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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 228, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders may be at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19 infection and developing medical complications. Several institutional and governmental health agencies across the world developed ad hoc guidance for substance use disorder services and care of individuals misusing substances. We aimed to synthesise the best available recommendations on management and care of people with or at risk of substance use disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic from existing guidelines published in UK, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Singapore. METHODS: We systematically searched existing guidelines and websites from 28 international institutions and governmental bodies in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (May 4th 2021). We summarized the extracted data as answers to specific clinical questions. RESULTS: We organised the available recommendations from 19 sources in three sections. First, we focused on general advice and recommendations for people who misuse alcohol or drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic, the design of contingency plans, safeguarding issues for children and families of service users and advice to the public, patients, and carers. Then, we summarised specific guidelines for people who use illicit drugs and related services, such as opioid substitution treatment and needle and syringe programmes. Finally, we provided a synthesis on specific recommendations for services supporting people who misuse alcohol and key topics in the field, such as management of alcohol detoxification and safe transition between supervised and unsupervised consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Available guidance reflected different approaches, ranging from being extremely cautious in providing recommendations other than generic statements to proposing adaptation of previously available guidelines to confront the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. After the early phase, guidance focused on reduction of infection transmission and service delivery. Guidance did not provide advice on infection prevention via vaccination programmes and service access strategies tailored to individuals with substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/therapy , Child , Guidelines as Topic , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4963, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758374

ABSTRACT

Problematic alcohol use is a major contributor to the global burden of death and disabilities, and it represents a public health concern that has grown substantially following the COVID-19 pandemic. The available treatment options remain limited and to develop better pharmacotherapies for alcohol misuse we need to identify suitable biological targets. Previous research has implicated the brain's endocannabinoid system (ECS) in psychiatric and stress-related outcomes, including substance use and habituation to repeated stress. Moreover, genetic variants in the cannabinoid-1 receptor gene (CNR1; CB1R) have been associated with personality traits, which are in turn predictors of substance use disorders. To date, however, no human genome-wide association study has provided evidence for an involvement of the ECS in substance use outcomes. One reason for this ECS-related "missing heritability" may be unexamined gene-environment interactions. To explore this possibility, we conducted cross-sectional analyses using DNA samples and stress-exposure data from a longitudinal Swedish population-based study (N = 2,915). Specifically, we genotyped rs2023239, a functional C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in CNR1, previously reported to be associated with CNR1 binding in the brain, subjective reward following alcohol intake, and alcohol cue-elicited brain activation. Our two outcomes of interest were (i) problematic alcohol use based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and (ii) personality trait scores based on the Five Factor Model. We found no baseline association between rs2023239 and problematic alcohol use or personality traits. However, there was a clear trend for interaction between rs2023239's risk allele (C) and stressful life events (SLEs) in both childhood and adulthood, which predicted problematic alcohol use. Although not significant, there was also some indication that the risk allele interacted with child SLEs to increase scores on neuroticism. Our study supports the notion that the ECS can affect alcohol intake behaviors by interacting with life adversities and is-to the best of our knowledge-the first to focus on the interaction between CNR1 and stressors in both childhood and adulthood in humans. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/genetics , Alcoholism/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Pandemics , Receptors, Cannabinoid
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690262

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis disturbed different life domains of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and assessed the associations between these disturbances and the risk of short-term alcohol drinking. All patients aged >18 years receiving outpatient care at three addiction treatment facilities from 15 April to 30 May 2021 were eligible for inclusion in the study. A trained resident assessed the extent to which the COVID-19 crisis affected their professional activity, social life, access to healthcare, and drinking problems, together with craving, drinking behavior, psychological distress, physical/mental health, and sociodemographic and clinical data. The same investigator assessed alcohol drinking 1 month after their visit. Nearly half of the patients felt that the COVID-19 crisis had a serious impact on their drinking problems, despite minor disruptions in access to healthcare. These disturbances significantly influenced short-term alcohol drinking in univariate analysis, together with psychological distress, craving, and drinking problems. Only craving predicted alcohol drinking in multivariate analyses, suggesting that psychological and drinking problems, as well as COVID-19 disturbances, increased the risk of alcohol drinking by increasing craving. Craving should be systematically investigated in patients with AUD to establish adapted social support systems during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Craving , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(12): 2560-2568, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase drinking, but most accounts to date are cross-sectional studies of self-attributions about alcohol-related impacts and the accuracy of those perceptions has not been investigated. The current study examined the correspondence between self-attributions of pandemic-related changes in drinking and longitudinally-measured changes in drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of emerging adults. METHODS: In an existing ongoing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse (≥1 heavy episodic drinking day/month) in emerging adults, 473 individuals (Mage  = 23.8; 41.7% male) received a supplemental assessment from June 17th to July 1st, 2020, during public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intrapandemic data were matched to the most recent assessment prior to the pandemic (~8 months earlier). Self-attributions about changes in drinking were assessed globally (i.e., increases/decreases/no change) and with higher resolution questions clarifying the magnitude of changes. RESULTS: Global self-attributions about changes in drinking substantively paralleled longitudinal changes in weekly drinking days (DD). In the longitudinal data, individuals' who self-reported increases in drinking exhibited significant increases; individuals' who self-reported decreases exhibited significant decreases; and individuals who self-reported no change exhibited nonsignificant changes. Higher resolution items likewise revealed longitudinal patterns of weekly drinking that were substantively consistent with self-attributions. Heavy DD and alcohol-related consequences exhibited similar patterns, but only individuals who self-reported large increases in drinking exhibited increases on these outcomes. Individuals who reported large increases in drinking also exhibited significant increases in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Self-attributions about drinking closely corresponded to longitudinal changes in drinking, supporting the validity of self-attributions in population-level surveys, particularly in young adults. Notably, a subgroup was identified that exhibited pronounced increases for all alcohol-related outcomes and concurrent increases in internalizing psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychopathology , Self Report , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(12): 2560-2568, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase drinking, but most accounts to date are cross-sectional studies of self-attributions about alcohol-related impacts and the accuracy of those perceptions has not been investigated. The current study examined the correspondence between self-attributions of pandemic-related changes in drinking and longitudinally-measured changes in drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of emerging adults. METHODS: In an existing ongoing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse (≥1 heavy episodic drinking day/month) in emerging adults, 473 individuals (Mage  = 23.8; 41.7% male) received a supplemental assessment from June 17th to July 1st, 2020, during public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intrapandemic data were matched to the most recent assessment prior to the pandemic (~8 months earlier). Self-attributions about changes in drinking were assessed globally (i.e., increases/decreases/no change) and with higher resolution questions clarifying the magnitude of changes. RESULTS: Global self-attributions about changes in drinking substantively paralleled longitudinal changes in weekly drinking days (DD). In the longitudinal data, individuals' who self-reported increases in drinking exhibited significant increases; individuals' who self-reported decreases exhibited significant decreases; and individuals who self-reported no change exhibited nonsignificant changes. Higher resolution items likewise revealed longitudinal patterns of weekly drinking that were substantively consistent with self-attributions. Heavy DD and alcohol-related consequences exhibited similar patterns, but only individuals who self-reported large increases in drinking exhibited increases on these outcomes. Individuals who reported large increases in drinking also exhibited significant increases in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Self-attributions about drinking closely corresponded to longitudinal changes in drinking, supporting the validity of self-attributions in population-level surveys, particularly in young adults. Notably, a subgroup was identified that exhibited pronounced increases for all alcohol-related outcomes and concurrent increases in internalizing psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychopathology , Self Report , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110282, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410759

ABSTRACT

We investigated changes in alcohol consumption following the COVID-19 lockdown among French-speaking Belgian individuals at risk for severe alcohol use disorder. Participants (N = 299) at risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD, i.e., score higher than 19 at the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), and 299 moderate drinkers (MOD, i.e., score lower than 8) individually matched for age, gender and education provided self-reports of alcohol consumption changes (i.e., number of alcohol units consumed during a typical week before and during lockdown). AUD were more likely (91.31%) than MOD (71.57%) to modify their consumption following lockdown (p < 0.0001). They were more likely to decrease (65.89% vs. 35.12%, p < 0.0001) and less likely to increase (25.42% vs. 36.45%, p = 0.004) their consumption than MOD. Analyses of post-pre lockdown differences in alcohol consumption showed that AUD presented a stronger decrease than MOD (-13.97 units/week vs. -0.07, p < 0.0001). Among individuals who decreased consumption, AUD decreased more (-27.92 vs. -2.74, p < 0.0001) than MOD. Among those who increased consumption, AUD increased more (17.32 vs. 2.44, p < 0.0001) than MOD. We thus observed sharp consumption increases or conversely abrupt decreases in individuals at high risk of alcohol use disorder, underscoring the need to develop prophylactic interventions for this population during such sanitary crises, to avoid brutal changes of the alcohol consumption pattern. Efforts should be made to mitigate consumption increases but also to favor progressive rather than sudden decreases in order to prevent damaging withdrawal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(7): 1448-1457, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are significant concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negative effects on substance use and mental health, but most studies to date are cross-sectional. In a sample of emerging adults, over a two-week period during the pandemic, the current study examined: (1) changes in drinking-related outcomes, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder and (2) differences in changes by sex and income loss. The intra-pandemic measures were compared to pre-pandemic measures. METHODS: Participants were 473 emerging adults (Mage  = 23.84; 41.7% male) in an existing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse who were assessed from June 17 to July 1, 2020, during acute public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intra-pandemic data were matched to participant pre-pandemic reports, collected an average of 5 months earlier. Assessments included validated measures of drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in heavy drinking and adverse alcohol consequences, with no moderation by sex or income loss, but with substantial heterogeneity in changes. Significant increases in continuous measures of depression and anxiety were present, both of which were moderated by sex. Females reported significantly larger increases in depression and anxiety. Income loss >50% was significantly associated with increases in depression. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial phase of the pandemic, reductions in heavy drinking and alcohol consequences were present in this sample of emerging adults, perhaps due to restrictions on socializing. In contrast, there was an increase in internalizing symptoms , especially in females, highlighting disparities in the mental health impacts of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Sex Characteristics , Social Class , Alcohol Drinking/economics , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/economics , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/economics , Ontario/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 376-385, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304034

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on persons with alcohol use disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: From a total of 455 titles on COVID-19 and alcohol, 227 abstracts were screened, and 95 articles were reviewed (on November 25th, 2020). The immediate effect was an increase in alcohol related emergencies including alcohol withdrawal, related suicides, and methanol toxicity. Although there are mixed findings with respect to changes in the quantity of drinking, there are reports of binge/heavy drinking during the lockdown as well as relapse postlockdown. Psychological, social, biological, economic and policy-related factors appear to influence the changes in drinking. Although preliminary data suggest no change in alcohol use among persons with comorbid mental illness, findings in this population are presently limited. Among patients with alcohol related liver disease, outcomes appear worse and caution is warranted with the use of medications. Alcohol also appears to increases the risk of COVID-19 infection and complicates its course.Although some nations banned alcohol sales completely during lockdown, others declared it as an essential commodity, resulting in different problems across countries. Alcohol use has added to the burden of the problem particularly among vulnerable groups like the adolescents, elderly, patients with cancer, as well as health professionals. Services for patients with alcohol use disorders have been affected. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable impact on alcohol use, with an increase in alcohol related emergencies, changes in alcohol use patterns, increased risk of contracting COVID-19, effect on alcohol policies and sales, and an effect on vulnerable groups. It is essential to understand and respond to the current situation, intervene early, and prevent further repercussions of the pandemic.Video abstract link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IJWtIs6e554PryKWhdma4VB--mjSZq1C/view?usp=sharing.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(7): 1448-1457, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are significant concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negative effects on substance use and mental health, but most studies to date are cross-sectional. In a sample of emerging adults, over a two-week period during the pandemic, the current study examined: (1) changes in drinking-related outcomes, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder and (2) differences in changes by sex and income loss. The intra-pandemic measures were compared to pre-pandemic measures. METHODS: Participants were 473 emerging adults (Mage  = 23.84; 41.7% male) in an existing longitudinal study on alcohol misuse who were assessed from June 17 to July 1, 2020, during acute public health restrictions in Ontario, Canada. These intra-pandemic data were matched to participant pre-pandemic reports, collected an average of 5 months earlier. Assessments included validated measures of drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in heavy drinking and adverse alcohol consequences, with no moderation by sex or income loss, but with substantial heterogeneity in changes. Significant increases in continuous measures of depression and anxiety were present, both of which were moderated by sex. Females reported significantly larger increases in depression and anxiety. Income loss >50% was significantly associated with increases in depression. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial phase of the pandemic, reductions in heavy drinking and alcohol consequences were present in this sample of emerging adults, perhaps due to restrictions on socializing. In contrast, there was an increase in internalizing symptoms , especially in females, highlighting disparities in the mental health impacts of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Sex Characteristics , Social Class , Alcohol Drinking/economics , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/economics , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/economics , Ontario/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 376-385, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238300

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on persons with alcohol use disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: From a total of 455 titles on COVID-19 and alcohol, 227 abstracts were screened, and 95 articles were reviewed (on November 25th, 2020). The immediate effect was an increase in alcohol related emergencies including alcohol withdrawal, related suicides, and methanol toxicity. Although there are mixed findings with respect to changes in the quantity of drinking, there are reports of binge/heavy drinking during the lockdown as well as relapse postlockdown. Psychological, social, biological, economic and policy-related factors appear to influence the changes in drinking. Although preliminary data suggest no change in alcohol use among persons with comorbid mental illness, findings in this population are presently limited. Among patients with alcohol related liver disease, outcomes appear worse and caution is warranted with the use of medications. Alcohol also appears to increases the risk of COVID-19 infection and complicates its course.Although some nations banned alcohol sales completely during lockdown, others declared it as an essential commodity, resulting in different problems across countries. Alcohol use has added to the burden of the problem particularly among vulnerable groups like the adolescents, elderly, patients with cancer, as well as health professionals. Services for patients with alcohol use disorders have been affected. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable impact on alcohol use, with an increase in alcohol related emergencies, changes in alcohol use patterns, increased risk of contracting COVID-19, effect on alcohol policies and sales, and an effect on vulnerable groups. It is essential to understand and respond to the current situation, intervene early, and prevent further repercussions of the pandemic.Video abstract link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IJWtIs6e554PryKWhdma4VB--mjSZq1C/view?usp=sharing.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence/trends , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence/trends , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are at increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies are warranted that examine socio-ecological factors associated with these outcomes to inform interventions that support healthcare workers during future disease outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional study of healthcare workers during May 2020 to assess the socio-ecological predictors of mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed factors at four socio-ecological levels: individual (e.g., gender), interpersonal (e.g., social support), institutional (e.g., personal protective equipment availability), and community (e.g., healthcare worker stigma). The Personal Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise scales assessed probable major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess unadjusted and adjusted associations between socio-ecological factors and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 1,092 participants, 72.0% were female, 51.9% were frontline workers, and the mean age was 40.4 years (standard deviation = 11.5). Based on cut-off scores, 13.9%, 15.6%, 22.8%, and 42.8% had probable MD, GAD, PTSD, and AUD, respectively. In the multivariable adjusted models, needing more social support was associated with significantly higher odds of probable MD, GAD, PTSD, and AUD. The significance of other factors varied across the outcomes. For example, at the individual level, female gender was associated with probable PTSD. At the institutional level, lower team cohesion was associated with probable PTSD, and difficulty following hospital policies with probable MD. At the community level, higher healthcare worker stigma was associated with probable PTSD and AUD, decreased satisfaction with the national government response with probable GAD, and higher media exposure with probable GAD and PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can inform targeted interventions that promote healthcare workers' psychological resilience during disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Med Toxicol ; 17(2): 218-221, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060381

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered outbreaks of unanticipated toxicities, including methanol toxicity. Multiple methanol outbreaks have been described, including contaminated hand sanitizer in the southwest USA. In this case, we describe a fatal case of methanol toxicity from hand sanitizer ingestion, geographically separated from the outbreak in the southwest USA and prior to the announcement of nationwide warnings by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The product was identified as one later recalled by the FDA for methanol contamination. Additionally, the consumption in this case was related to a desire to conceal alcohol consumption from family members. This case of methanol toxicity should increase awareness of the ease of which contaminated products can be widely distributed and of the use of alternative ethanol-containing products to obscure relapse in alcohol use disorder.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcoholics , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Contamination , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/poisoning , Methanol/poisoning , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male
16.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(4): 261-275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057782

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to thousands of hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. Although alcohol use has increased in response to the pandemic, no known studies have identified transdiagnostic risk factors for greater drinking in response to COVID-related distress. Individuals with more difficulty with emotion regulation may drink more during the pandemic to manage pandemic-related distress. The current study tested whether difficulty with emotion regulation was related to greater estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC) during a typical week in the past month and if this was due to COVID-related distress and drinking to cope with the pandemic. The sample consisted of 347 past-month drinking undergraduates in Louisiana, a state with some of the U.S. highest rates of COVID-19 infections and related deaths. Difficulty with engaging in goal-directed behaviors was related to greater past-month eBAC and this relation was mediated by the sequential effects of COVID-related worry and drinking to cope with the pandemic. Results indicate that individuals with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors are especially vulnerable to greater eBAC during the COVID-19 pandemic which may be due in part to their vulnerability to more COVID-related worry which may lead to more drinking to cope with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Alcoholism/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Young Adult
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113676, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989072

ABSTRACT

To determine whether the past half-year of COVID-19-related lockdowns, stay-at-home orders, and social isolation were associated with changes in high-risk alcohol use, a total of 5,931 individuals completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at one of six time points from April through September 2020. Over the 6-month period, hazardous alcohol use and likely dependence increased month-by-month for those under lockdowns compared to those not under restrictions. This increase in harmful alcohol use and related behaviors is likely to have prolonged adverse psychosocial, interpersonal, occupational, and health impacts as the world attempts to recover from the pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Responsibility
18.
Int J Drug Policy ; 88: 103025, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959724

ABSTRACT

The global 'lockdowns' and social distancing measures triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic have brought about unprecedented social changes, including the sudden, temporary closure of licensed venues and significant modifications to leisure and drinking practices. In this piece, we argue that these changes invite researchers to consider the short and longer-term consequences in terms of continuities and changes to the practices and symbolism of alcohol consumption both within and beyond domestic spaces. We do this by drawing on illustrations from our emergent qualitative research involving internet-mediated semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 20 participants from the UK (aged 26-65) concerning experiences of drinking in and beyond 'lockdown'. In sharing these early findings, we hope to highlight themes relevant to understanding drinking behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic and to stimulate dialogue for immediate research priorities in this area. Key topic areas in our data appear to concern; variability in heavy/moderate/light/non-drinking practices while drinking at home, lockdown as an opportunity to reassess relationships with alcohol, and the symbolic role of alcohol in internet-mediated communications and interactions. Longstanding policymaker and practitioner concerns with managing public drinking and public order may have been unsettled by a growth in home-based drinking, although, as we argue, such changes were in motion before the global pandemic. We propose that a greater understanding of the challenges and opportunities the pandemic presents for (re)negotiating relationships with alcohol may offer wider lessons around how individuals and communities might be supported via innovative policy measures to change their relationships with alcohol both during and beyond lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Internet , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Middle Aged , Social Behavior , Time Factors , United Kingdom
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(2): 294-297, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942750

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown restrictions may have influenced alcohol consumption. This study examines changes in high-risk alcohol consumption from before to during the COVID-19 crisis in an established cohort of middle-aged British adults. METHODS: Participants consisted of 3,358 middle-aged adults from the 1970 British Cohort Study who completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for detecting hazardous drinkers in primary care settings in 2016-2018 (when aged 46-48 years) and May 2020 (aged 50 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine changes in high-risk drinking (scores of ≥5), and multinomial regression was used to compare responses with individual test items in 2016-2018 and May 2020. RESULTS: Among middle-aged British adults, high-risk drinking increased by 5.2 percentage points from 19.4% to 24.6% (p<0.001) between 2016-2018 and May 2020. The increase in high-risk drinking was not moderated by sex, marital status, educational attainment, the presence of a chronic illness, or the year the baseline survey was completed. The prevalence of drinking ≥4 times a week doubled from 12.5% to 26% from before to during the pandemic (p<0.001), and there was also evidence of an increase in the frequency of being unable to stop drinking. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence linking the COVID-19 crisis and associated lockdown restrictions to an increase in high-risk drinking patterns and particularly frequent drinking in British adults. Potential long-term changes in drinking habits should be monitored following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Alcoholism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Primary Health Care/methods , Psychological Techniques , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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