI = 1.65-10.02, p = 0.0024), while participants had lower odds of experiencing any form of IPV as general self-efficacy increased (aOR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99, p = 0.0308). CONCLUSION: Lockdown measures in Uganda may have mitigated increased alcohol consumption. IPV was exacerbated during lockdown; more than 2 in 5 IPV victims experienced increased physical or verbal violence. Development of programming and policies aimed at mitigating women's risk of IPV during future lockdowns are needed.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690262

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis disturbed different life domains of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and assessed the associations between these disturbances and the risk of short-term alcohol drinking. All patients aged >18 years receiving outpatient care at three addiction treatment facilities from 15 April to 30 May 2021 were eligible for inclusion in the study. A trained resident assessed the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis affected their professional activity, social life, access to healthcare, and drinking problems, together with craving, drinking behavior, psychological distress, physical/mental health, and sociodemographic and clinical data. The same investigator assessed alcohol drinking 1 month after their visit. Nearly half of the patients felt that the COVID-19 crisis had a serious impact on their drinking problems, despite minor disruptions in access to healthcare. These disturbances significantly influenced short-term alcohol drinking in univariate analysis, together with psychological distress, craving, and drinking problems. Only craving predicted alcohol drinking in multivariate analyses, suggesting that psychological and drinking problems, as well as COVID-19 disturbances, increased the risk of alcohol drinking by increasing craving. Craving should be systematically investigated in patients with AUD to establish adapted social support systems during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Craving , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2022279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684419

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed fundamental challenges on nearly every area of life. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to expand on the literature on the impact of the pandemic on college students by a) examining domains of impact of the pandemic on psychiatric and alcohol outcomes and b) controlling for pre-pandemic outcomes. Method: Participants included 897 college students (78.6% female) from a larger longitudinal study on college student mental health. Structural equation models were fit to examine how COVID-19 impact (exposure, worry, food/housing insecurity, change in social media use, change in substance use) were associated with PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol phenotypes. Models were fit to adjust for pre-pandemic symptoms. Results: No effects of COVID-19 exposure remained after adjusting for earlier outcomes. COVID-19 worry predicted PTSD, depression, and anxiety, even after adjusting for earlier levels of outcomes (ß's: .091-.180, p's < .05). Housing/food concerns predicted PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms as well as suicidal ideation (ß's: .085-.551, p's < .05) after adjusting for earlier levels of symptoms. Change in media use predicted alcohol consumption (ß's: ± .116-.197, p's < .05). Change in substance use affected all outcomes except suicidality (ß's: .112-.591, p's < .05). Conclusions: Domains of COVID-19 impact had differential effects on mental health and substance outcomes in college students during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic. Future studies should examine the trajectory of these factors on college student mental health across waves of the pandemic.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha impuesto desafíos fundamentales en prácticamente todas las áreas de la vida.Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue ampliar la literatura sobre el impacto de la pandemia en estudiantes universitarios, a) examinando dominios de impacto de la pandemia sobre resultados psiquiátricos y de alcohol, y b) controlando por resultados pre-pandemia.Método: Los participantes incluyeron 897 estudiantes universitarios (78,6% mujeres) de un estudio longitudinal más grande sobre salud mental de estudiantes universitarios. Se ajustaron modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar cómo se asociaba el impacto del COVID-19 (exposición, preocupación, inseguridad de alimentos/habitación, cambio en el uso de medios sociales, cambio en uso de sustancias) con los fenotipos TEPT, ansiedad, depresión, ideación suicida y alcohol. Los modelos se ajustaron por síntomas pre-pandémicos.Resultados: No permanecieron efectos de la exposición al COVID-19 luego de ajustar por resultados previos. La preocupación por el COVID-19 predijo TEPT, depresión y ansiedad incluso luego de ajustar por niveles previos de resultados (ß's: .091­.180, p's < .05). Los problemas de habitación/alimentación predijeron síntomas de TEPT, ansiedad y depresión así como también ideación suicida (ß's: .085­.551, p's < .05) después de ajustar por niveles sintomáticos previos. El cambio en el uso de medios predijo el consumo de alcohol (ß's: ±.116­.197, p's < .05). El cambio en el uso de sustancias afectó a todos los resultados excepto suicidalidad (ß's: .112­.591, p's < .05).Conclusiones: Los dominios de impacto del COVID-19 tuvieron diferentes efectos sobre los resultados de salud mental y uso de sustancias en estudiantes universitarios durante la primera ola de la pandemia de coronavirus. Futuros estudios deberían examinar la trayectoria de esos factores en la salud mental de estudiantes universitarios a través de las olas de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Universities , Virginia/epidemiology
7.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(9): 254-263, 2021 09 22.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Restrictions to do with the COVID-19 pandemic have had substantial unintended consequences on Canadians' alcohol consumption patterns, including increased emotional distress and its potential impact on alcohol use. This study examines 1) changes in adults' alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; 2) whether drinking more frequently during the pandemic is associated with increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness; and 3) whether gender moderates this relationship. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 2000 adults. Adjusted multinomial regression models were used to assess the association between drinking frequency and increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness. Additional analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: About 12% of respondents reported drinking more frequently after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 25%-40% reported increased emotional distress. Increased feelings of stress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-2.93), loneliness (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.22-2.61) and hopelessness (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.21-3.23) were all associated with drinking more frequently during the pandemic. While women respondents reported higher rates of emotional distress, significant associations with increased drinking frequency were only observed among men in gender-stratified analyses. CONCLUSION: Individuals who report increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to report increased drinking frequency; however, these associations were only significant for men in stratified analyses. Understanding how the pandemic is associated with mental health and drinking may inform alcohol control policies and public health interventions to minimize alcohol-related harm.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hope , Loneliness , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(12): 2560-2568, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase drinking, but most accounts to date are cross-sectional studies of self-attributions about alcohol-related impacts and the accuracy of those perceptions has not been investigated. The current study examined the correspondence between self-attributions of pandemic-related changes in drinking and longitudinally-measured changes in drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of emerging adults. METHODS: In an existing ongoing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse (≥1 heavy episodic drinking day/month) in emerging adults, 473 individuals (Mage  = 23.8; 41.7% male) received a supplemental assessment from June 17th to July 1st, 2020, during public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intrapandemic data were matched to the most recent assessment prior to the pandemic (~8 months earlier). Self-attributions about changes in drinking were assessed globally (i.e., increases/decreases/no change) and with higher resolution questions clarifying the magnitude of changes. RESULTS: Global self-attributions about changes in drinking substantively paralleled longitudinal changes in weekly drinking days (DD). In the longitudinal data, individuals' who self-reported increases in drinking exhibited significant increases; individuals' who self-reported decreases exhibited significant decreases; and individuals who self-reported no change exhibited nonsignificant changes. Higher resolution items likewise revealed longitudinal patterns of weekly drinking that were substantively consistent with self-attributions. Heavy DD and alcohol-related consequences exhibited similar patterns, but only individuals who self-reported large increases in drinking exhibited increases on these outcomes. Individuals who reported large increases in drinking also exhibited significant increases in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Self-attributions about drinking closely corresponded to longitudinal changes in drinking, supporting the validity of self-attributions in population-level surveys, particularly in young adults. Notably, a subgroup was identified that exhibited pronounced increases for all alcohol-related outcomes and concurrent increases in internalizing psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychopathology , Self Report , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(4): 902-911, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol access has changed in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study compares the use of two novel purchasing modes (via delivery and in excess/stockpiling) to traditional, in-person purchasing to determine if their use is associated with sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perceived COVID-19 health risk or consumption frequency. METHODS: We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 2000 residents of the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, ages 19 years and older that were administered online and by telephone. Associations between purchasing modes and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perceived COVID-19 health risk or consumption frequency were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: About 70% of people who drink purchased in-person, 17% used delivery and 30% purchased in excess/stockpiled. Sociodemographic and psychosocial attributes varied among those at increased odds of using each purchasing mode. Those at higher COVID-19 health risk were at higher odds of getting alcohol delivered. Increased drinking frequency was associated with alcohol delivery and purchasing in excess/stockpiling. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for increased public health considerations regarding changes to alcohol regulations. Alcohol delivery and purchasing in excess/stockpiling is positively associated with heavier drinking. Drinkers at higher COVID-19 health risk were more likely to purchase online for delivery, which suggests novel purchasing modes may serve a partial public health function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Young Adult
10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(12): 2560-2568, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase drinking, but most accounts to date are cross-sectional studies of self-attributions about alcohol-related impacts and the accuracy of those perceptions has not been investigated. The current study examined the correspondence between self-attributions of pandemic-related changes in drinking and longitudinally-measured changes in drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of emerging adults. METHODS: In an existing ongoing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse (≥1 heavy episodic drinking day/month) in emerging adults, 473 individuals (Mage  = 23.8; 41.7% male) received a supplemental assessment from June 17th to July 1st, 2020, during public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intrapandemic data were matched to the most recent assessment prior to the pandemic (~8 months earlier). Self-attributions about changes in drinking were assessed globally (i.e., increases/decreases/no change) and with higher resolution questions clarifying the magnitude of changes. RESULTS: Global self-attributions about changes in drinking substantively paralleled longitudinal changes in weekly drinking days (DD). In the longitudinal data, individuals' who self-reported increases in drinking exhibited significant increases; individuals' who self-reported decreases exhibited significant decreases; and individuals who self-reported no change exhibited nonsignificant changes. Higher resolution items likewise revealed longitudinal patterns of weekly drinking that were substantively consistent with self-attributions. Heavy DD and alcohol-related consequences exhibited similar patterns, but only individuals who self-reported large increases in drinking exhibited increases on these outcomes. Individuals who reported large increases in drinking also exhibited significant increases in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Self-attributions about drinking closely corresponded to longitudinal changes in drinking, supporting the validity of self-attributions in population-level surveys, particularly in young adults. Notably, a subgroup was identified that exhibited pronounced increases for all alcohol-related outcomes and concurrent increases in internalizing psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychopathology , Self Report , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Int J Drug Policy ; 101: 103563, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial period of COVID-19-related restrictions affected substance use in some population groups. We explored how changes in alcohol use at the beginning of the pandemic impacted the health and wellbeing of people with and without mental health and neurodevelopmental conditions (MHDCs). METHODS: Data came from the Global Drug Survey Special Edition on COVID-19 conducted in May-June 2020. Measured were; changes in drinking compared to February 2020 (pre-COVID-19 restrictions), reasons for changes, and impact on physical health, mental health, relationships, finances, work/study, and enjoyment. This study included 38,141 respondents (median age = 32 IQR 25-45; 51.9% cis man; 47.8% cis woman; 1.2% trans/non-binary; 30.2% with MHDCs e.g. depression 20.0%, anxiety 16.3%, ADHD 3.8%, PTSD 3.3%). RESULTS: A third (35.3%) of respondents with MHDCs and 17.8% without MHDCs indicated that increased drinking affected their mental health negatively (p<.001); 44.2% of respondents with MHDCS compared to 32.6% without MHDCs said it affected their physical health negatively (p<.001). Reduced drinking was associated with better mental health among a fifth (21.1%) of respondents with MHDCS and 14.4% without MHDCs (p<.001). Age, relationship status, living arrangements, employment, coping and distress were significant predictors of increases in drinking. CONCLUSION: Among people with MHDCS, reduced alcohol consumption was associated with better mental health, while the negative effects of increased drinking were more pronounced when compared to people without MHDCS. When supporting people in reducing alcohol consumption during uncertain times, people with MHDCS may need additional support, alongside those experiencing greater levels of distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 57(2): 211-218, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437811

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has impacted the lives of people worldwide since March 2020. Social restrictions aimed at flattening the curve may be associated with an increase in mental health problems and have raised concerns regarding their effect on alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in alcohol use during lockdown in Ireland and associations with drinking motives and psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: We collected data from 713 adults (aged 18-60) during the second lockdown period (October/December 2020). By means of an online survey, participants self-reported their alcohol use before COVID and during lockdown. Motives to drink and psychopathological symptoms were also recorded. RESULTS: Our findings showed that 66% decreased their alcohol consumption, while 15% increased their alcohol consumption. An older age and coping motives were the strongest predictors of increased alcohol use during lockdown. Depression and hostility were the specific psychopathological dimensions associated with drinking to cope. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who drink to cope-mainly with depression symptomatology-are an important at-risk population, in line with predictions from alcohol self-medication frameworks. Future research is needed to incorporate strategies into the public mental health ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Motivation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110282, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410759

ABSTRACT

We investigated changes in alcohol consumption following the COVID-19 lockdown among French-speaking Belgian individuals at risk for severe alcohol use disorder. Participants (N = 299) at risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD, i.e., score higher than 19 at the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), and 299 moderate drinkers (MOD, i.e., score lower than 8) individually matched for age, gender and education provided self-reports of alcohol consumption changes (i.e., number of alcohol units consumed during a typical week before and during lockdown). AUD were more likely (91.31%) than MOD (71.57%) to modify their consumption following lockdown (p < 0.0001). They were more likely to decrease (65.89% vs. 35.12%, p < 0.0001) and less likely to increase (25.42% vs. 36.45%, p = 0.004) their consumption than MOD. Analyses of post-pre lockdown differences in alcohol consumption showed that AUD presented a stronger decrease than MOD (-13.97 units/week vs. -0.07, p < 0.0001). Among individuals who decreased consumption, AUD decreased more (-27.92 vs. -2.74, p < 0.0001) than MOD. Among those who increased consumption, AUD increased more (17.32 vs. 2.44, p < 0.0001) than MOD. We thus observed sharp consumption increases or conversely abrupt decreases in individuals at high risk of alcohol use disorder, underscoring the need to develop prophylactic interventions for this population during such sanitary crises, to avoid brutal changes of the alcohol consumption pattern. Efforts should be made to mitigate consumption increases but also to favor progressive rather than sudden decreases in order to prevent damaging withdrawal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Depression/therapy , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
16.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(7): 1448-1457, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are significant concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negative effects on substance use and mental health, but most studies to date are cross-sectional. In a sample of emerging adults, over a two-week period during the pandemic, the current study examined: (1) changes in drinking-related outcomes, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder and (2) differences in changes by sex and income loss. The intra-pandemic measures were compared to pre-pandemic measures. METHODS: Participants were 473 emerging adults (Mage  = 23.84; 41.7% male) in an existing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse who were assessed from June 17 to July 1, 2020, during acute public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intra-pandemic data were matched to participant pre-pandemic reports, collected an average of 5 months earlier. Assessments included validated measures of drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in heavy drinking and adverse alcohol consequences, with no moderation by sex or income loss, but with substantial heterogeneity in changes. Significant increases in continuous measures of depression and anxiety were present, both of which were moderated by sex. Females reported significantly larger increases in depression and anxiety. Income loss >50% was significantly associated with increases in depression. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial phase of the pandemic, reductions in heavy drinking and alcohol consequences were present in this sample of emerging adults, perhaps due to restrictions on socializing. In contrast, there was an increase in internalizing symptoms , especially in females, highlighting disparities in the mental health impacts of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Sex Characteristics , Social Class , Alcohol Drinking/economics , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/economics , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/economics , Ontario/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295891

ABSTRACT

Alcohol and physical inactivity are risk factors for a variety of cancer types. However, alcohol use often co-occurs with physical activity (PA), which could mitigate the cancer-prevention benefits of PA. Alcohol is integrated into the culture of one of the most popular physical activities for adults in the United States (U.S.), golf. This study examined how alcohol use was associated with total PA, golf-specific PA, and motives for golfing in a national sample of golfers in the U.S. Adult golfers (n = 338; 51% male, 81% White, 46 ± 14.4 years) self-reported alcohol use, golfing behavior and motives, and PA. Most (84%) golfers consumed alcohol, averaging 7.91 servings/week. Golf participation, including days/week, holes/week, and practice hours/week, was not associated with alcohol use. Golfers with stronger social motives were 60% more likely to consume alcohol. Weekly walking (incident risk ratio (IRR) = 7.30), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; IRR = 5.04), and total PA (IRR = 4.14) were associated with more alcohol servings/week. Golfers' alcohol use may be higher than the general adult population in the U.S. and contributes 775 extra kilocalories/week, a surplus that may offset PA-related energy expenditure and cancer-protective effects. Alcohol use interventions targeting golfers may facilitate weight loss and reduce cancer risk, especially for golfers motivated by social status.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Golf/psychology , Motivation , Psychological Distance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(6): 1225-1236, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, very little was known about the impact of social isolation on individuals' alcohol use and misuse. This study examines how socially isolated individuals with a history of heavy drinking used alcohol during the pandemic. METHODS: Data for this study came from an add-on to the Managing Heavy Drinking (MHD) longitudinal study of drivers convicted of DWI that was conducted in Erie County, New York. Pre-COVID information (October 2019-March 2020) was augmented with a COVID-19 questionnaire collected between July and August 2020. A total of 92 participants completed the COVID-19 survey. RESULTS: The sample of problem drinkers showed a significant increase after the pandemic outbreak in the average number of drinking days from 1.99 to 2.49 per week (p = 0.047), but a significant decrease in the average number of drinks per drinking day, from 3.74 to 2.74 (p = 0.003). The proportion of individuals who drank more frequently was greater among those who, before the outbreak had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score <8 (26% increase) compared with those with an AUDIT score of >8 (13%). Alcohol treatment was also associated with the frequency of drinking, with individuals who were not in alcohol treatment showing a 16% increase in frequency compared with a 10% increase among those in treatment. Further, individuals who, after the outbreak worried about their health (30%) or finances (37%) reported greater increases in the frequency of drinking than those who did not worry about their health (17%) or finances (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the individuals in our sample showed small changes in the frequency andheaviness of drinking after the outbreak of COVID-19, effects that opposite in direction from one another and thus resulted in no overall change in drinks consumed. Nonetheless, we identified factors that influenced the effects of the pandemic on drinking behavior among individuals convicted of DWI, which emphasizes the need to individualize these individuals' treatment, particularly in the context of dramatic environmental change.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/trends , COVID-19/psychology , Criminals/psychology , Driving Under the Influence/psychology , Driving Under the Influence/trends , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Driving Under the Influence/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291583

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19 , Financial Stress/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Sexual Partners/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Parenting/psychology , Young Adult
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