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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(5): 527-533, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911771

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of liver function changes in 111 elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: 111 elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 5 to March 3, 2020 were enrolled. According to the severity of disease and liver function condition, they were divided into severe group (n=40), normal group (n=71), abnormal liver function group (n=86) and normal liver function group (n=25). The indexes related to liver function changes [total bilirubin (TBil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT)] and related influencing factors were analyzed. Results: Among 111 cases, 86 (77.5%) had abnormal liver function of varying degrees, and 28 (25.2%) had liver injury. The abnormal rates of TBil, AST, ALP and GGT were significantly higher in the severe group than normal group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in age, ribavirin, glucocorticoid and the application of lopinavir-ritonavir tablets between the abnormal liver function and the normal group (P>0.05). The proportion of male was significantly higher in the abnormal liver function than normal liver function group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Elderly COVID-19 patients have a higher proportion of abnormal liver function, and patients in the severe group are more likely to have higher level of TB, AST, ALP and GGT. The abnormal liver function may be related to the direct viral infection of the liver and the inflammatory immune response of the body after infection in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Retrospective Studies , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
2.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(10): 1184-1193, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879615

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: COVID-19 has been associated with liver injury, and a small subset of patients recovering from severe disease have shown persistent markedly elevated liver biochemistries for months after infection. OBJECTIVE.­: To characterize persistent biliary injury after COVID-19. DESIGN.­: A search of the pathology archives identified 7 post-COVID-19 patients with persistent biliary injury, and the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features were assessed. RESULTS.­: All patients in this cohort presented with respiratory symptoms and had a complicated clinical course with acute elevation of liver biochemistries. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was markedly and persistently elevated after discharge (median peak ALP, 1498 IU/L, at a median of 84 days from diagnosis). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed 3 patients with irregularity, stricturing, and dilatation of intrahepatic ducts; no radiographic abnormalities were identified in the remaining 4 patients. Liver biopsies showed mild portal changes with features of cholestatic injury in 4 patients (bile duct injury and canalicular cholestasis) and marked biliary obstruction in 2 patients (profound cholestasis, ductular reaction, and bile infarcts), but no SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified on in situ hybridization. On follow-up, most patients had minimal intervention and showed marked improvement of liver biochemistries but with mild persistent elevation of ALP. CONCLUSIONS.­: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients demonstrates marked and persistent cholestatic injury, with radiographic and histologic evidence of secondary sclerosing cholangitis, suggesting that cholestatic liver disease and secondary sclerosing cholangitis may be long-term sequelae of COVID-19 acute illness as a longstanding manifestation of critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Alkaline Phosphatase , COVID-19/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholestasis/complications , Cholestasis/pathology , Humans , RNA
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(3): e1010009, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793656

ABSTRACT

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective bone mineralization and is highly variable in its clinical phenotype. The disease occurs due to various loss-of-function mutations in ALPL, the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). In this work, a data-driven and biophysics-based approach is proposed for the large-scale analysis of ALPL mutations-from nonpathogenic to severe HPPs. By using a pipeline of synergistic approaches including sequence-structure analysis, network modeling, elastic network models and atomistic simulations, we characterized allosteric signatures and effects of the ALPL mutations on protein dynamics and function. Statistical analysis of molecular features computed for the ALPL mutations showed a significant difference between the control, mild and severe HPP phenotypes. Molecular dynamics simulations coupled with protein structure network analysis were employed to analyze the effect of single-residue variation on conformational dynamics of TNSALP dimers, and the developed machine learning model suggested that the topological network parameters could serve as a robust indicator of severe mutations. The results indicated that the severity of disease-associated mutations is often linked with mutation-induced modulation of allosteric communications in the protein. This study suggested that ALPL mutations associated with mild and more severe HPPs can exert markedly distinct effects on the protein stability and long-range network communications. By linking the disease phenotypes with dynamic and allosteric molecular signatures, the proposed integrative computational approach enabled to characterize and quantify the allosteric effects of ALPL mutations and role of allostery in the pathogenesis of HPPs.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Hypophosphatasia , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Calcification, Physiologic , Humans , Hypophosphatasia/genetics , Hypophosphatasia/pathology , Mutation , Phenotype
4.
Liver Int ; 42(6): 1297-1307, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) causes considerable mortality worldwide. We aimed to investigate the frequency and predictive role of abnormal liver chemistries in different age groups. METHODS: Patients with positive severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test between 03/2020-07/2021 at the Vienna General Hospital were included. Patients were stratified for age: 18-39 vs. 40-69 vs. ≥70 years (y). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and total bilirubin (BIL) were recorded. RESULTS: 900 patients (18-39 years: 32.2%, 40-69 years: 39.7%, ≥70 years: 28.1%) were included. Number of comorbidities, median D-dimer and C-reactive protein increased with age. During COVID-19, AST/ALT and ALP/GGT levels significantly increased. Elevated hepatocellular transaminases (AST/ALT) and cholestasis parameters (ALP/GGT/BIL) were observed in 40.3% (n  = 262/650) and 45.0% (n  = 287/638) of patients respectively. Liver-related mortality was highest among patients with pre-existing decompensated liver disease (28.6%, p < .001). 1.7% of patients without pre-existing liver disease died of liver-related causes, that is consequences of hepatic dysfunction or acute liver failure. Importantly, COVID-19-associated liver injury (16.0%, p < .001), abnormal liver chemistries and liver-related mortality (6.5%, p < .001) were most frequent among 40-69 years old patients. Elevated AST and BIL after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR independently predicted mortality in the overall cohort and in 40-69 years old patients. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the COVID-19 patients exhibit abnormal hepatocellular and cholestasis-related liver chemistries with 40-69 years old patients being at particularly high risk for COVID-19-related liver injury and liver-related mortality. Elevated AST and BIL after SARS-CoV-2 infection are independent predictors of mortality, especially in patients aged 40-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholestasis , Liver Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin/metabolism , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 78, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ALPL gene, which encodes tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. The severity of HPP is widely diverse from the perinatal form to the adult mild form. The former represents the most severe form and was earlier associated with high mortality due to pneumonia which was caused by severe hypomineralization of the bones-such as chest deformity and fractured ribs-and muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy using asfotase alfa (AA) was approved in 2015 in Japan for treating patients with HPP and has improved their pulmonary function and life prognosis. There are several practical and ethical challenges related to using orphan drugs for a rare disorder in a publicly funded healthcare system. Sharing experiences about their application is essential towards formulating guidelines to assist clinicians with decisions about their initiation and withdrawal. We report the details of AA experience in ten cases of pediatric-onset HPP in nine families from January 2015 to November 2019 (median [interquartile range] age 11.0 [7.6-12.5] years; 60% male). This is a study of a single-center cohort describing the clinical course of patients with HPP, mainly consisting of the mild childhood form of HPP, treated with AA in Japan. RESULTS: One case of perinatal form of HPP, two cases of benign prenatal form, and seven cases of childhood form were observed. The most common symptom at onset was pain. All patients had low serum alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to the age-matched reference range before the commencement of AA. All HPP patients seem to have responded to AA treatment, as evidenced by pain alleviation, increased height standard deviation, improvement in respiratory condition and 6-min walk test result improvement, disappearance of kidney calcification, alleviation of fatigue, and/or increases in bone mineralization. There were no serious adverse events, but all patients had an injection site reaction and skin changes at the injection sites. Genetic analysis showed that eight out of ten patients had compound heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: AA may be effective in patients with mild to severe pediatric-onset forms of HPP.


Subject(s)
Hypophosphatasia , Adult , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Child , Female , Humans , Hypophosphatasia/complications , Hypophosphatasia/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G , Japan , Male , Pain/drug therapy , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(5): 570-587, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient's severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Baltimore , Bilirubin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
7.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(8): 455-460, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on several aspects of health care services worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine its influence on the case volume, success rate and complication rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHOD: all patients who underwent ERCP one-year before and after applying COVID-19 safety measures at the Qena University Hospital were included. Data were collected from the patients' records, analyzed and compared. RESULTS: a total of 250 patients underwent ERCP between April 1st, 2019 and March 31st, 2021, and the mean age of participants was 52 ± 18 years. There was a 5 % increase in case volume after applying COVID-19 safety measures (128 vs 122) and the total procedure time was significantly shorter (42 vs 46 minutes, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the overall success rate and complication rate. Procedure success significantly correlated with cannulation attempts and total procedure time in both groups, and serum bilirubin and cannulation time in the pre-COVID-19 patients and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in post-COVID patients. ERCP-related complications significantly correlated with cannulation attempts in both groups, and ALP, international normalized ratio (INR), cannulation time and total procedure time in pre-COVID-19 patients, and platelet count and amylase in post-COVID patients. Two patients were confirmed COVID-19 cases at the time of ERCP; therapeutic targets were achieved in both with a smooth post-ERCP recovery. Three out of nine ERCP team members caught a mild to moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered after receiving proper management. CONCLUSION: our result show that there was no negative impact of using COVID-19 safety measures and precautions on the case-volume, indications, overall outcome or complication rate of ERCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Adult , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase , Catheterization/methods , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(7): 1414-1425, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229490

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, is a predominantly respiratory tract infection with the capacity to affect multiple organ systems. Abnormal liver tests, mainly transaminase elevations, have been reported in hospitalized patients. We describe a syndrome of cholangiopathy in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 characterized by marked elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) accompanied by evidence of bile duct injury on imaging. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients admitted to our institution from March 1, 2020, to August 15, 2020, on whom the hepatology service was consulted for abnormal liver tests. Bile duct injury was identified by abnormal liver tests with serum ALP > 3x upper limit of normal and abnormal findings on magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, and histological findings were recorded in a Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified, 11 men and 1 woman, with a mean age of 58 years. Mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to diagnosis of cholangiopathy was 118 days. Peak median serum alanine aminotransferase was 661 U/L and peak median serum ALP was 1855 U/L. Marked elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and D-dimers were common. Magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography findings included beading of intrahepatic ducts (11/12, 92%), bile duct wall thickening with enhancement (7/12, 58%), and peribiliary diffusion high signal (10/12, 83%). Liver biopsy in 4 patients showed acute and/or chronic large duct obstruction without clear bile duct loss. Progressive biliary tract damage has been demonstrated radiographically. Five patients were referred for consideration of liver transplantation after experiencing persistent jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, and/or recurrent bacterial cholangitis. One patient underwent successful living donor liver transplantation. DISCUSSION: Cholangiopathy is a late complication of severe COVID-19 with the potential for progressive biliary injury and liver failure. Further studies are required to understand pathogenesis, natural history, and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , Jaundice/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Bile Ducts/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts/immunology , Bile Ducts/pathology , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/immunology , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/therapy , Disease Progression , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , End Stage Liver Disease/immunology , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Female , Humans , Jaundice/diagnosis , Jaundice/immunology , Jaundice/therapy , Liver Function Tests , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10308, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228267

ABSTRACT

Prognostic markers are needed to understand the disease course and severity in patients with Covid-19. There is evidence that Covid-19 causes gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormalities in liver enzymes. We aimed to determine if hepatobiliary laboratory data could predict disease severity in patients with Covid-19. In this retrospective, single institution, cohort study that analyzed patients admitted to a community academic hospital with the diagnosis of Covid-19, we found that elevations of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) at any time during hospital admission increased the odds of ICU admission by 5.12 (95% CI: 1.55-16.89; p = 0.007), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.51-14.69; p = 0.01) and 4.12 (95% CI: 1.21-14.06, p = 0.02), respectively. Hypoalbuminemia found at the time of admission to the hospital was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.02), hypotension (p = 0.03), and need for vasopressors (p = 0.02), intubation (p = 0.01) and hemodialysis (p = 0.002). Additionally, there was evidence of liver injury: AST was significantly elevated above baseline in patients admitted to the ICU (54.2 ± 15.70 U/L) relative to those who were not (9.2 ± 4.89 U/L; p = 0.01). Taken together, this study found that hypoalbuminemia and abnormalities in hepatobiliary laboratory data may be prognostic factors for disease severity in patients admitted to the hospital with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107701, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, has rapidly spread over the world. The exact mechanism how this virus will affect the liver remained elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the liver function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and potential causes of hepatic enzymes disease in these patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were collected from patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the corona center in Erbil city/Kurdistan region of Iraq, from March 10 to July 10, 2020. Serum was collected from patients with COVID-19 and liver enzyme tests were measured. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were analyzed in these patients. Of the 74 patients, 25 (34.7%) had abnormal ALT activity, 28 (40%) had abnormal AST activity, 12 (20.3%) had abnormal ALP activity, and 39 (52.7%) had abnormal total bilirubin P-value < 0.05. The inflammatory biomarkers CRP and IL-6 in COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver function test (4.9 ± 1.0 mg/dl) and (231.2 ± 35.7 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of both biomarkers were statistically significantly higher than COVID-19 patients with normal liver function test (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) and (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) respectively, P-value < 0.05. However, CRP and IL-6 were not statistically significant different between male and female COVID-19 patients P-value < 0.05. In conclusion, we found that most of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 have abnormal hepatic enzyme activities and that is might related to virus replication in the liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Liver/enzymology , Liver/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Carrier State/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Young Adult
14.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has recently been declared an epidemic by the WHO, and there is an urgent need for affected countries and laboratories to assess and treat people at risk of COVID-19. A heat procedure has been suggested for specimen inactivation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of serum heating on biochemical indexes, and providing a basis for accurate detection results of the COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected 29 normal cases of two tubes of 5 mL whole blood. One tube was analyzed directly, and the other was analyzed after heating at 56°C 30 minutes. RESULTS: A total of 34 serum biochemical index quantitative results were obtained, 28/34 indexes were not significantly affected by the heat inactivation and remained clinically interpretable. As the thermal inactivation for these indexes showed good correlation, ALB (p = 0.04, Pearson R = 0.91, 2.6% mean increase), CysC (p = 0.03, Pearson R = 0.98, 9.9% mean increase), CO2CP (p < 0.001, Pearson R = 0.96, 13% mean decrease), they were still inter-pretable. Four biochemical indexes ALP, CK, CK-MB, and insulin were inactivated and showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed CK, CK-MB, ALP, and insulin were sensitive to heat and will be inhibited or degrade after heating, indicating that the rapid decrease of this indexes in the COVID-19 patients may be caused by sample heat inactivation. For safety and diagnostic accuracy, we recommend the use of a point-of-care device for blood gases, electrolytes, troponin, and liver and renal function tests within a ISL 2 or above biosafety cabinet with level 3 or above biosafety laboratory practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1951-1954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: - COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to myriad range of organ involvement including liver dysfunction. AIM: To analyse the liver function in patients with COVID-19 and their association with respect to age, sex, severity of disease and clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. 91 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study and divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe groups. Liver function tests were compared among different severity groups. RESULTS: Of 91 patients with COVID-19, 70 (76.9%) had abnormal liver function. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. Mean AST and ALP levels among different severity groups of COVID-19 was statistically significant (p < 0.05) whereas mean ALT and total bilirubin levels was statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between males and females with regard to abnormal liver function. Liver injury was seen in 64.3% cases of hypertension and 73.3% cases of diabetes. Fever, myalgia, headache and breathlessness were found to be correlated significantly with severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is more prevalent in the severe disease group. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , India , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 385-387, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly spread worldwide in a few months and was declared as a worldwide pandemic by WHO in March 2020. Transient benign hyperphosphatasemia (THI) is a benign condition associated with marked elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) without any other kidney, bone, and liver pathologies. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a previously healthy 16-month-old female patient who developed a secondary transient benign hyperphosphatasemia associated with SARS-CoV-2. Patient whole family's SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results were positive. Since THI is a diagnosis of exclusion, other reasons that may cause ALP elevation should be ruled out. ALP activity decreased and turned to normal ranges within the following month. THI has been reported to be in association with various conditions. Its relationship with many viruses has been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: If ALP elevation is detected in patients with COVID 19 due to the increasing number of infections, THI should be considered if there is no other accompanying pathology.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19/complications , Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders/complications , Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13072-13088, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported in several papers, but without homogeneous findings. We aimed to systematically review the prevalence of liver involvement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at their hospital admission, and its correlation with disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with or without pre-existing chronic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, PMC, clinical trial registries, and other Coronavirus family publications for studies reporting data on SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 and liver function tests (LFTs) alterations, as well as clinical course of patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Case reports, preprints, editorials, reviews were excluded. We also revised literature to describe the background of liver involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 36 studies, including 20724 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included. The pooled prevalence of LFTs abnormalities at admission was 46.9% (AST 26.5%, ALT 22.8%, GGT 22.5%, ALP 5.7%, tBIL 8.0%). ALT, AST, tBIL were independent predictors of disease severity (ALT OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.17-2.03; AST OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.10-4.77; tBIL OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.18-4.58) and in-hospital mortality (ALT OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96; AST OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.68-7.18; tBIL OR 7.75, 95% CI 2.28-26.40). Heterogeneity among studies was high. The few available data also reported that COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of liver decompensation and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: LFTs alterations were reported in up to 47% of unselected patients with COVID-19 and were associated with severe disease or in-hospital mortality. In cirrhotic patients, COVID-19 was associated with high risk of liver decompensation or mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
18.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e274-e281, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic unprecedented in over a century, with ≈35 million cases, and more than 1 million deaths globally. Though predominantly a lower respiratory illness, other organ injuries are well-recognized. Among these, liver injury is of major interest. OBJECTIVE: To define prevalence, pattern, predictors, and impact of liver injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were collected retrospectively among patients admitted to St. Luke's University Hospital with COVID-19 between 1 March and 18 April 2020. Association of liver tests (LTs) with mortality and need for mechanical ventilation, adjusted for demographic, clinical and biochemical predictors, was examined. RESULTS: Data were available on 551 patients. Prevalence of any or ≥3 × upper limit of normal transaminase elevation on was 61.2 and 9.4% on admission, and 72.1 and 22.4% at peak. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase elevations were less common on admission (11.4 and 12.6%, respectively), and at peak (17.7 and 22%, respectively). All liver test (LT) elevations were consistently predicted by inflammatory markers. Hyperbilirubinemia predicted mortality on admission and at peak. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) had opposite impact on mortality with AST positively, and ALT negatively associated with mortality. Hence, besides hyperbilirubinemia, AST:ALT ratio emerged as the best marker for mortality among the LTs. CONCLUSION: LT elevations among patients presenting with COVID-19 are very common, though majority are mild. Admission and peak bilirubin ≥1 mg/dl, as well as admission and peak AST:ALT ratio were significant predictors of mortality, along with age, myocardial injury, and chronic medical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
19.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 31(8): 575-577, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748543

ABSTRACT

: It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 infection because of coronavirus is highly contagious and caused varying degrees of illness throughout the world. Hepatic dysfunction and the slight elevation of liver enzymes have been reported in cases of COVID-19 infection. Transient hyperphosphatasemia is a benign condition characterized by the elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase and the return to normal levels within weeks or months of first observation. We reported the first infant case of severe hyperphosphatasemia because of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in a 9-month-old child admitted to the Pediatric Covid-19 Unit of Amiens University Hospital. Given the hepatic tropism and COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory reactions, our case suggests that, an isolated severe hyperphosphatasemia in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection should increase the possibility of transient hyperphosphatasemia, even if is also demonstrated a classic natural history of the transient hyperphosphatasemia during viral infection, especially in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hyperphosphatemia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , France , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e040517, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has spread rapidly in China and around the world. Published studies have revealed that some patients with COVID-19 had abnormal liver function in laboratory tests. However, the results were inconsistent and the analysis of epidemiological data stratified by the severity of COVID-19 was not available in previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, these meta-analyses were suspected of overestimating the incidence of liver injury in patients with COVID-19 because some studies considered transaminase elevation as liver injury, which might partially result from cardiac and muscle injury. This systematic review aims to enrol published literatures related to COVID-19 without language restriction, analyse the data based on the severity of the COVID-19 and explore the impact of varied definitions of liver injury on the incidence of liver injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have conducted a preliminary search on PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database on 13 April 2020, for the studies published after December 2019 on the prevalence of acute liver injury and hypertransaminemia in patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers will independently screen studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias. We will estimate the pooled incidence of hypertransaminemia and acute liver injury in patients with COVID-19 by using the random-effects model. The I² test will be used to identify the extent of heterogeneity. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plot and performing the Begg's and Egger's test if adequate studies are available. We will perform a risk of bias assessment using the Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal checklist. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since this study will be based on the published data, it does not require ethical approval. The final results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020179462.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/blood , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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